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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 11 | Pages 873 - 880
17 Nov 2023
Swaby L Perry DC Walker K Hind D Mills A Jayasuriya R Totton N Desoysa L Chatters R Young B Sherratt F Latimer N Keetharuth A Kenison L Walters S Gardner A Ahuja S Campbell L Greenwood S Cole A

Aims

Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine with associated rotation, often causing distress due to appearance. For some curves, there is good evidence to support the use of a spinal brace, worn for 20 to 24 hours a day to minimize the curve, making it as straight as possible during growth, preventing progression. Compliance can be poor due to appearance and comfort. A night-time brace, worn for eight to 12 hours, can achieve higher levels of curve correction while patients are supine, and could be preferable for patients, but evidence of efficacy is limited. This is the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of ‘full-time bracing’ versus ‘night-time bracing’ in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Methods

UK paediatric spine clinics will recruit 780 participants aged ten to 15 years-old with AIS, Risser stage 0, 1, or 2, and curve size (Cobb angle) 20° to 40° with apex at or below T7. Patients are randomly allocated 1:1, to either full-time or night-time bracing. A qualitative sub-study will explore communication and experiences of families in terms of bracing and research. Patient and Public Involvement & Engagement informed study design and will assist with aspects of trial delivery and dissemination.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 11 | Pages 832 - 838
3 Nov 2023
Pichler L Li Z Khakzad T Perka C Pumberger M Schömig F

Aims

Implant-related postoperative spondylodiscitis (IPOS) is a severe complication in spine surgery and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. With growing knowledge in the field of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), equivalent investigations towards the management of implant-related infections of the spine are indispensable. To our knowledge, this study provides the largest description of cases of IPOS to date.

Methods

Patients treated for IPOS from January 2006 to December 2020 were included. Patient demographics, parameters upon admission and discharge, radiological imaging, and microbiological results were retrieved from medical records. CT and MRI were analyzed for epidural, paravertebral, and intervertebral abscess formation, vertebral destruction, and endplate involvement. Pathogens were identified by CT-guided or intraoperative biopsy, intraoperative tissue sampling, or implant sonication.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 9 | Pages 689 - 695
7 Sep 2023
Lim KBL Lee NKL Yeo BS Lim VMM Ng SWL Mishra N

Aims

To determine whether side-bending films in scoliosis are assessed for adequacy in clinical practice; and to introduce a novel method for doing so.

Methods

Six surgeons and eight radiographers were invited to participate in four online surveys. The generic survey comprised erect and left and right bending radiographs of eight individuals with scoliosis, with an average age of 14.6 years. Respondents were asked to indicate whether each bending film was optimal (adequate) or suboptimal. In the first survey, they were also asked if they currently assessed the adequacy of bending films. A similar second survey was sent out two weeks later, using the same eight cases but in a different order. In the third survey, a guide for assessing bending film adequacy was attached along with the radiographs to introduce the novel T1-45B method, in which the upper endplate of T1 must tilt ≥ 45° from baseline for the study to be considered optimal. A fourth and final survey was subsequently conducted for confirmation.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 9 | Pages 522 - 535
4 Sep 2023
Zhang G Li L Luo Z Zhang C Wang Y Kang X

Aims

This study aimed, through bioinformatics analysis and in vitro experiment validation, to identify the key extracellular proteins of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD).

Methods

The gene expression profile of GSE23130 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Extracellular protein-differentially expressed genes (EP-DEGs) were screened by protein annotation databases, and we used Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) to analyze the functions and pathways of EP-DEGs. STRING and Cytoscape were used to construct protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and identify hub EP-DEGs. NetworkAnalyst was used to analyze transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate hub EP-DEGs. A search of the Drug Signatures Database (DSigDB) for hub EP-DEGs revealed multiple drug molecules and drug-target interactions.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1007 - 1012
1 Sep 2023
Hoeritzauer I Paterson M Jamjoom AAB Srikandarajah N Soleiman H Poon MTC Copley PC Graves C MacKay S Duong C Leung AHC Eames N Statham PFX Darwish S Sell PJ Thorpe P Shekhar H Roy H Woodfield J

Aims

Patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) require emergency imaging and surgical decompression. The severity and type of symptoms may influence the timing of imaging and surgery, and help predict the patient’s prognosis. Categories of CES attempt to group patients for management and prognostication purposes. We aimed in this study to assess the inter-rater reliability of dividing patients with CES into categories to assess whether they can be reliably applied in clinical practice and in research.

