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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 4 | Pages 312 - 318
1 Apr 2024
Sheth NP Jones SA Sanghavi SA Manktelow A

The advent of modular porous metal augments has ushered in a new form of treatment for acetabular bone loss. The function of an augment can be seen as reducing the size of a defect or reconstituting the anterosuperior/posteroinferior columns and/or allowing supplementary fixation. Depending on the function of the augment, the surgeon can decide on the sequence of introduction of the hemispherical shell, before or after the augment. Augments should always, however, be used with cement to form a unit with the acetabular component. Given their versatility, augments also allow the use of a hemispherical shell in a position that restores the centre of rotation and biomechanics of the hip. Progressive shedding or the appearance of metal debris is a particular finding with augments and, with other radiological signs of failure, should be recognized on serial radiographs. Mid- to long-term outcomes in studies reporting the use of augments with hemispherical shells in revision total hip arthroplasty have shown rates of survival of > 90%. However, a higher risk of failure has been reported when augments have been used for patients with chronic pelvic discontinuity.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2024;106-B(4):312–318.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 4 | Pages 319 - 322
1 Apr 2024
Parsons N Whitehouse MR Costa ML


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 4 | Pages 307 - 311
1 Apr 2024
Horner D Hutchinson K Bretherton CP Griffin XL


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 3 | Pages 227 - 231
1 Mar 2024
Todd NV Casey A Birch NC

The diagnostic sub-categorization of cauda equina syndrome (CES) is used to aid communication between doctors and other healthcare professionals. It is also used to determine the need for, and urgency of, MRI and surgery in these patients. A recent paper by Hoeritzauer et al (2023) in this journal examined the interobserver reliability of the widely accepted subcategories in 100 patients with cauda equina syndrome. They found that there is no useful interobserver agreement for the subcategories, even for experienced spinal surgeons. This observation is supported by the largest prospective study of the treatment of cauda equina syndrome in the UK by Woodfield et al (2023). If the accepted subcategories are unreliable, they cannot be used in the way that they are currently, and they should be revised or abandoned. This paper presents a reassessment of the diagnostic and prognostic subcategories of cauda equina syndrome in the light of this evidence, with a suggested cure based on a more inclusive synthesis of symptoms, signs, bladder ultrasound scan results, and pre-intervention urinary catheterization.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2024;106-B(3):227–231.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 2 | Pages 114 - 120
1 Feb 2024
Khatri C Metcalfe A Wall P Underwood M Haddad FS Davis ET

Total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA) are largely successful procedures; however, both have variable outcomes, resulting in some patients being dissatisfied with the outcome. Surgeons are turning to technologies such as robotic-assisted surgery in an attempt to improve outcomes. Robust studies are needed to find out if these innovations are really benefitting patients. The Robotic Arthroplasty Clinical and Cost Effectiveness Randomised Controlled Trials (RACER) trials are multicentre, patient-blinded randomized controlled trials. The patients have primary osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. The operation is Mako-assisted THA or TKA and the control groups have operations using conventional instruments. The primary clinical outcome is the Forgotten Joint Score at 12 months, and there is a built-in analysis of cost-effectiveness. Secondary outcomes include early pain, the alignment of the components, and medium- to long-term outcomes. This annotation outlines the need to assess these technologies and discusses the design and challenges when conducting such trials, including surgical workflows, isolating the effect of the operation, blinding, and assessing the learning curve. Finally, the future of robotic surgery is discussed, including the need to contemporaneously introduce and evaluate such technologies.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2024;106-B(2):114–120.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 16 - 18
1 Jan 2024
Metcalfe D Perry DC

Displaced fractures of the distal radius in children are usually reduced under sedation or general anaesthesia to restore anatomical alignment before the limb is immobilized. However, there is growing evidence of the ability of the distal radius to remodel rapidly, raising doubts over the benefit to these children of restoring alignment. There is now clinical equipoise concerning whether or not young children with displaced distal radial fractures benefit from reduction, as they have the greatest ability to remodel. The Children’s Radius Acute Fracture Fixation Trial (CRAFFT), funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research, aims to definitively answer this question and determine how best to manage severely displaced distal radial fractures in children aged up to ten years.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2024;106-B(1):16–18.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 11 - 15
1 Jan 2024
Jain S Lamb JN Pandit H

