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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 8 | Pages 455 - 466
1 Aug 2023
Zhou H Chen C Hu H Jiang B Yin Y Zhang K Shen M Wu S Wang Z

Aims

Rotator cuff muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration affect the clinical outcomes of rotator cuff tear patients. However, there is no effective treatment for fatty infiltration at this time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) helps to activate beige adipose tissue. The goal of this study was to test the role of HIIT in improving muscle quality in a rotator cuff tear model via the β3 adrenergic receptor (β3AR).

Methods

Three-month-old C57BL/6 J mice underwent a unilateral rotator cuff injury procedure. Mice were forced to run on a treadmill with the HIIT programme during the first to sixth weeks or seventh to 12th weeks after tendon tear surgery. To study the role of β3AR, SR59230A, a selective β3AR antagonist, was administered to mice ten minutes before each exercise through intraperitoneal injection. Supraspinatus muscle, interscapular brown fat, and inguinal subcutaneous white fat were harvested at the end of the 12th week after tendon tear and analyzed biomechanically, histologically, and biochemically.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 3 | Pages 165 - 177
1 Mar 2023
Boyer P Burns D Whyne C

Aims

An objective technological solution for tracking adherence to at-home shoulder physiotherapy is important for improving patient engagement and rehabilitation outcomes, but remains a significant challenge. The aim of this research was to evaluate performance of machine-learning (ML) methodologies for detecting and classifying inertial data collected during in-clinic and at-home shoulder physiotherapy exercise.

Methods

A smartwatch was used to collect inertial data from 42 patients performing shoulder physiotherapy exercises for rotator cuff injuries in both in-clinic and at-home settings. A two-stage ML approach was used to detect out-of-distribution (OOD) data (to remove non-exercise data) and subsequently for classification of exercises. We evaluated the performance impact of grouping exercises by motion type, inclusion of non-exercise data for algorithm training, and a patient-specific approach to exercise classification. Algorithm performance was evaluated using both in-clinic and at-home data.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 2 | Pages 103 - 112
1 Feb 2023
Walter N Szymski D Kurtz SM Lowenberg DW Alt V Lau E Rupp M

Aims

The optimal choice of management for proximal humerus fractures (PHFs) has been increasingly discussed in the literature, and this work aimed to answer the following questions: 1) what are the incidence rates of PHF in the geriatric population in the USA; 2) what is the mortality rate after PHF in the elderly population, specifically for distinct treatment procedures; and 3) what factors influence the mortality rate?

Methods

PHFs occurring between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2019 were identified from the Medicare physician service records. Incidence rates were determined, mortality rates were calculated, and semiparametric Cox regression was applied, incorporating 23 demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic covariates, to compare the mortality risk between treatments.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 5 | Pages 298 - 306
1 May 2021
Dolkart O Kazum E Rosenthal Y Sher O Morag G Yakobson E Chechik O Maman E

Aims

Rotator cuff (RC) tears are common musculoskeletal injuries which often require surgical intervention. Noninvasive pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) devices have been approved for treatment of long-bone fracture nonunions and as an adjunct to lumbar and cervical spine fusion surgery. This study aimed to assess the effect of continuous PEMF on postoperative RC healing in a rat RC repair model.

Methods

A total of 30 Wistar rats underwent acute bilateral supraspinatus tear and repair. A miniaturized electromagnetic device (MED) was implanted at the right shoulder and generated focused PEMF therapy. The animals’ left shoulders served as controls. Biomechanical, histological, and bone properties were assessed at three and six weeks.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 2 | Pages 113 - 121
1 Feb 2021
Nicholson JA Oliver WM MacGillivray TJ Robinson CM Simpson AHRW

Aims

To evaluate if union of clavicle fractures can be predicted at six weeks post-injury by the presence of bridging callus on ultrasound.

Methods

Adult patients managed nonoperatively with a displaced mid-shaft clavicle were recruited prospectively. Ultrasound evaluation of the fracture was undertaken to determine if sonographic bridging callus was present. Clinical risk factors at six weeks were used to stratify patients at high risk of nonunion with a combination of Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (QuickDASH) ≥ 40, fracture movement on examination, or absence of callus on radiograph.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 8, Issue 3 | Pages 118 - 125
1 Mar 2019
Doi N Izaki T Miyake S Shibata T Ishimatsu T Shibata Y Yamamoto T

Objectives

Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography is an emerging technique that can provide detailed anatomical information during surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine whether ICG fluorescence angiography can be used to evaluate the blood flow of the rotator cuff tendon in the clinical setting.