Methods

A literature review was undertaken to identify published descriptions of categories of CES. A total of 100 real anonymized clinical vignettes of patients diagnosed with CES from the Understanding Cauda Equina Syndrome (UCES) study were reviewed by consultant spinal surgeons, neurosurgical registrars, and medical students. All were provided with published category definitions and asked to decide whether each patient had ‘suspected CES’; ‘early CES’; ‘incomplete CES’; or ‘CES with urinary retention’. Inter-rater agreement was assessed for all categories, for all raters, and for each group of raters using Fleiss’s kappa.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 8 | Pages 573 - 579
8 Aug 2023
Beresford-Cleary NJA Silman A Thakar C Gardner A Harding I Cooper C Cook J Rothenfluh DA

Aims

Symptomatic spinal stenosis is a very common problem, and decompression surgery has been shown to be superior to nonoperative treatment in selected patient groups. However, performing an instrumented fusion in addition to decompression may avoid revision and improve outcomes. The aim of the SpInOuT feasibility study was to establish whether a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT) that accounted for the spectrum of pathology contributing to spinal stenosis, including pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) mismatch and mobile spondylolisthesis, could be conducted.

Methods

As part of the SpInOuT-F study, a pilot randomized trial was carried out across five NHS hospitals. Patients were randomized to either spinal decompression alone or spinal decompression plus instrumented fusion. Patient-reported outcome measures were collected at baseline and three months. The intended sample size was 60 patients.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 8 | Pages 920 - 927
1 Aug 2023
Stanley AL Jones TJ Dasic D Kakarla S Kolli S Shanbhag S McCarthy MJH

Aims

Traumatic central cord syndrome (CCS) typically follows a hyperextension injury and results in motor impairment affecting the upper limbs more than the lower, with occasional sensory impairment and urinary retention. Current evidence on mortality and long-term outcomes is limited. The primary aim of this study was to assess the five-year mortality of CCS, and to determine any difference in mortality between management groups or age.

Methods

Patients aged ≥ 18 years with a traumatic CCS between January 2012 and December 2017 in Wales were identified. Patient demographics and data about injury, management, and outcome were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to assess mortality and between-group differences.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 6 | Pages 387 - 396
26 Jun 2023
Xu J Si H Zeng Y Wu Y Zhang S Shen B

Aims

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common skeletal system disease that has been partly attributed to genetic variation. However, the correlation between genetic variation and pathological changes in LSS is insufficient, and it is difficult to provide a reference for the early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

Methods

We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) of spinal canal stenosis by integrating genome-wide association study summary statistics (including 661 cases and 178,065 controls) derived from Biobank Japan, and pre-computed gene expression weights of skeletal muscle and whole blood implemented in FUSION software. To verify the TWAS results, the candidate genes were furthered compared with messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles of LSS to screen for common genes. Finally, Metascape software was used to perform enrichment analysis of the candidate genes and common genes.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 6 | Pages 679 - 687
1 Jun 2023
Lou Y Zhao C Cao H Yan B Chen D Jia Q Li L Xiao J

Aims

The aim of this study was to report the long-term prognosis of patients with multiple Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the spine, and to analyze the risk factors for progression-free survival (PFS).

Methods

We included 28 patients with multiple LCH involving the spine treated between January 2009 and August 2021. Kaplan-Meier methods were applied to estimate overall survival (OS) and PFS. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with PFS.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 543 - 550
1 May 2023
Abel F Avrumova F Goldman SN Abjornson C Lebl DR

Aims

The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of pedicle screw placement, as well as intraoperative factors, radiation exposure, and complication rates in adult patients with degenerative disorders of the thoracic and lumbar spines who have undergone robotic-navigated spinal surgery using a contemporary system.

