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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 13, Issue 2 | Pages 83 - 90
19 Feb 2024
Amri R Chelly A Ayedi M Rebaii MA Aifa S Masmoudi S Keskes H

Aims

The present study investigated receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene expressions in giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) patients in relationship with tumour recurrence. We also aimed to investigate the influence of CpG methylation on the transcriptional levels of RANKL and OPG.

Methods

A total of 32 GCTB tissue samples were analyzed, and the expression of RANKL, OPG, and RUNX2 was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The methylation status of RANKL and OPG was also evaluated by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (qMSP).


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 2 | Pages 195 - 202
1 Feb 2024
Jamshidi K Kargar Shooroki K Ammar W Mirzaei A

Aims

The epiphyseal approach to a chondroblastoma of the intercondylar notch of a child’s distal femur does not provide adequate exposure, thereby necessitating the removal of a substantial amount of unaffected bone to expose the lesion. In this study, we compared the functional outcomes, local recurrence, and surgical complications of treating a chondroblastoma of the distal femoral epiphysis by either an intercondylar or an epiphyseal approach.

Methods

A total of 30 children with a chondroblastoma of the distal femur who had been treated by intraregional curettage and bone grafting were retrospectively reviewed. An intercondylar approach was used in 16 patients (group A) and an epiphyseal approach in 14 (group B). Limb function was assessed using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system and Sailhan’s functional criteria.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 2 | Pages 203 - 211
1 Feb 2024
Park JH Won J Kim H Kim Y Kim S Han I

Aims

This study aimed to compare the performance of survival prediction models for bone metastases of the extremities (BM-E) with pathological fractures in an Asian cohort, and investigate patient characteristics associated with survival.

Methods

This retrospective cohort study included 469 patients, who underwent surgery for BM-E between January 2009 and March 2022 at a tertiary hospital in South Korea. Postoperative survival was calculated using the PATHFx3.0, SPRING13, OPTIModel, SORG, and IOR models. Model performance was assessed with area under the curve (AUC), calibration curve, Brier score, and decision curve analysis. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the factors contributing to survival.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 86 - 92
1 Jan 2024
Scholte CHJ Dorleijn DMJ Krijvenaar DT van de Sande MAJ van Langevelde K

Aims

Due to its indolent clinical behaviour, the treatment paradigm of atypical cartilaginous tumours (ACTs) in the long bones is slowly shifting from intralesional resection (curettage) and local adjuvants, towards active surveillance through wait-and-scan follow-up. In this retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary referral centre, we studied the natural behaviour of ACT lesions by active surveillance with MRI. Clinical symptoms were not considered in the surveillance programme.

Methods

The aim of this study was to see whether active surveillance is safe regarding malignant degeneration and local progression. In total, 117 patients were evaluated with MRI assessing growth, cortical destruction, endosteal scalloping, periosteal reaction, relation to the cortex, and perilesional bone marrow oedema. Patients received up to six follow-up scans.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 93 - 98
1 Jan 2024
Broida SE Tsoi KM Rose PS Ferguson PC Griffin AM Wunder JS Houdek MT

Aims

The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is the only mechanical connection between the axial skeleton and lower limbs. Following iliosacral resection, there is debate on whether reconstruction of the joint is necessary. There is a paucity of data comparing the outcomes of patients undergoing reconstruction and those who are not formally reconstructed.

Methods

A total of 60 patients (25 females, 35 males; mean age 39 years (SD 18)) undergoing iliosacral resection were reviewed. Most resections were performed for primary malignant tumours (n = 54; 90%). The mean follow-up for surviving patients was nine years (2 to 19).


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 99 - 106
1 Jan 2024
Khal AA Aiba H Righi A Gambarotti M Atherley O'Meally AO Manfrini M Donati DM Errani C

Aims

Low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS), a rare type of osteosarcoma, often has misleading radiological and pathological features that overlap with those of other bone tumours, thereby complicating diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to analyze the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of patients with LGCOS, with a focus on diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 49 patients with LGCOS (Broder’s grade 1 to 2) treated between January 1985 and December 2017 in a single institute. We examined the presence of malignant features on imaging (periosteal reaction, cortical destruction, soft-tissue invasion), the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy, surgical treatment, and oncological outcome.