Methods

Twenty-six patients were evaluated from October 2016 to December 2017. The participants were categorized into three groups based on their diagnoses: the rotator cuff tear group; normal rotator cuff group; and adhesive capsulitis group. After establishing a posterior standard viewing portal, intravenous administration of ICG at 0.2 mg/kg body weight was performed, and fluorescence images were recorded. The time from injection of the drug to the beginning of enhancement of the observed area was measured. The hypovascular area in the rotator cuff was evaluated, and the ratio of the hypovascular area to the anterolateral area of the rotator cuff tendon was calculated (hypovascular area ratio).


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 6 | Pages 422 - 429
1 Jun 2018
Acklin YP Zderic I Inzana JA Grechenig S Schwyn R Richards RG Gueorguiev B

Aims

Plating displaced proximal humeral fractures is associated with a high rate of screw perforation. Dynamization of the proximal screws might prevent these complications. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a new gliding screw concept for plating proximal humeral fractures biomechanically.

Methods

Eight pairs of three-part humeral fractures were randomly assigned for pairwise instrumentation using either a prototype gliding plate or a standard PHILOS plate, and four pairs were fixed using the gliding plate with bone cement augmentation of its proximal screws. The specimens were cyclically tested under progressively increasing loading until perforation of a screw. Telescoping of a screw, varus tilting and screw migration were recorded using optical motion tracking.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 10 | Pages 470 - 480
1 Oct 2016
Sabharwal S Patel NK Griffiths D Athanasiou T Gupte CM Reilly P

Objectives

The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing surgical and non-surgical management of fractures of the proximal humerus, and to determine whether further analyses based on complexity of fracture, or the type of surgical intervention, produced disparate findings on patient outcomes.

Methods

A systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all RCTs that compared surgical and non-surgical management of fractures of the proximal humerus. Meta-analysis of clinical outcomes was performed where possible. Subgroup analysis based on the type of fracture, and a sensitivity analysis based on the type of surgical intervention, were also performed.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 5 | Pages 175 - 177
1 May 2016
Rubin G Rinott M Wolovelsky A Rosenberg L Shoham Y Rozen N

Objectives

Injectable Bromelain Solution (IBS) is a modified investigational derivate of the medical grade bromelain-debriding pharmaceutical agent (NexoBrid) studied and approved for a rapid (four-hour single application), eschar-specific, deep burn debridement. We conducted an ex vivo study to determine the ability of IBS to dissolve-disrupt (enzymatic fasciotomy) Dupuytren’s cords.

Materials and Methods

Specially prepared medical grade IBS was injected into fresh Dupuytren’s cords excised from patients undergoing surgical fasciectomy. These cords were tested by tension-loading them to failure with the Zwick 1445 (Zwick GmbH & Co. KG, Ulm, Germany) tension testing system.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 4 | Pages 519 - 525
1 Apr 2016
Lees DA Penny JB Baker P

Aims

The aim of this study was to compare the pain caused by the application of a tourniquet after exsanguination of the upper limb with that occurring after simple elevation.

Patients and Methods

We used 26 healthy volunteers (52 arms), each of whom acted as their own matched control.

The primary outcome measure was the total pain experienced by each volunteer while the tourniquet was inflated for 20 minutes. This was calculated as the area under the pain curve for each individual subject. Secondary outcomes were pain at each time point; the total pain experienced during the recovery phase; the ability to tolerate the tourniquet and the time for full recovery after deflation of the tourniquet.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1 | Pages 81 - 87
1 Jan 2016
Miska M Findeisen S Tanner M Biglari B Studier-Fischer S Grützner PA Schmidmaier G Moghaddam A

Methods

Between 2005 and 2012, 50 patients (23 female, 27 male) with nonunion of the humeral shaft were included in this retrospective study. The mean age was 51.3 years (14 to 88). The patients had a mean of 1.5 prior operations (sd 1.2;1 to 8).

All patients were assessed according to a specific risk score in order to devise an optimal and individual therapy plan consistent with the Diamond Concept. In 32 cases (64%), a change in the osteosynthesis to an angular stable locking compression plate was performed. According to the individual risk an additional bone graft and/or bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) were applied.

Results

A successful consolidation of the nonunion was observed in 37 cases (80.4%) with a median healing time of six months (IQR 6). Younger patients showed significantly better consolidation. Four patients were lost to follow-up. Revision was necessary in a total of eight (16%) cases. In the initial treatment, intramedullary nailing was most common.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1530 - 1534
1 Nov 2014
Uehara K Yasunaga H Morizaki Y Horiguchi H Fushimi K Tanaka S

Necrotising soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) of the upper limb are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening. We used a national database to investigate the risk factors for amputation of the limb and death.

We extracted data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database on 116 patients (79 men and 37 women) who had a NSTI of the upper extremity between 2007 and 2010.

