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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 13, Issue 1 | Pages 40 - 51
11 Jan 2024
Lin J Suo J Bao B Wei H Gao T Zhu H Zheng X

Aims

To investigate the efficacy of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-normal saline (EDTA-NS) in dispersing biofilms and reducing bacterial infections.

Methods

EDTA-NS solutions were irrigated at different durations (1, 5, 10, and 30 minutes) and concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10, and 50 mM) to disrupt Staphylococcus aureus biofilms on Matrigel-coated glass and two materials widely used in orthopaedic implants (Ti-6Al-4V and highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE)). To assess the efficacy of biofilm dispersion, crystal violet staining biofilm assay and colony counting after sonification and culturing were performed. The results were further confirmed and visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We then investigated the efficacies of EDTA-NS irrigation in vivo in rat and pig models of biofilm-associated infection.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 13, Issue 1 | Pages 19 - 27
5 Jan 2024
Baertl S Rupp M Kerschbaum M Morgenstern M Baumann F Pfeifer C Worlicek M Popp D Amanatullah DF Alt V

Aims

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical application of the PJI-TNM classification for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) by determining intraobserver and interobserver reliability. To facilitate its use in clinical practice, an educational app was subsequently developed and evaluated.

Methods

A total of ten orthopaedic surgeons classified 20 cases of PJI based on the PJI-TNM classification. Subsequently, the classification was re-evaluated using the PJI-TNM app. Classification accuracy was calculated separately for each subcategory (reinfection, tissue and implant condition, non-human cells, and morbidity of the patient). Fleiss’ kappa and Cohen’s kappa were calculated for interobserver and intraobserver reliability, respectively.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 10 | Pages 644 - 653
10 Oct 2023
Hinz N Butscheidt S Jandl NM Rohde H Keller J Beil FT Hubert J Rolvien T

Aims

The management of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a major challenge in orthopaedic surgery. In this study, we aimed to characterize the local bone microstructure and metabolism in a clinical cohort of patients with chronic PJI.

Methods

Periprosthetic femoral trabecular bone specimens were obtained from patients suffering from chronic PJI of the hip and knee (n = 20). Microbiological analysis was performed on preoperative joint aspirates and tissue specimens obtained during revision surgery. Microstructural and cellular bone parameters were analyzed in bone specimens by histomorphometry on undecalcified sections complemented by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase immunohistochemistry. Data were compared with control specimens obtained during primary arthroplasty (n = 20) and aseptic revision (n = 20).


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 9 | Pages 559 - 570
14 Sep 2023
Wang Y Li G Ji B Xu B Zhang X Maimaitiyiming A Cao L

Aims

To investigate the optimal thresholds and diagnostic efficacy of commonly used serological and synovial fluid detection indexes for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods

The data from 348 patients who had RA or osteoarthritis (OA) and had previously undergone a total knee (TKA) and/or a total hip arthroplasty (THA) (including RA-PJI: 60 cases, RA-non-PJI: 80 cases; OA-PJI: 104 cases, OA-non-PJI: 104 cases) were retrospectively analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal thresholds of the CRP, ESR, synovial fluid white blood cell count (WBC), and polymorphonuclear neutrophil percentage (PMN%) for diagnosing RA-PJI and OA-PJI. The diagnostic efficacy was evaluated by comparing the area under the curve (AUC) of each index and applying the results of the combined index diagnostic test.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 9 | Pages 546 - 558
12 Sep 2023
Shen J Wei Z Wang S Wang X Lin W Liu L Wang G

Aims

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the induced membrane technique for treating infected bone defects, and to explore the factors that might affect patient outcomes.