Aims

To evaluate mid-to long-term patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) of endoprosthetic reconstruction after resection of malignant tumours arising around the knee, and to investigate the risk factors for unfavourable PROMs.

Methods

The medical records of 75 patients who underwent surgery between 2000 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed, and 44 patients who were alive and available for follow-up (at a mean of 9.7 years postoperatively) were included in the study. Leg length discrepancy was measured on whole-leg radiographs, and functional assessment was performed with PROMs (Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) and Comprehensive Outcome Measure for Musculoskeletal Oncology Lower Extremity (COMMON-LE)) with two different aspects. The thresholds for unfavourable PROMs were determined using anchor questions regarding satisfaction, and the risk factors for unfavourable PROMs were investigated.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1314 - 1320
1 Dec 2023
Broida SE Sullivan MH Barlow JD Morrey M Scorianz M Wagner ER Sanchez-Sotelo J Rose PS Houdek MT

Aims

The scapula is a rare site for a primary bone tumour. Only a small number of series have studied patient outcomes after treatment. Previous studies have shown a high rate of recurrence, with functional outcomes determined by the preservation of the glenohumeral joint and deltoid. The purpose of the current study was to report the outcome of patients who had undergone tumour resection that included the scapula.

Methods

We reviewed 61 patients (37 male, 24 female; mean age 42 years (SD 19)) who had undergone resection of the scapula. The most common resection was type 2 (n = 34) according to the Tikhoff-Linberg classification, or type S1A (n = 35) on the Enneking classification.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 11 | Pages 846 - 852
8 Nov 2023
Kim RG Maher AW Karunaratne S Stalley PD Boyle RA

Aims

Tenosynovial giant cell tumour (TGCT) is a rare benign tumour of the musculoskeletal system. Surgical management is fraught with challenges due to high recurrence rates. The aim of this study was to describe surgical treatment and evaluate surgical outcomes of TGCT at an Australian tertiary referral centre for musculoskeletal tumours and to identify factors affecting recurrence rates.

Methods

A prospective database of all patients with TGCT surgically managed by two orthopaedic oncology surgeons was reviewed. All cases irrespective of previous treatment were included and patients without follow-up were excluded. Pertinent tumour characteristics and surgical outcomes were collected for analysis.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 11 | Pages 817 - 824
1 Nov 2023
Filis P Varvarousis D Ntritsos G Dimopoulos D Filis N Giannakeas N Korompilias A Ploumis A

Aims

The standard of surgical treatment for lower limb neoplasms had been characterized by highly interventional techniques, leading to severe kinetic impairment of the patients and incidences of phantom pain. Rotationplasty had arisen as a potent limb salvage treatment option for young cancer patients with lower limb bone tumours, but its impact on the gait through comparative studies still remains unclear several years after the introduction of the procedure. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of rotationplasty on gait parameters measured by gait analysis compared to healthy individuals.

Methods

The MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched without time restriction until 10 January 2022 for eligible studies. Gait parameters measured by gait analysis were the outcomes of interest.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1206 - 1215
1 Nov 2023
Ladegaard TH Sørensen MS Petersen MM

Aims

We first sought to compare survival for patients treated surgically for solitary and multiple metastases in the appendicular skeleton, and second, to explore the role of complete and incomplete resection (R0 and R1/R2) in patients with a solitary bony metastasis in the appendicular skeleton.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study on a population-based cohort of all adult patients treated surgically for bony metastases of the appendicular skeleton between January 2014 and December 2019. We excluded patients in whom the status of bone metastases and resection margin was unknown. Patients were followed until the end of the study or to their death. We had no loss to follow-up. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis (with log-rank test) to evaluate patient survival. We identified 506 operations in 459 patients. A total of 120 operations (in 116 patients) were for solitary metastases and 386 (in 345 patients) for multiple metastases. Of the 120 operations, 70 (in 69 patients) had no/an unknown status of visceral metastases (solitary group) and 50 (in 49 patients) had visceral metastases. In the solitary group, 45 operations (in 44 patients) were R0 (resections for cure or complete remission) and 25 (in 25 patients) were R1/R2 (resections leaving microscopic or macroscopic tumour, respectively). The most common types of cancer in the solitary group were kidney (n = 27), lung (n = 25), and breast (n = 20).