Methods

The authors reviewed the prospectively collected data on 196 adult patients who had pedicle screws implanted with robot-navigated assistance (RNA) using the Mazor X Stealth system between June 2019 and March 2022. Pedicle screws were implanted by one experienced spinal surgeon after completion of a learning period. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was determined using intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 575 - 582
1 May 2023
Kato S Demura S Yokogawa N Shimizu T Kobayashi M Yamada Y Murakami H Tsuchiya H

Aims

Patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) have a favourable long-term survival. Spinal metastases (SMs) cause a decline in performance status (PS), directly affecting mortality and indirectly preventing the use of systemic therapies. Metastasectomy is indicated, if feasible, as it yields the best local tumour control. Our study aimed to examine the long-term clinical outcomes of metastasectomy for SMs of thyroid carcinomas.

Methods

We collected data on 22 patients with DTC (16 follicular and six papillary carcinomas) and one patient with medullary carcinoma who underwent complete surgical resection of SMs at our institution between July 1992 and July 2017, with a minimum postoperative follow-up of five years. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) from the first spinal metastasectomy to death or the last follow-up was determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Potential factors associated with survival were evaluated using the log-rank test. We analyzed the clinical parameters and outcome data, including pre- and postoperative disability (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS 3), lung and non-spinal bone metastases, and history of radioiodine and kinase inhibitor therapies.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 4 | Pages 245 - 255
3 Apr 2023
Ryu S So J Ha Y Kuh S Chin D Kim K Cho Y Kim K

Aims

To determine the major risk factors for unplanned reoperations (UROs) following corrective surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) and their interactions, using machine learning-based prediction algorithms and game theory.

Methods

Patients who underwent surgery for ASD, with a minimum of two-year follow-up, were retrospectively reviewed. In total, 210 patients were included and randomly allocated into training (70% of the sample size) and test (the remaining 30%) sets to develop the machine learning algorithm. Risk factors were included in the analysis, along with clinical characteristics and parameters acquired through diagnostic radiology.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 4 | Pages 431 - 438
15 Mar 2023
Vendeuvre T Tabard-Fougère A Armand S Dayer R

Aims

This study aimed to evaluate rasterstereography of the spine as a diagnostic test for adolescent idiopathic soliosis (AIS), and to compare its results with those obtained using a scoliometer.

Methods

Adolescents suspected of AIS and scheduled for radiographs were included. Rasterstereographic scoliosis angle (SA), maximal vertebral surface rotation (ROT), and angle of trunk rotation (ATR) with a scoliometer were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots were used to describe the discriminative ability of the SA, ROT, and ATR for scoliosis, defined as a Cobb angle > 10°. Test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity) were reported for the best threshold identified using the Youden method. AUC of SA, ATR, and ROT were compared using the bootstrap test for two correlated ROC curves method.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 4 | Pages 400 - 411
15 Mar 2023
Hosman AJF Barbagallo G van Middendorp JJ

Aims

The aim of this study was to determine whether early surgical treatment results in better neurological recovery 12 months after injury than late surgical treatment in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI).

Methods

Patients with tSCI requiring surgical spinal decompression presenting to 17 centres in Europe were recruited. Depending on the timing of decompression, patients were divided into early (≤ 12 hours after injury) and late (> 12 hours and < 14 days after injury) groups. The American Spinal Injury Association neurological (ASIA) examination was performed at baseline (after injury but before decompression) and at 12 months. The primary endpoint was the change in Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS) from baseline to 12 months.


Aims

The optimal procedure for the treatment of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of anterior cervical ossified posterior longitudinal ligament en bloc resection (ACOE) with posterior laminectomy and fusion with bone graft and internal fixation (PTLF) for the surgical management of patients with this condition.