Methods

A comprehensive search was performed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases between 1 January 2000 and 31 October 2021. Studies with a minimum sample size of five patients with infected bone defects treated with the induced membrane technique were included. Factors associated with nonunion, infection recurrence, and additional procedures were identified using logistic regression analysis on individual patient data.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 8 | Pages 467 - 475
2 Aug 2023
Wu H Sun D Wang S Jia C Shen J Wang X Hou C Xie Z Luo F

Aims

This study was designed to characterize the recurrence incidence and risk factors of antibiotic-loaded cement spacer (ALCS) for definitive bone defect treatment in limb osteomyelitis.

Methods

We included adult patients with limb osteomyelitis who received debridement and ALCS insertion into the bone defect as definitive management between 2013 and 2020 in our clinical centre. The follow-up time was at least two years. Data on patients’ demographics, clinical characteristics, and infection recurrence were retrospectively collected and analyzed.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 5 | Pages 331 - 338
16 May 2023
Szymski D Walter N Krull P Melsheimer O Grimberg A Alt V Steinbrueck A Rupp M

Aims

The aim of this investigation was to compare risk of infection in both cemented and uncemented hemiarthroplasty (HA) as well as in total hip arthroplasty (THA) following femoral neck fracture.

Methods

Data collection was performed using the German Arthroplasty Registry (EPRD). In HA and THA following femoral neck fracture, fixation method was divided into cemented and uncemented prostheses and paired according to age, sex, BMI, and the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index using Mahalanobis distance matching.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 5 | Pages 321 - 330
9 May 2023
Lenguerrand E Whitehouse MR Beswick AD Kunutsor SK Webb JCJ Mehendale S Porter M Blom AW

Aims

We compared the risks of re-revision and mortality between two-stage and single-stage revision surgeries among patients with infected primary hip arthroplasty.

Methods

Patients with a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of their primary arthroplasty revised with single-stage or two-stage procedure in England and Wales between 2003 and 2014 were identified from the National Joint Registry. We used Poisson regression with restricted cubic splines to compute hazard ratios (HRs) at different postoperative periods. The total number of revisions and re-revisions undergone by patients was compared between the two strategies.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 2 | Pages 113 - 120
1 Feb 2023
Cai Y Liang J Chen X Zhang G Jing Z Zhang R Lv L Zhang W Dang X

Aims

This study aimed to explore the diagnostic value of synovial fluid neutrophil extracellular traps (SF-NETs) in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis, and compare it with that of microbial culture, serum ESR and CRP, synovial white blood cell (WBC) count, and polymorphonuclear neutrophil percentage (PMN%).

Methods

In a single health centre, patients with suspected PJI were enrolled from January 2013 to December 2021. The inclusion criteria were: 1) patients who were suspected to have PJI; 2) patients with complete medical records; and 3) patients from whom sufficient synovial fluid was obtained for microbial culture and NET test. Patients who received revision surgeries due to aseptic failure (AF) were selected as controls. Synovial fluid was collected for microbial culture and SF-WBC, SF-PNM%, and SF-NET detection. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of synovial NET, WBC, PMN%, and area under the curve (AUC) were obtained; the diagnostic efficacies of these diagnostic indexes were calculated and compared.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 1 | Pages 72 - 79
18 Jan 2023
Welling MM Warbroek K Khurshid C van Oosterom MN Rietbergen DDD de Boer MGJ Nelissen RGHH van Leeuwen FWB Pijls BG Buckle T

Aims

Arthroplasty surgery of the knee and hip is performed in two to three million patients annually. Periprosthetic joint infections occur in 4% of these patients. Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) surgery aimed at cleaning the infected prosthesis often fails, subsequently requiring invasive revision of the complete prosthetic reconstruction. Infection-specific imaging may help to guide DAIR. In this study, we evaluated a bacteria-specific hybrid tracer (99mTc-UBI29-41-Cy5) and its ability to visualize the bacterial load on femoral implants using clinical-grade image guidance methods.