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1216 - 1225
1 Nov 2023
Fujiwara T Kunisada T Nakata E Mitsuhashi T Ozaki T Kawai A

Aims

Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of soft-tissue is a rare melanocytic subtype of mesenchymal malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and therapeutic factors associated with increased survival, stratified by clinical stage, in order to determine the optimal treatment.

Methods

The study was a retrospective analysis involving 117 patients with histologically confirmed CCS, between July 2016 and November 2017, who were enrolled in the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumour Registry in Japan.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1115 - 1122
1 Oct 2023
Archer JE Chauhan GS Dewan V Osman K Thomson C Nandra RS Ashford RU Cool P Stevenson J

Aims

Most patients with advanced malignancy suffer bone metastases, which pose a significant challenge to orthopaedic services and burden to the health economy. This study aimed to assess adherence to the British Orthopaedic Oncology Society (BOOS)/British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) guidelines on patients with metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the UK.

Methods

A prospective, multicentre, national collaborative audit was designed and delivered by a trainee-led collaborative group. Data were collected over three months (1 April 2021 to 30 June 2021) for all patients presenting with MBD. A data collection tool allowed investigators at each hospital to compare practice against guidelines. Data were collated and analyzed centrally to quantify compliance from 84 hospitals in the UK for a total of 1,137 patients who were eligible for inclusion.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 7 | Pages 808 - 814
1 Jul 2023
Gundavda MK Lazarides AL Burke ZDC Focaccia M Griffin AM Tsoi KM Ferguson PC Wunder JS

Aims

The preoperative grading of chondrosarcomas of bone that accurately predicts surgical management is difficult for surgeons, radiologists, and pathologists. There are often discrepancies in grade between the initial biopsy and the final histology. Recent advances in the use of imaging methods have shown promise in the ability to predict the final grade. The most important clinical distinction is between grade 1 chondrosarcomas, which are amenable to curettage, and resection-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2 and 3) which require en bloc resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a Radiological Aggressiveness Score (RAS) to predict the grade of primary chondrosarcomas in long bones and thus to guide management.

Methods

A total of 113 patients with a primary chondrosarcoma of a long bone presenting between January 2001 and December 2021 were identified on retrospective review of a single oncology centre’s prospectively collected database. The nine-parameter RAS included variables from radiographs and MRI scans. The best cut-off of parameters to predict the final grade of chondrosarcoma after resection was determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), and this was correlated with the biopsy grade.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 6 | Pages 442 - 446
12 Jun 2023
Toda Y Iwata S Kobayashi E Ogura K Osaki S Fukushima S Mawatari M Kawai A

Aims

The risk of postoperative complications after resection of soft-tissue sarcoma in the medial thigh is higher than in other locations. This study investigated whether a vessel sealing system (VSS) could help reduce the risk of postoperative complications after wide resection of soft-tissue sarcoma in the medial thigh.

Methods

Of 285 patients who underwent wide resection for soft-tissue sarcoma between 2014 and 2021 at our institution, 78 patients with tumours in the medial thigh were extracted from our database. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, preoperative treatment, surgical treatment (use of VSS, blood loss volume, operating time), and postoperative course (complications, postoperative haemoglobin changes, total drainage volume, and drainage and hospitalization durations) were obtained from medical records. We statistically compared clinical outcomes between patients whose surgery did or did not use VSS (VSS and non-VSS groups, respectively).