The overall in-hospital mortality was 15.5%. Univariate analysis of in-hospital mortality showed that the significant variables were age (p = 0.015), liver dysfunction (p = 0.005), renal dysfunction (P < 0.001), altered consciousness (p = 0.049), and sepsis (p = 0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that the factors associated with death in hospital were age over 70 years (Odds Ratio (OR) 6.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 28.2; p = 0.011) and renal dysfunction (OR 15.4; 95% CI 3.8 to 62.8; p < 0.001).

Univariate analysis of limb amputation showed that the significant variables were diabetes (p = 0.017) mellitus and sepsis (p = 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the factors related to limb amputation were sepsis (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.5 to 24.0; p = 0.013) and diabetes mellitus (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 21.1; p = 0.038).

For NSTIs of the upper extremity, advanced age and renal dysfunction are both associated with a higher rate of in-hospital mortality. Sepsis and diabetes mellitus are both associated with a higher rate of amputation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1530–4.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 5 | Pages 574 - 579
1 May 2014
Talbot CL Ring J Holt EM

We present a review of claims made to the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) by patients with conditions affecting the shoulder and elbow, and identify areas of dissatisfaction and potential improvement. Between 1995 and 2012, the NHSLA recorded 811 claims related to the shoulder and elbow, 581 of which were settled. This comprised 364 shoulder (64%), and 217 elbow (36%) claims. A total of £18.2 million was paid out in settled claims. Overall diagnosis, mismanagement and intra-operative nerve injury were the most common reasons for litigation. The highest cost paid out resulted from claims dealing with incorrect, missed or delayed diagnosis, with just under £6 million paid out overall. Fractures and dislocations around the shoulder and elbow were common injuries in this category. All 11 claims following wrong-site surgery that were settled led to successful payouts.

This study highlights the diagnoses and procedures that need to be treated with particular vigilance. Having an awareness of the areas that lead to litigation in shoulder and elbow surgery will help to reduce inadvertent risks to patients and prevent dissatisfaction and possible litigation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:574–9.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 3, Issue 2 | Pages 38 - 47
1 Feb 2014
Hogendoorn S Duijnisveld BJ van Duinen SG Stoel BC van Dijk JG Fibbe WE Nelissen RGHH

Objectives

Traumatic brachial plexus injury causes severe functional impairment of the arm. Elbow flexion is often affected. Nerve surgery or tendon transfers provide the only means to obtain improved elbow flexion. Unfortunately, the functionality of the arm often remains insufficient. Stem cell therapy could potentially improve muscle strength and avoid muscle-tendon transfer. This pilot study assesses the safety and regenerative potential of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell injection in partially denervated biceps.

Methods

Nine brachial plexus patients with insufficient elbow flexion (i.e., partial denervation) received intramuscular escalating doses of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, combined with tendon transfers. Effect parameters included biceps biopsies, motor unit analysis on needle electromyography and computerised muscle tomography, before and after cell therapy.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 7 | Pages 935 - 941
1 Jul 2013
Moor BK Bouaicha S Rothenfluh DA Sukthankar A Gerber C

We hypothesised that a large acromial cover with an upwardly tilted glenoid fossa would be associated with degenerative rotator cuff tears (RCTs), and conversely, that a short acromion with an inferiorly inclined glenoid would be associated with glenohumeral osteoarthritis (OA). This hypothesis was tested using a new radiological parameter, the critical shoulder angle (CSA), which combines the measurements of inclination of the glenoid and the lateral extension of the acromion (the acromion index).

The CSA was measured on standardised radiographs of three groups: 1) a control group of 94 asymptomatic shoulders with normal rotator cuffs and no OA; 2) a group of 102 shoulders with MRI-documented full-thickness RCTs without OA; and 3) a group of 102 shoulders with primary OA and no RCTs noted during total shoulder replacement. The mean CSA was 33.1° (26.8° to 38.6°) in the control group, 38.0° (29.5° to 43.5°) in the RCT group and 28.1° (18.6° to 35.8°) in the OA group. Of patients with a CSA > 35°, 84% were in the RCT group and of those with a CSA < 30°, 93% were in the OA group.

We therefore concluded that primary glenohumeral OA is associated with significantly smaller degenerative RCTs with significantly larger CSAs than asymptomatic shoulders without these pathologies. These findings suggest that individual quantitative anatomy may imply biomechanics that are likely to induce specific types of degenerative joint disorders.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:935–41.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 2, Issue 7 | Pages 122 - 128
1 Jul 2013
Mukovozov I Byun S Farrokhyar F Wong I

Aims

We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine whether earlier surgical repair of acute rotator cuff tear (ARCT) leads to superior post-operative clinical outcomes.