Methods

Between July 2017 and July 2019, 40 patients with cervical OPLL were equally randomized to undergo surgery with an ACOE or a PTLF. The clinical and radiological results were compared between the two groups.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 4 | Pages 439 - 448
15 Mar 2023
Hong H Pan X Song J Fang N Yang R Xiang L Wang X Huang C

Aims

The prevalence of scoliosis is not known in patients with idiopathic short stature, and the impact of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on those with scoliosis remains controversial. We investigated the prevalence of scoliosis radiologically in children with idiopathic short stature, and the impact of treatment with growth hormone in a cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study.

Methods

A total of 2,053 children with idiopathic short stature and 4,106 age- and sex-matched (1:2) children without short stature with available whole-spine radiographs were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Among them, 1,056 with idiopathic short stature and 790 controls who had radiographs more than twice were recruited to assess the development and progression of scoliosis, and the need for bracing and surgery.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 4 | Pages 422 - 430
15 Mar 2023
Riksaasen AS Kaur S Solberg TK Austevoll I Brox J Dolatowski FC Hellum C Kolstad F Lonne G Nygaard ØP Ingebrigtsen T

Aims

Repeated lumbar spine surgery has been associated with inferior clinical outcomes. This study aimed to examine and quantify the impact of this association in a national clinical register cohort.

Methods

This is a population-based study from the Norwegian Registry for Spine surgery (NORspine). We included 26,723 consecutive cases operated for lumbar spinal stenosis or lumbar disc herniation from January 2007 to December 2018. The primary outcome was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), presented as the proportions reaching a patient-acceptable symptom state (PASS; defined as an ODI raw score ≤ 22) and ODI raw and change scores at 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were the Global Perceived Effect scale, the numerical rating scale for pain, the EuroQoL five-dimensions health questionnaire, occurrence of perioperative complications and wound infections, and working capability. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine how the number of previous operations influenced the odds of not reaching a PASS.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 3 | Pages 189 - 198
7 Mar 2023
Ruiz-Fernández C Ait Eldjoudi D González-Rodríguez M Cordero Barreal A Farrag Y García-Caballero L Lago F Mobasheri A Sakai D Pino J Gualillo O

Aims

CRP is an acute-phase protein that is used as a biomarker to follow severity and progression in infectious and inflammatory diseases. Its pathophysiological mechanisms of action are still poorly defined. CRP in its pentameric form exhibits weak anti-inflammatory activity. The monomeric isoform (mCRP) exerts potent proinflammatory properties in chondrocytes, endothelial cells, and leucocytes. No data exist regarding mCRP effects in human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. This work aimed to verify the pathophysiological relevance of mCRP in the aetiology and/or progression of IVD degeneration.

Methods

We investigated the effects of mCRP and the signalling pathways that are involved in cultured human primary annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and in the human nucleus pulposus (NP) immortalized cell line HNPSV-1. We determined messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of relevant factors involved in inflammatory responses, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot. We also studied the presence of mCRP in human AF and NP tissues by immunohistochemistry.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 3 | Pages 202 - 211
7 Mar 2023
Bai Z Shou Z Hu K Yu J Meng H Chen C

Aims

This study was performed to explore the effect of melatonin on pyroptosis in nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and the underlying mechanism of that effect.

Methods

This experiment included three patients diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation who failed conservative treatment. Nucleus pulposus tissue was isolated from these patients when they underwent surgical intervention, and primary NPCs were isolated and cultured. Western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence staining, and other methods were used to detect changes in related signalling pathways and the ability of cells to resist pyroptosis.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 3 | Pages 315 - 322
1 Mar 2023
Geere JH Swamy GN Hunter PR Geere JL Lutchman LN Cook AJ Rai AS

Aims

To identify the incidence and risk factors for five-year same-site recurrent disc herniation (sRDH) after primary single-level lumbar discectomy. Secondary outcome was the incidence and risk factors for five-year sRDH reoperation.

Methods

A retrospective study was conducted using prospectively collected data and patient-reported outcome measures, including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), between 2008 and 2019. Postoperative sRDH was identified from clinical notes and the centre’s MRI database, with all imaging providers in the region checked for missing events. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate five-year sRDH incidence. Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent variables predictive of sRDH, with any variable not significant at the p < 0.1 level removed. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).