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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 94 - 100
5 Feb 2024
Mancino F Kayani B Gabr A Fontalis A Plastow R Haddad FS

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are among the most common and debilitating knee injuries in professional athletes with an incidence in females up to eight-times higher than their male counterparts. ACL injuries can be career-threatening and are associated with increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis in future life. The increased risk of ACL injury in females has been attributed to various anatomical, developmental, neuromuscular, and hormonal factors. Anatomical and hormonal factors have been identified and investigated as significant contributors including osseous anatomy, ligament laxity, and hamstring muscular recruitment. Postural stability and impact absorption are associated with the stabilizing effort and stress on the ACL during sport activity, increasing the risk of noncontact pivot injury. Female patients have smaller diameter hamstring autografts than males, which may predispose to increased risk of re-rupture following ACL reconstruction and to an increased risk of chondral and meniscal injuries. The addition of an extra-articular tenodesis can reduce the risk of failure; therefore, it should routinely be considered in young elite athletes. Prevention programs target key aspects of training including plyometrics, strengthening, balance, endurance and stability, and neuromuscular training, reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes by up to 90%. Sex disparities in access to training facilities may also play an important role in the risk of ACL injuries between males and females. Similarly, football boots, pitches quality, and football size and weight should be considered and tailored around females’ characteristics. Finally, high levels of personal and sport-related stress have been shown to increase the risk of ACL injury which may be related to alterations in attention and coordination, together with increased muscular tension, and compromise the return to sport after ACL injury. Further investigations are still necessary to better understand and address the risk factors involved in ACL injuries in female athletes.

Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2024;5(2):94–100.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 8 | Pages 850 - 856
1 Aug 2023
Azamgarhi T Warren S Fouch S Standing JF Gerrand C

The recently published Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens In Tumor Surgery (PARITY) trial found no benefit in extending antibiotic prophylaxis from 24 hours to five days after endoprosthetic reconstruction for lower limb bone tumours. PARITY is the first randomized controlled trial in orthopaedic oncology and is a huge step forward in understanding antibiotic prophylaxis. However, significant gaps remain, including questions around antibiotic choice, particularly in the UK, where cephalosporins are avoided due to concerns of Clostridioides difficile infection. We present a review of the evidence for antibiotic choice, dosing, and timing, and a brief description of PARITY, its implication for practice, and the remaining gaps in our understanding.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(8):850–856.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 2 | Pages 112 - 123
1 Feb 2023
Duckworth AD Carter TH Chen MJ Gardner MJ Watts AC

Despite being one of the most common injuries around the elbow, the optimal treatment of olecranon fractures is far from established and stimulates debate among both general orthopaedic trauma surgeons and upper limb specialists. It is almost universally accepted that stable non-displaced fractures can be safely treated nonoperatively with minimal specialist input. Internal fixation is recommended for the vast majority of displaced fractures, with a range of techniques and implants to choose from. However, there is concern regarding the complication rates, largely related to symptomatic metalwork resulting in high rates of implant removal. As the number of elderly patients sustaining these injuries increases, we are becoming more aware of the issues associated with fixation in osteoporotic bone and the often fragile soft-tissue envelope in this group. Given this, there is evidence to support an increasing role for nonoperative management in this high-risk demographic group, even in those presenting with displaced and/or multifragmentary fracture patterns. This review summarizes the available literature to date, focusing predominantly on the management techniques and available implants for stable fractures of the olecranon. It also offers some insights into the potential avenues for future research, in the hope of addressing some of the pertinent questions that remain unanswered.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(2):112–123.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 1 | Pages 13 - 18
5 Jan 2023
Walgrave S Oussedik S


Robotic-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has proven higher accuracy, fewer alignment outliers, and improved short-term clinical outcomes when compared to conventional TKA. However, evidence of cost-effectiveness and individual superiority of one system over another is the subject of further research. Despite its growing adoption rate, published results are still limited and comparative studies are scarce. This review compares characteristics and performance of five currently available systems, focusing on the information and feedback each system provides to the surgeon, what the systems allow the surgeon to modify during the operation, and how each system then aids execution of the surgical plan.

Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2023;4(1):13–18.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 5 | Pages 575 - 580
2 May 2022
Hamad C Chowdhry M Sindeldecker D Bernthal NM Stoodley P McPherson EJ

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a difficult complication requiring a comprehensive eradication protocol. Cure rates have essentially stalled in the last two decades, using methods of antimicrobial cement joint spacers and parenteral antimicrobial agents. Functional spacers with higher-dose antimicrobial-loaded cement and antimicrobial-loaded calcium sulphate beads have emphasized local antimicrobial delivery on the premise that high-dose local antimicrobial delivery will enhance eradication. However, with increasing antimicrobial pressures, microbiota have responded with adaptive mechanisms beyond traditional antimicrobial resistance genes. In this review we describe adaptive resistance mechanisms that are relevant to the treatment of PJI. Some mechanisms are well known, but others are new. The objective of this review is to inform clinicians of the known adaptive resistance mechanisms of microbes relevant to PJI. We also discuss the implications of these adaptive mechanisms in the future treatment of PJI.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):575–580.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 3 | Pages 268 - 274
21 Mar 2022
Krishnan H Eldridge JD Clark D Metcalfe AJ Stevens JM Mandalia V

Recognized anatomic variations that lead to patella instability include patella alta and trochlea dysplasia. Lateralization of the extensor mechanism relative to the trochlea is often considered to be a contributing factor; however, controversy remains as to the degree this contributes to instability and how this should be measured. As the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) is one of most common imaging measurements to assess lateralization of the extensor mechanism, it is important to understand its strengths and weaknesses. Care needs to be taken while interpreting the TT-TG value as it is affected by many factors. Medializing tibial tubercle osteotomy is sometimes used to correct the TT-TG, but may not truly address the underlying anatomical problem. This review set out to determine whether the TT-TG distance sufficiently summarizes the pathoanatomy, and if this assists with planning of surgery in patellar instability.

Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2022;3(3):268–274.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 1 | Pages 85 - 92
27 Jan 2022
Loughenbury PR Tsirikos AI

The development of spinal deformity in children with underlying neurodisability can affect their ability to function and impact on their quality of life, as well as compromise provision of nursing care. Patients with neuromuscular spinal deformity are among the most challenging due to the number and complexity of medical comorbidities that increase the risk for severe intraoperative or postoperative complications. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory at every stage to ensure that all nonoperative measures have been applied, and that the treatment goals have been clearly defined and agreed with the family. This will involve input from multiple specialities, including allied healthcare professionals, such as physiotherapists and wheelchair services. Surgery should be considered when there is significant impact on the patients’ quality of life, which is usually due to poor sitting balance, back or costo-pelvic pain, respiratory complications, or problems with self-care and feeding. Meticulous preoperative assessment is required, along with careful consideration of the nature of the deformity and the problems that it is causing. Surgery can achieve good curve correction and results in high levels of satisfaction from the patients and their caregivers. Modern modular posterior instrumentation systems allow an effective deformity correction. However, the risks of surgery remain high, and involvement of the family at all stages of decision-making is required in order to balance the risks and anticipated gains of the procedure, and to select those patients who can mostly benefit from spinal correction.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 1 | Pages 8 - 11
1 Jan 2022
Wright-Chisem J Elbuluk AM Mayman DJ Jerabek SA Sculco PK Vigdorchik JM

Dislocation following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a well-known and potentially devastating complication. Clinicians have used many strategies in attempts to prevent dislocation since the introduction of THA. While the importance of postoperative care cannot be ignored, particular emphasis has been placed on preoperative planning in the prevention of dislocation. The strategies have progressed from more traditional approaches, including modular implants, the size of the femoral head, and augmentation of the offset, to newer concepts, including patient-specific component positioning combined with computer navigation, robotics, and the use of dual-mobility implants. As clinicians continue to pursue improved outcomes and reduced complications, these concepts will lay the foundation for future innovation in THA and ultimately improved outcomes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(1):8–11.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1442 - 1448
1 Sep 2021
McDonnell JM Evans SR McCarthy L Temperley H Waters C Ahern D Cunniffe G Morris S Synnott K Birch N Butler JS