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 6 | Pages 424 - 431
5 Jun 2023
Christ AB Piple AS Gettleman BS Duong A Chen M Wang JC Heckmann ND Menendez L

Aims

The modern prevalence of primary tumours causing metastatic bone disease is ill-defined in the oncological literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of primary tumours in the setting of metastatic bone disease, as well as reported rates of pathological fracture, postoperative complications, 90-day mortality, and 360-day mortality for each primary tumour subtype.

Methods

The Premier Healthcare Database was queried to identify all patients who were diagnosed with metastatic bone disease from January 2015 to December 2020. The prevalence of all primary tumour subtypes was tabulated. Rates of long bone pathological fracture, 90-day mortality, and 360-day mortality following surgical treatment of pathological fracture were assessed for each primary tumour subtype. Patient characteristics and postoperative outcomes were analyzed based upon whether patients had impending fractures treated prophylactically versus treated completed fractures.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 6 | Pages 702 - 710
1 Jun 2023
Yeramosu T Ahmad W Bashir A Wait J Bassett J Domson G

Aims

The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with five-year cancer-related mortality in patients with limb and trunk soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) and develop and validate machine learning algorithms in order to predict five-year cancer-related mortality in these patients.

Methods

Demographic, clinicopathological, and treatment variables of limb and trunk STS patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database from 2004 to 2017 were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors significantly associated with five-year cancer-related mortality. Various machine learning models were developed and compared using area under the curve (AUC), calibration, and decision curve analysis. The model that performed best on the SEER testing data was further assessed to determine the variables most important in its predictive capacity. This model was externally validated using our institutional dataset.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 6 | Pages 696 - 701
1 Jun 2023
Kurisunkal V Morris G Kaneuchi Y Bleibleh S James S Botchu R Jeys L Parry MC

Aims

Intra-articular (IA) tumours around the knee are treated with extra-articular (EA) resection, which is associated with poor functional outcomes. We aim to evaluate the accuracy of MRI in predicting IA involvement around the knee.

Methods

We identified 63 cases of high-grade sarcomas in or around the distal femur that underwent an EA resection from a prospectively maintained database (January 1996 to April 2020). Suspicion of IA disease was noted in 52 cases, six had IA pathological fracture, two had an effusion, two had prior surgical intervention (curettage/IA intervention), and one had an osseous metastasis in the proximal tibia. To ascertain validity, two musculoskeletal radiologists (R1, R2) reviewed the preoperative imaging (MRI) of 63 consecutive cases on two occasions six weeks apart. The radiological criteria for IA disease comprised evidence of tumour extension within the suprapatellar pouch, intercondylar notch, extension along medial/lateral retinaculum, and presence of IA fracture. The radiological predictions were then confirmed with the final histopathology of the resected specimens.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 559 - 567
1 May 2023
Aoude A Nikomarov D Perera JR Ibe IK Griffin AM Tsoi KM Ferguson PC Wunder JS

Aims

Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive lesion that is difficult to treat as salvaging the joint can be associated with a high rate of local recurrence (LR). We evaluated the risk factors for tumour relapse after treatment of a GCTB of the limbs.

Methods

A total of 354 consecutive patients with a GCTB underwent joint salvage by curettage and reconstruction with bone graft and/or cement or en bloc resection. Patient, tumour, and treatment factors were analyzed for their impact on LR. Patients treated with denosumab were excluded.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 551 - 558
1 May 2023
Wang H Ji T Qu H Yan T Li D Yang R Tang X Guo W

Aims

The aim of this study was to determine the rate of indocyanine green (ICG) staining of bone and soft-tissue tumours, as well as the stability and accuracy of ICG fluorescence imaging in detecting tumour residuals during surgery for bone and soft-tissue tumours.

Methods

ICG fluorescence imaging was performed during surgery in 34 patients with bone and soft-tissue tumours. ICG was administered intravenously at a dose of 2 mg/kg over a period of 60 minutes on the day prior to surgery. The tumour stain rate and signal-to-background ratio of each tumour were post hoc analyzed. After tumour resection, the tumour bed was scanned to locate sites with fluorescence residuals, which were subsequently inspected and biopsied.