Methods

99mTc-UBI29-41-Cy5 specificity for Stapylococcus aureus was assessed in vitro using fluorescence confocal imaging. Topical administration was used to highlight the location of S. aureus cultured on femoral prostheses using fluorescence imaging and freehand single photon emission CT (fhSPECT) scans. Gamma counting and fhSPECT were used to quantify the bacterial load and monitor cleaning with chlorhexidine. Microbiological culturing helped to relate the imaging findings with the number of (remaining) bacteria.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 12 | Pages 843 - 853
1 Dec 2022
Cai Y Huang C Chen X Chen Y Huang Z Zhang C Zhang W Fang X

Aims

This study aimed to explore the role of small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus in intraosseous invasion and colonization in patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).

Methods

A PJI diagnosis was made according to the MusculoSkeletal Infection Society (MSIS) for PJI. Bone and tissue samples were collected intraoperatively and the intracellular invasion and intraosseous colonization were detected. Transcriptomics of PJI samples were analyzed and verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 11 | Pages 835 - 842
17 Nov 2022
Wiesli MG Livio F Achermann Y Gautier E Wahl P

Aims

There is a considerable challenge in treating bone infections and orthopaedic device-associated infection (ODAI), partly due to impaired penetration of systemically administrated antibiotics at the site of infection. This may be circumvented by local drug administration. Knowledge of the release kinetics from any carrier material is essential for proper application. Ceftriaxone shows a particular constant release from calcium sulphate (CaSO4) in vitro, and is particularly effective against streptococci and a large portion of Gram-negative bacteria. We present the clinical release kinetics of ceftriaxone-loaded CaSO4 applied locally to treat ODAI.

Methods

A total of 30 operations with ceftriaxone-loaded CaSO4 had been performed in 28 patients. Ceftriaxone was applied as a single local antibiotic in 21 operations and combined with vancomycin in eight operations, and in an additional operation with vancomycin and amphotericin B. Sampling of wound fluid was performed from drains or aspirations. Ceftriaxone concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 10 | Pages 690 - 699
4 Oct 2022
Lenguerrand E Whitehouse MR Kunutsor SK Beswick AD Baker RP Rolfson O Reed MR Blom AW

Aims

We compared the risks of re-revision and mortality between two-stage revision surgery and single-stage revision surgery among patients with infected primary knee arthroplasty.

Methods

Patients with a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of their primary knee arthroplasty, initially revised with a single-stage or a two-stage procedure in England and Wales between 2003 and 2014, were identified from the National Joint Registry. We used Poisson regression with restricted cubic splines to compute hazard ratios (HR) at different postoperative periods. The total number of revisions and re-revisions undergone by patients was compared between the two strategies.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 9 | Pages 608 - 618
7 Sep 2022
Sigmund IK Luger M Windhager R McNally MA

Aims

This study evaluated the definitions developed by the European Bone and Joint Infection Society (EBJIS) 2021, the International Consensus Meeting (ICM) 2018, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) 2013, for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).

Methods

In this single-centre, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data, patients with an indicated revision surgery after a total hip or knee arthroplasty were included between 2015 and 2020. A standardized diagnostic workup was performed, identifying the components of the EBJIS, ICM, and IDSA criteria in each patient.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 9 | Pages 629 - 638
1 Sep 2022
Pijls BG Sanders IMJG Kuijper EJ Nelissen RGHH

Aims

Here we used a mature seven-day biofilm model of Staphylococcus aureus, exposed to antibiotics up to an additional seven days, to establish the effectiveness of either mechanical cleaning or antibiotics or non-contact induction heating, and which combinations could eradicate S. aureus in mature biofilms.

Methods

Mature biofilms of S. aureus (ATCC 29213) were grown on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) coupons for seven days and were subjected to the following treatments or their combinations: antibiotics, mechanical cleaning, or heat shock by induction heating of 60°C for one minute. Experiments were repeated at least five times.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 6 | Pages 398 - 408
22 Jun 2022
Xu T Zeng Y Yang X Liu G Lv T Yang H Jiang F Chen Y

Aims

We aimed to evaluate the utility of 68Ga-citrate positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in the differentiation of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and aseptic loosening (AL), and compare it with 99mTc-methylene bisphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) bone scan.