In recent years, machine learning (ML) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), a particular subset of ML, have been adopted by various areas of healthcare. A number of diagnostic and prognostic algorithms have been designed and implemented across a range of orthopaedic sub-specialties to date, with many positive results. However, the methodology of many of these studies is flawed, and few compare the use of ML with the current approach in clinical practice. Spinal surgery has advanced rapidly over the past three decades, particularly in the areas of implant technology, advanced surgical techniques, biologics, and enhanced recovery protocols. It is therefore regarded an innovative field. Inevitably, spinal surgeons will wish to incorporate ML into their practice should models prove effective in diagnostic or prognostic terms. The purpose of this article is to review published studies that describe the application of neural networks to spinal surgery and which actively compare ANN models to contemporary clinical standards allowing evaluation of their efficacy, accuracy, and relatability. It also explores some of the limitations of the technology, which act to constrain the widespread adoption of neural networks for diagnostic and prognostic use in spinal care. Finally, it describes the necessary considerations should institutions wish to incorporate ANNs into their practices. In doing so, the aim of this review is to provide a practical approach for spinal surgeons to understand the relevant aspects of neural networks.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(9):1442–1448.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 5 | Pages 822 - 827
1 May 2021
Buzzatti L Keelson B Vanlauwe J Buls N De Mey J Vandemeulebroucke J Cattrysse E Scheerlinck T

Evaluating musculoskeletal conditions of the lower limb and understanding the pathophysiology of complex bone kinematics is challenging. Static images do not take into account the dynamic component of relative bone motion and muscle activation. Fluoroscopy and dynamic MRI have important limitations. Dynamic CT (4D-CT) is an emerging alternative that combines high spatial and temporal resolution, with an increased availability in clinical practice. 4D-CT allows simultaneous visualization of bone morphology and joint kinematics. This unique combination makes it an ideal tool to evaluate functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the lower limb, 4D-CT has been used to diagnose femoroacetabular impingement, patellofemoral, ankle and subtalar joint instability, or reduced range of motion. 4D-CT has also been used to demonstrate the effect of surgery, mainly on patellar instability. 4D-CT will need further research and validation before it can be widely used in clinical practice. We believe, however, it is here to stay, and will become a reference in the diagnosis of lower limb conditions and the evaluation of treatment options.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(5):822–827.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 3 | Pages 430 - 439
1 Mar 2021
Geary M Gaston RG Loeffler B

Upper limb amputations, ranging from transhumeral to partial hand, can be devastating for patients, their families, and society. Modern paradigm shifts have focused on reconstructive options after upper extremity limb loss, rather than considering the amputation an ablative procedure. Surgical advancements such as targeted muscle reinnervation and regenerative peripheral nerve interface, in combination with technological development of modern prosthetics, have expanded options for patients after amputation. In the near future, advances such as osseointegration, implantable myoelectric sensors, and implantable nerve cuffs may become more widely used and may expand the options for prosthetic integration, myoelectric signal detection, and restoration of sensation. This review summarizes the current advancements in surgical techniques and prosthetics for upper limb amputees.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(3):430–439.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 2 | Pages 234 - 244
1 Feb 2021
Gibb BP Hadjiargyrou M

Antibiotic resistance represents a threat to human health. It has been suggested that by 2050, antibiotic-resistant infections could cause ten million deaths each year. In orthopaedics, many patients undergoing surgery suffer from complications resulting from implant-associated infection. In these circumstances secondary surgery is usually required and chronic and/or relapsing disease may ensue. The development of effective treatments for antibiotic-resistant infections is needed. Recent evidence shows that bacteriophage (phages; viruses that infect bacteria) therapy may represent a viable and successful solution. In this review, a brief description of bone and joint infection and the nature of bacteriophages is presented, as well as a summary of our current knowledge on the use of bacteriophages in the treatment of bacterial infections. We present contemporary published in vitro and in vivo data as well as data from clinical trials, as they relate to bone and joint infections. We discuss the potential use of bacteriophage therapy in orthopaedic infections. This area of research is beginning to reveal successful results, but mostly in nonorthopaedic fields. We believe that bacteriophage therapy has potential therapeutic value for implant-associated infections in orthopaedics.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(2):234–244.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1281 - 1288
3 Oct 2020
Chang JS Kayani B Plastow R Singh S Magan A Haddad FS

Injuries to the hamstring muscle complex are common in athletes, accounting for between 12% and 26% of all injuries sustained during sporting activities. Acute hamstring injuries often occur during sports that involve repetitive kicking or high-speed sprinting, such as American football, soccer, rugby, and athletics. They are also common in watersports, including waterskiing and surfing. Hamstring injuries can be career-threatening in elite athletes and are associated with an estimated risk of recurrence in between 14% and 63% of patients. The variability in prognosis and treatment of the different injury patterns highlights the importance of prompt diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to classify injuries accurately and plan the appropriate management.