Methods

The MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, controlled-trials.com and clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched using the terms: ‘rotator cuff’, or ‘supraspinatus’, or ‘infraspinatus’, or ‘teres minor’, or ‘subscapularis’ AND ‘surgery’ or ‘repair’. This gave a total of 15 833 articles. After deletion of duplicates and the review of abstracts and full texts by two independent assessors, 15 studies reporting time to surgery for ARCT repair were included. Studies were grouped based on time to surgery < 3 months (group A, seven studies), or > 3 months (group B, eight studies). Weighted means were calculated and compared using Student’s t-test.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 2, Issue 7 | Pages 132 - 139
1 Jul 2013
Ketola S Lehtinen J Rousi T Nissinen M Huhtala H Konttinen YT Arnala I

Objectives

To report the five-year results of a randomised controlled trial examining the effectiveness of arthroscopic acromioplasty in the treatment of stage II shoulder impingement syndrome.

Methods

A total of 140 patients were randomly divided into two groups: 1) supervised exercise programme (n = 70, exercise group); and 2) arthroscopic acromioplasty followed by a similar exercise programme (n = 70, combined treatment group).


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 7 | Pages 947 - 951
1 Jul 2013
Kang HJ Koh IH Jang JW Choi YR

The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome and complications of endoscopic versus open release for the treatment of de Quervain’s tenosynovitis. Patients with this condition were randomised to undergo either endoscopic (n = 27) or open release (n = 25). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores were measured at 12 and 24 weeks after surgery. Scar satisfaction was measured using a VAS scale. The mean pain and DASH scores improved significantly at 12 weeks and 24 weeks (p <  0.001) in both groups. The scores were marginally lower in the endoscopic group compared to the open group at 12 weeks (p = 0.012 and p = 0.002, respectively); however, only the DASH score showed a clinically important difference. There were no differences between the groups at 24 weeks. The mean VAS scar satisfaction score was higher in the endoscopic group at 24 weeks (p < 0.001). Transient superficial radial nerve injury occurred in three patients in the endoscopic group compared with nine in the open release group (p = 0.033).

We conclude that endoscopic release for de Quervain’s tenosynovitis seems to provide earlier improvement after surgery, with fewer superficial radial nerve complications and greater scar satisfaction, when compared with open release.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:947–51.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 7 | Pages 942 - 946
1 Jul 2013
Dattani R Ramasamy V Parker R Patel VR

There is little published information on the health impact of frozen shoulder. The purpose of this study was to assess the functional and health-related quality of life outcomes following arthroscopic capsular release (ACR) for contracture of the shoulder. Between January 2010 and January 2012 all patients who had failed non-operative treatment including anti-inflammatory medication, physiotherapy and glenohumeral joint injections for contracture of the shoulder and who subsequently underwent an ACR were enrolled in the study. A total of 100 patients were eligible; 68 underwent ACR alone and 32 had ACR with a subacromial decompression (ASD). ACR resulted in a highly significant improvement in the range of movement and functional outcome, as measured by the Oxford shoulder score and EuroQol EQ-5D index. The mean cost of a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for an ACR and ACR with an ASD was £2563 and £3189, respectively.

ACR is thus a cost-effective procedure that can restore relatively normal function and health-related quality of life in most patients with a contracture of the shoulder within six months after surgery; and the beneficial effects are not related to the duration of the presenting symptoms.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:942–6.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 7 | Pages 952 - 959
1 Jul 2013
Cai X Yan S Giddins G

Most patients with a nightstick fracture of the ulna are treated conservatively. Various techniques of immobilisation or early mobilisation have been studied. We performed a systematic review of all published randomised controlled trials and observational studies that have assessed the outcome of these fractures following above- or below-elbow immobilisation, bracing and early mobilisation. We searched multiple electronic databases, related bibliographies and other studies. We included 27 studies comprising 1629 fractures in the final analysis. The data relating to the time to radiological union and the rates of delayed union and nonunion could be pooled and analysed statistically.

We found that early mobilisation produced the shortest radiological time to union (mean 8.0 weeks) and the lowest mean rate of nonunion (0.6%). Fractures treated with above- or below-elbow immobilisation and braces had longer mean radiological times to union (9.2 weeks, 9.2 weeks and 8.7 weeks, respectively) and higher mean rates of nonunion (3.8%, 2.1% and 0.8%, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of non- or delayed union between those treated by early mobilisation and the three forms of immobilisation (p = 0.142 to p = 1.000, respectively). All the studies had significant biases, but until a robust randomised controlled trial is undertaken the best advice for the treatment of undisplaced or partially displaced nightstick fractures appears to be early mobilisation, with a removable forearm support for comfort as required.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:952–9.