Polished taper-slip (PTS) cemented stems have an excellent clinical track record and are the most common stem type used in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) in the UK. Due to low rates of aseptic loosening, they have largely replaced more traditional composite beam (CB) cemented stems. However, there is now emerging evidence from multiple joint registries that PTS stems are associated with higher rates of postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) compared to their CB stem counterparts. The risk of both intraoperative and postoperative PFF remains greater with uncemented stems compared to either of these cemented stem subtypes. PFF continues to be a devastating complication following primary THA and is associated with high complication and mortality rates. Recent efforts have focused on identifying implant-related risk factors for PFF in order to guide preventative strategies, and therefore the purpose of this article is to present the current evidence on the effect of cemented femoral stem design on the risk of PFF.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2024;106-B(1):11–15.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1239 - 1243
1 Dec 2023
Yoshitani J Sunil Kumar KH Ekhtiari S Khanduja V


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1135 - 1139
1 Nov 2023
Young SW Chen W Clarke HD Spangehl MJ

Prophylactic antibiotics are important in reducing the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total knee arthroplasty. Their effectiveness depends on the choice of antibiotic and the optimum timing of their administration, to ensure adequate tissue concentrations. Cephalosporins are typically used, but an increasing number of resistant organisms are causing PJI, leading to the additional use of vancomycin. There are difficulties, however, with the systemic administration of vancomycin including its optimal timing, due to the need for prolonged administration, and potential adverse reactions. Intraosseous regional administration distal to a tourniquet is an alternative and attractive mode of delivery due to the ease of obtaining intraosseous access. Many authors have reported the effectiveness of intraosseous prophylaxis in achieving higher concentrations of antibiotic in the tissues compared with intravenous administration, providing equal or enhanced prophylaxis while minimizing adverse effects. This annotation describes the technique of intraosseous administration of antibiotics and summarizes the relevant clinical literature to date.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(11):1135–1139.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1033 - 1037
1 Oct 2023
Mancino F Gabr A Plastow R Haddad FS

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is frequently injured in elite athletes, with females up to eight times more likely to suffer an ACL tear than males. Biomechanical and hormonal factors have been thoroughly investigated; however, there remain unknown factors that need investigation. The mechanism of injury differs between males and females, and anatomical differences contribute significantly to the increased risk in females. Hormonal factors, both endogenous and exogenous, play a role in ACL laxity and may modify the risk of injury. However, data are still limited, and research involving oral contraceptives is potentially associated with methodological and ethical problems. Such characteristics can also influence the outcome after ACL reconstruction, with higher failure rates in females linked to a smaller diameter of the graft, especially in athletes aged < 21 years. The addition of a lateral extra-articular tenodesis can improve the outcomes after ACL reconstruction and reduce the risk of failure, and it should be routinely considered in young elite athletes. Sex-specific environmental differences can also contribute to the increased risk of injury, with more limited access to and availablility of advanced training facilities for female athletes. In addition, football kits are designed for male players, and increased attention should be focused on improving the quality of pitches, as female leagues usually play the day after male leagues. The kit, including boots, the length of studs, and the footballs themselves, should be tailored to the needs and body shapes of female athletes. Specific physiotherapy programmes and training protocols have yielded remarkable results in reducing the risk of injury, and these should be extended to school-age athletes. Finally, psychological factors should not be overlooked, with females’ greater fear of re-injury and lack of confidence in their knee compromising their return to sport after ACL injury. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors should be recognized and addressed to optimize the training programmes which are designed to prevent injury, and improve our understanding of these injuries.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(10):1033–1037.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 8 | Pages 843 - 849
1 Aug 2023
Grandhi TSP Fontalis A Raj RD Kim WJ Giebaly DE Haddad FS

Telehealth has the potential to change the way we approach patient care. From virtual consenting to reducing carbon emissions, costs, and waiting times, it is a powerful tool in our clinical armamentarium. There is mounting evidence that remote diagnostic evaluation and decision-making have reached an acceptable level of accuracy and can safely be adopted in orthopaedic surgery. Furthermore, patients’ and surgeons’ satisfaction with virtual appointments are comparable to in-person consultations. Challenges to the widespread use of telehealth should, however, be acknowledged and include the cost of installation, training, maintenance, and accessibility. It is also vital that clinicians are conscious of the medicolegal and ethical considerations surrounding the medium and adhere strictly to the relevant data protection legislation and storage framework. It remains to be seen how organizations harness the full spectrum of the technology to facilitate effective patient care.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(8):843–849.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 8 | Pages 839 - 842
1 Aug 2023
Jenkins PJ Duckworth AD

Shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA) is a prolonged episode of shoulder dysfunction that commences within 24 to 48 hours of a vaccination. Symptoms include a combination of shoulder pain, stiffness, and weakness. There has been a recent rapid increase in reported cases of SIRVA within the literature, particularly in adults, and is likely related to the mass vaccination programmes associated with COVID-19 and influenza. The pathophysiology is not certain, but placement of the vaccination in the subdeltoid bursa or other pericapsular tissue has been suggested to result in an inflammatory capsular process. It has been hypothesized that this is associated with a vaccine injection site that is “too high” and predisposes to the development of SIRVA. Nerve conduction studies are routinely normal, but further imaging can reveal deep-deltoid collections, rotator cuff tendinopathy and tears, or subacromial subdeltoid bursitis. However, all of these are common findings within a general asymptomatic population. Medicolegal claims in the UK, based on an incorrect injection site, are unlikely to meet the legal threshold to determine liability.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(8):839–842.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 7 | Pages 729 - 734
1 Jul 2023
Borghi A Gronchi A

Desmoid tumours are a rare fibroblastic proliferation of monoclonal origin, arising in deep soft-tissues. Histologically, they are characterized by locally aggressive behaviour and an inability to metastasize, and clinically by a heterogeneous and unpredictable course. Desmoid tumours can occur in any anatomical site, but commonly arise in the limbs. Despite their benign nature, they can be extremely disabling and sometimes life-threatening, causing severe pain and functional limitations. Their surgical management is complex and challenging, due to uncertainties surrounding the biological and clinical behaviour, rarity, and limited available literature. Resection has been the first-line approach for patients with a desmoid tumour but, during the last few decades, a shift towards a more conservative approach has occurred, with an initial ‘wait and see’ policy. Many medical and regional forms of treatment are also available for the management of this condition, and others have recently emerged with promising results. However, many areas of controversy remain, and further studies and global collaboration are needed to obtain prospective and randomized data, in order to develop an appropriate shared stepwise approach.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(7):729–734.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 7 | Pages 719 - 722
1 Jul 2023
Costa ML Brealey SD Perry DC

Musculoskeletal diseases are having a growing impact worldwide. It is therefore crucial to have an evidence base to most effectively and efficiently implement future health services across different healthcare systems. International trials are an opportunity to address these challenges and have many potential benefits. They are, however, complex to set up and deliver, which may impact on the efficient and timely delivery of a project. There are a number of models of how international trials are currently being delivered across a range of orthopaedic patient populations, which are discussed here. The examples given highlight that the key to overcoming these challenges is the development of trusted and equal partnerships with collaborators in each country. International trials have the potential to address a global burden of disease, and in turn optimize the benefit to patients in the collaborating countries and those with similar health services and care systems.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(7):719–722.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 7 | Pages 723 - 728
1 Jul 2023
Raj RD Fontalis A Grandhi TSP Kim WJ Gabr A Haddad FS

There is a disparity in sport-related injuries between sexes, with females sustaining non-contact musculoskeletal injuries at a higher rate. Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are between two and eight times more common than in males, and females also have a higher incidence of ankle sprains, patellofemoral pain, and bone stress injuries. The sequelae of such injuries can be devastating to an athlete, resulting in time out of sport, surgery, and the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to identify the causes of this disparity and introduce prevention programmes to reduce the incidence of these injuries. A natural difference reflects the effect of reproductive hormones in females, which have receptors in certain musculoskeletal tissues. Relaxin increases ligamentous laxity. Oestrogen decreases the synthesis of collagen and progesterone does the opposite. Insufficient diet and intensive training can lead to menstrual irregularities, which are common in female athletes and result in injury, whereas oral contraception may have a protective effect against certain injuries. It is important for coaches, physiotherapists, nutritionists, doctors, and athletes to be aware of these issues and to implement preventive measures. This annotation explores the relationship between the menstrual cycle and orthopaedic sports injuries in pre-menopausal females, and proposes recommendations to mitigate the risk of sustaining these injuries.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(7):723–728.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 6 | Pages 593 - 601
1 Jun 2023
Scott CEH Yapp LZ Howard T Patton JT Moran M

Periprosthetic femoral fractures are increasing in incidence, and typically occur in frail elderly patients. They are similar to pathological fractures in many ways. The aims of treatment are the same, including 'getting it right first time' with a single operation, which allows immediate unrestricted weightbearing, with a low risk of complications, and one that avoids the creation of stress risers locally that may predispose to further peri-implant fracture. The surgical approach to these fractures, the associated soft-tissue handling, and exposure of the fracture are key elements in minimizing the high rate of complications. This annotation describes the approaches to the femur that can be used to facilitate the surgical management of peri- and interprosthetic fractures of the femur at all levels using either modern methods of fixation or revision arthroplasty.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(6):593–601.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 481 - 486
1 May 2023
Scott CEH Jain S Moran M Haddad FS

The Unified Classification System (UCS), or Vancouver system, is a validated and widely used classification system to guide the management of periprosthetic femoral fractures. It suggests that well-fixed stems (type B1) can be treated with fixation but that loose stems (types B2 and B3) should be revised. Determining whether a stem is loose can be difficult and some authors have questioned how to apply this classification system to polished taper slip stems which are, by definition, loose within their cement mantle. Recent evidence has challenged the common perception that revision surgery is preferable to fixation surgery for UCS-B periprosthetic fractures around cemented polished taper slip stems. Indications for fixation include an anatomically reducible fracture and cement mantle, a well-fixed femoral bone-cement interface, and a well-functioning acetabular component. However, not all type B fractures can or should be managed with fixation due to the risk of early failure. This annotation details specific fracture patterns that should not be managed with fixation alone.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(5):481–486.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 474 - 480
1 May 2023
Inclan PM Brophy RH

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft failure from rupture, attenuation, or malposition may cause recurrent subjective instability and objective laxity, and occurs in 3% to 22% of ACL reconstruction (ACLr) procedures. Revision ACLr is often indicated to restore knee stability, improve knee function, and facilitate return to cutting and pivoting activities. Prior to reconstruction, a thorough clinical and diagnostic evaluation is required to identify factors that may have predisposed an individual to recurrent ACL injury, appreciate concurrent intra-articular pathology, and select the optimal graft for revision reconstruction. Single-stage revision can be successful, although a staged approach may be used when optimal tunnel placement is not possible due to the position and/or widening of previous tunnels. Revision ACLr often involves concomitant procedures such as meniscal/chondral treatment, lateral extra-articular augmentation, and/or osteotomy. Although revision ACLr reliably restores knee stability and function, clinical outcomes and reoperation rates are worse than for primary ACLr.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(5):474–480.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 471 - 473
1 May 2023
Peterson N Perry DC

Salter-Harris II fractures of the distal tibia affect children frequently, and when they are displaced present a treatment dilemma. Treatment primarily aims to restore alignment and prevent premature physeal closure, as this can lead to angular deformity, limb length difference, or both. Current literature is of poor methodological quality and is contradictory as to whether conservative or surgical management is superior in avoiding complications and adverse outcomes. A state of clinical equipoise exists regarding whether displaced distal tibial Salter-Harris II fractures in children should be treated with surgery to achieve anatomical reduction, or whether cast treatment alone will lead to a satisfactory outcome. Systematic review and meta-analysis has concluded that high-quality prospective multicentre research is needed to answer this question. The Outcomes of Displaced Distal tibial fractures: Surgery Or Casts in KidS (ODD SOCKS) trial, funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research, aims to provide this high-quality research in order to answer this question, which has been identified as a top-five research priority by the British Society for Children’s Orthopaedic Surgery.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(5):471–473.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 4 | Pages 347 - 355
15 Mar 2023
Birch NC Cheung JPY Takenaka S El Masri WS

Initial treatment of traumatic spinal cord injury remains as controversial in 2023 as it was in the early 19th century, when Sir Astley Cooper and Sir Charles Bell debated the merits or otherwise of surgery to relieve cord compression. There has been a lack of high-class evidence for early surgery, despite which expeditious intervention has become the surgical norm. This evidence deficit has been progressively addressed in the last decade and more modern statistical methods have been used to clarify some of the issues, which is demonstrated by the results of the SCI-POEM trial. However, there has never been a properly conducted trial of surgery versus active conservative care. As a result, it is still not known whether early surgery or active physiological management of the unstable injured spinal cord offers the better chance for recovery. Surgeons who care for patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries in the acute setting should be aware of the arguments on all sides of the debate, a summary of which this annotation presents.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(4):347–355.