Low-grade hamstring injuries may be treated with nonoperative measures including pain relief, eccentric lengthening exercises, and a graduated return to sport-specific activities. Nonoperative management is associated with highly variable times for convalescence and return to a pre-injury level of sporting function. Nonoperative management of high-grade hamstring injuries is associated with poor return to baseline function, residual muscle weakness and a high-risk of recurrence. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries, high-grade musculotendinous tears, and chronic injuries with persistent weakness or functional compromise require surgical repair to enable return to a pre-injury level of sporting function and minimize the risk of recurrent injury.

This article reviews the optimal diagnostic imaging methods and common classification systems used to guide the treatment of hamstring injuries. In addition, the indications and outcomes for both nonoperative and operative treatment are analyzed to provide an evidence-based management framework for these patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1281–1288.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1122 - 1127
14 Sep 2020
Brown LE Fatehi A Ring D

Evidence suggests that the alleviation of pain is enhancedby a strong patient-clinician relationship and attending to a patient’s social and mental health. There is a limited role for medication, opioids in particular.

Orthopaedic surgeons can use comprehensive biopsychosocial strategies to help people recover and can work with colleagues who have the appropriate expertise in order to maximize pain alleviation with optimal opioid stewardship.

Preparing patients for elective surgery and caring for them after unplanned injury or surgery can benefit from planned and practiced strategies based in communication science.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(9):1122–1127.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 6 | Pages 222 - 228
9 Jun 2020
Liow MHL Tay KXK Yeo NEM Tay DKJ Goh SK Koh JSB Howe TS Tan AHC

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented challenges to healthcare systems worldwide. Orthopaedic departments have adopted business continuity models and guidelines for essential and non-essential surgeries to preserve hospital resources as well as protect patients and staff. These guidelines broadly encompass reduction of ambulatory care with a move towards telemedicine, redeployment of orthopaedic surgeons/residents to the frontline battle against COVID-19, continuation of education and research through web-based means, and cancellation of non-essential elective procedures. However, if containment of COVID-19 community spread is achieved, resumption of elective orthopaedic procedures and transition plans to return to normalcy must be considered for orthopaedic departments. The COVID-19 pandemic also presents a moral dilemma to the orthopaedic surgeon considering elective procedures. What is the best treatment for our patients and how does the fear of COVID-19 influence the risk-benefit discussion during a pandemic? Surgeons must deliberate the fine balance between elective surgery for a patient’s wellbeing versus risks to the operating team and utilization of precious hospital resources. Attrition of healthcare workers or Orthopaedic surgeons from restarting elective procedures prematurely or in an unsafe manner may render us ill-equipped to handle the second wave of infections. This highlights the need to develop effective screening protocols or preoperative COVID-19 testing before elective procedures in high-risk, elderly individuals with comorbidities. Alternatively, high-risk individuals should be postponed until the risk of nosocomial COVID-19 infection is minimal. In addition, given the higher mortality and perioperative morbidity of patients with COVID-19 undergoing surgery, the decision to operate must be carefully deliberated. As we ramp-up elective services and get “back to business” as orthopaedic surgeons, we have to be constantly mindful to proceed in a cautious and calibrated fashion, delivering the best care, while maintaining utmost vigilance to prevent the resurgence of COVID-19 during this critical transition period.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2020;1-6:222–228.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 5 | Pages 93 - 97
6 May 2020
Giorgi PD Gallazzi E Capitani P D’Aliberti GA Bove F Chiara O Peretti G Schirò GR

The COVID-19 virus is a tremendous burden for the Italian health system. The regionally-based Italian National Health System has been reorganized. Hospitals' biggest challenge was to create new intensive care unit (ICU) beds, as the existing system was insufficient to meet new demand, especially in the most affected areas. Our institution in the Milan metropolitan area of Lombardy, the epicentre of the infection, was selected as one of the three regional hub for major trauma, serving a population of more than three million people. The aims were the increase the ICU beds and the rationalization of human and structural resources available for treating COVID-19 patients. In our hub hospital, the reorganization aimed to reduce the risk of infection and to obtained resources, in terms of beds and healthcare personnel to be use in the COVID-19 emergency. Non-urgent outpatient orthopaedic activity and elective surgery was also suspended. A training programme for healthcare personnel started immediately. Orthopaedic and radiological pathways dedicated to COVID-19 patients, or with possible infection, have been established. In our orthopaedic department, we passed from 70 to 26 beds. Our goal is to treat trauma surgery's patient in the “golden 72 hours” in order to reduce the overall hospital length of stay. We applied an objective priority system to manage the flow of surgical procedures in the emergency room based on clinical outcomes and guidelines. Organizing the present to face the emergency is a challenge, but in the global plan of changes in hospital management one must also think about the near future. We reported the Milan metropolitan area orthopaedic surgery management during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our decisions are not based on scientific evidence; therefore, the decision on how reorganize hospitals will likely remain in the hands of individual countries.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 5 | Pages 568 - 572
1 May 2020
McDonnell JM Ahern DP Ó Doinn T Gibbons D Rodrigues KN Birch N Butler JS

Continuous technical improvement in spinal surgical procedures, with the aim of enhancing patient outcomes, can be assisted by the deployment of advanced technologies including navigation, intraoperative CT imaging, and surgical robots. The latest generation of robotic surgical systems allows the simultaneous application of a range of digital features that provide the surgeon with an improved view of the surgical field, often through a narrow portal.

There is emerging evidence that procedure-related complications and intraoperative blood loss can be reduced if the new technologies are used by appropriately trained surgeons. Acceptance of the role of surgical robots has increased in recent years among a number of surgical specialities including general surgery, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgeons performing major joint arthroplasty. However, ethical challenges have emerged with the rollout of these innovations, such as ensuring surgeon competence in the use of surgical robotics and avoiding financial conflicts of interest. Therefore, it is essential that trainees aspiring to become spinal surgeons as well as established spinal specialists should develop the necessary skills to use robotic technology safely and effectively and understand the ethical framework within which the technology is introduced.

Traditional and more recently developed platforms exist to aid skill acquisition and surgical training which are described.

The aim of this narrative review is to describe the role of surgical robotics in spinal surgery, describe measures of proficiency, and present the range of training platforms that institutions can use to ensure they employ confident spine surgeons adequately prepared for the era of robotic spinal surgery.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(5):568–572.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1325 - 1330
1 Nov 2019
White J Couzens G Jeffery C

The wrist is a complex joint involving many small bones and complicated kinematics. It has, therefore, been traditionally difficult to image and ascertain information about kinematics when making a diagnosis. Although MRI and fluoroscopy have been used, they both have limitations. Recently, there has been interest in the use of 4D-CT in imaging the wrist. This review examines the literature regarding the use of 4D-CT in imaging the wrist to assess kinematics and its ability to diagnose pathology. Some questions remain about the description of normal ranges, the most appropriate method of measuring intercarpal stability, the accuracy compared with established standards, and the place of 4D-CT in postoperative assessment.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1325–1330.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 8 | Pages 897 - 901
1 Aug 2019
Konan S Alazzawi S Yoon B Cha Y Koo K

Ceramic bearings have several desirable properties, such as resistance to wear, hardness, and biocompatibility, that favour it as an articulating surface in hip arthroplasty. However, ceramic fracture remains a concern. We have reviewed the contemporary literature, addressing the factors that can influence the incidence of ceramic bearing surface fracture.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:897–901.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 5 | Pages 512 - 521
1 May 2019
Carter TH Duckworth AD White TO


The medial malleolus, once believed to be the primary stabilizer of the ankle, has been the topic of conflicting clinical and biomechanical data for many decades. Despite the relevant surgical anatomy being understood for almost 40 years, the optimal treatment of medial malleolar fractures remains unclear, whether the injury occurs in isolation or as part of an unstable bi- or trimalleolar fracture configuration. Traditional teaching recommends open reduction and fixation of medial malleolar fractures that are part of an unstable injury. However, there is recent evidence to suggest that nonoperative management of well-reduced fractures may result in equivalent outcomes, but without the morbidity associated with surgery. This review gives an update on the relevant anatomy and classification systems for medial malleolar fractures and an overview of the current literature regarding their management, including surgical approaches and the choice of implants.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:512–521.