Methods

We studied 39 patients with suspected PJI or AL. These patients underwent 68Ga-citrate PET/CT, 99mTc-MDP three-phase bone scan and single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. PET/CT was performed at ten minutes and 60 minutes after injection, respectively. Images were evaluated by three nuclear medicine doctors based on: 1) visual analysis of the three methods based on tracer uptake model, and PET images attenuation-corrected with CT and those not attenuation-corrected with CT were analyzed, respectively; and 2) semi-quantitative analysis of PET/CT: maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of lesions, SUVmax of the lesion/SUVmean of the normal bone, and SUVmax of the lesion/SUVmean of the normal muscle. The final diagnosis was based on the clinical and intraoperative findings, and histopathological and microbiological examinations.


Aims

Treatment outcomes for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) using systemic vancomycin and antibacterial cement spacers during two-stage revision arthroplasty remain unsatisfactory. This study explored the efficacy and safety of intra-articular vancomycin injections for PJI control after debridement and cement spacer implantation in a rat model.

Methods

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA), MRSA inoculation, debridement, and vancomycin-spacer implantation were performed successively in rats to mimic first-stage PJI during the two-stage revision arthroplasty procedure. Vancomycin was administered intraperitoneally or intra-articularly for two weeks to control the infection after debridement and spacer implantation.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 5 | Pages 327 - 341
23 May 2022
Alagboso FI Mannala GK Walter N Docheva D Brochhausen C Alt V Rupp M

Aims

Bone regeneration during treatment of staphylococcal bone infection is challenging due to the ability of Staphylococcus aureus to invade and persist within osteoblasts. Here, we sought to determine whether the metabolic and extracellular organic matrix formation and mineralization ability of S. aureus-infected human osteoblasts can be restored after rifampicin (RMP) therapy.

Methods

The human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells infected with S. aureus EDCC 5055 strain and treated with 8 µg/ml RMP underwent osteogenic stimulation for up to 21 days. Test groups were Saos-2 cells + S. aureus and Saos-2 cells + S. aureus + 8 µg/ml RMP, and control groups were uninfected untreated Saos-2 cells and uninfected Saos-2 cells + 8 µg/ml RMP.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 3 | Pages 143 - 151
1 Mar 2022
Goetz J Keyssner V Hanses F Greimel F Leiß F Schwarz T Springorum H Grifka J Schaumburger J

Aims

Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare, but represent a great burden for the patient. In addition, the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing. The aim of this rat experiment was therefore to compare the antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of PJIs caused by MRSA.

Methods

For this purpose, sterilized steel implants were implanted into the femur of 77 rats. The metal devices were inoculated with suspensions of two different MRSA strains. The animals were divided into groups and treated with vancomycin, linezolid, cotrimoxazole, or rifampin as monotherapy, or with combination of antibiotics over a period of 14 days. After a two-day antibiotic-free interval, the implant was explanted, and bone, muscle, and periarticular tissue were microbiologically analyzed.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 2 | Pages 73 - 81
22 Feb 2022
Gao T Lin J Wei H Bao B Zhu H Zheng X

Aims

Trained immunity confers non-specific protection against various types of infectious diseases, including bone and joint infection. Platelets are active participants in the immune response to pathogens and foreign substances, but their role in trained immunity remains elusive.

Methods

We first trained the innate immune system of C57BL/6 mice via intravenous injection of two toll-like receptor agonists (zymosan and lipopolysaccharide). Two, four, and eight weeks later, we isolated platelets from immunity-trained and control mice, and then assessed whether immunity training altered platelet releasate. To better understand the role of immunity-trained platelets in bone and joint infection development, we transfused platelets from immunity-trained mice into naïve mice, and then challenged the recipient mice with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli.