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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 4 | Pages 277 - 285
8 Apr 2024
Khetan V Baxter I Hampton M Spencer A Anderson A

Aims

The mean age of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has reduced with time. Younger patients have increased expectations following TKA. Aseptic loosening of the tibial component is the most common cause of failure of TKA in the UK. Interest in cementless TKA has re-emerged due to its encouraging results in the younger patient population. We review a large series of tantalum trabecular metal cementless implants in patients who are at the highest risk of revision surgery.

Methods

A total of 454 consecutive patients who underwent cementless TKA between August 2004 and December 2021 were reviewed. The mean follow-up was ten years. Plain radiographs were analyzed for radiolucent lines. Patients who underwent revision TKA were recorded, and the cause for revision was determined. Data from the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Island, the Isle of Man and the States of Guernsey (NJR) were compared with our series.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 13, Issue 4 | Pages 149 - 156
4 Apr 2024
Rajamäki A Lehtovirta L Niemeläinen M Reito A Parkkinen J Peräniemi S Vepsäläinen J Eskelinen A

Aims

Metal particles detached from metal-on-metal hip prostheses (MoM-THA) have been shown to cause inflammation and destruction of tissues. To further explore this, we investigated the histopathology (aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) score) and metal concentrations of the periprosthetic tissues obtained from patients who underwent revision knee arthroplasty. We also aimed to investigate whether accumulated metal debris was associated with ALVAL-type reactions in the synovium.

Methods

Periprosthetic metal concentrations in the synovia and histopathological samples were analyzed from 230 patients from our institution from October 2016 to December 2019. An ordinal regression model was calculated to investigate the effect of the accumulated metals on the histopathological reaction of the synovia.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 3 | Pages 202 - 209
11 Mar 2024
Lewin AM Cashman K Harries D Ackerman IN Naylor JM Harris IA

Aims

The aim of this study was to describe and compare joint-specific and generic health-related quality of life outcomes of the first versus second knee in patients undergoing staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty (BTKA) for osteoarthritis.

Methods

This retrospective cohort study used Australian national arthroplasty registry data from January 2013 to January 2021 to identify participants who underwent elective staged BTKA with six to 24 months between procedures. The primary outcome was Oxford Knee Score (OKS) at six months postoperatively for the first TKA compared to the second TKA, adjusted for age and sex. Secondary outcomes compared six-month EuroQol five-dimension five-level (EQ-5D-5L) domain scores, EQ-5D index scores, and the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) between knees at six months postoperatively.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 3 | Pages 249 - 255
1 Mar 2024
Inclan PM Brophy RH Saccone NL Ma Y Pham V Yanik EL

Aims

The purpose of this study is to determine an individual’s age-specific prevalence of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after cruciate ligament surgery, and to identify clinical and genetic risk factors associated with undergoing TKA.

Methods

This study was a retrospective case-control study using the UK Biobank to identify individuals reporting a history of cruciate ligament surgery. Data from verbal history and procedural codes recorded through the NHS were used to identify instances of TKA. Patient clinical and genetic data were used to identify risk factors for progression from cruciate ligament surgery to TKA. Individuals without a history of cruciate ligament reconstruction were used for comparison.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 3 | Pages 240 - 248
1 Mar 2024
Kim SE Kwak J Ro DH Lee MC Han H

Aims

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether achieving medial joint opening, as measured by the change in the joint line convergence angle (∆JLCA), is a better predictor of clinical outcomes after high tibial osteotomy (HTO) compared with the mechanical axis deviation, and to find individualized targets for the redistribution of load that reflect bony alignment, joint laxity, and surgical technique.

Methods

This retrospective study analyzed 121 knees in 101 patients. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were collected preoperatively and one year postoperatively, and were analyzed according to the surgical technique (opening or closing wedge), postoperative mechanical axis deviation (deviations above and below 10% from the target), and achievement of medial joint opening (∆JLCA > 1°). Radiological parameters, including JLCA, mechanical axis deviation, and the difference in JLCA between preoperative standing and supine radiographs (JLCAPD), an indicator of medial soft-tissue laxity, were measured. Cut-off points for parameters related to achieving medial joint opening were calculated from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 3 | Pages 232 - 239
1 Mar 2024
Osmani HT Nicolaou N Anand S Gower J Metcalfe A McDonnell S

Aims

To identify unanswered questions about the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation and delivery of care of first-time soft-tissue knee injuries (ligament injuries, patella dislocations, meniscal injuries, and articular cartilage) in children (aged 12 years and older) and adults.

Methods

The James Lind Alliance (JLA) methodology for Priority Setting Partnerships was followed. An initial survey invited patients and healthcare professionals from the UK to submit any uncertainties regarding soft-tissue knee injury prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation and delivery of care. Over 1,000 questions were received. From these, 74 questions (identifying common concerns) were formulated and checked against the best available evidence. An interim survey was then conducted and 27 questions were taken forward to the final workshop, held in January 2023, where they were discussed, ranked, and scored in multiple rounds of prioritization. This was conducted by healthcare professionals, patients, and carers.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 109 - 116
8 Feb 2024
Corban LE van de Graaf VA Chen DB Wood JA Diwan AD MacDessi SJ

Aims

While mechanical alignment (MA) is the traditional technique in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), its potential for altering constitutional alignment remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify unintentional changes to constitutional coronal alignment and joint line obliquity (JLO) resulting from MA.

Methods

A retrospective cohort study was undertaken of 700 primary MA TKAs (643 patients) performed between 2014 and 2017. Lateral distal femoral and medial proximal tibial angles were measured pre- and postoperatively to calculate the arithmetic hip-knee-ankle angle (aHKA), JLO, and Coronal Plane Alignment of the Knee (CPAK) phenotypes. The primary outcome was the magnitude and direction of aHKA, JLO, and CPAK alterations.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 101 - 108
6 Feb 2024
Jang SJ Kunze KN Casey JC Steele JR Mayman DJ Jerabek SA Sculco PK Vigdorchik JM

Aims

Distal femoral resection in conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA) utilizes an intramedullary guide to determine coronal alignment, commonly planned for 5° of valgus. However, a standard 5° resection angle may contribute to malalignment in patients with variability in the femoral anatomical and mechanical axis angle. The purpose of the study was to leverage deep learning (DL) to measure the femoral mechanical-anatomical axis angle (FMAA) in a heterogeneous cohort.

Methods

Patients with full-limb radiographs from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were included. A DL workflow was created to measure the FMAA and validated against human measurements. To reflect potential intramedullary guide placement during manual TKA, two different FMAAs were calculated either using a line approximating the entire diaphyseal shaft, and a line connecting the apex of the femoral intercondylar sulcus to the centre of the diaphysis. The proportion of FMAAs outside a range of 5.0° (SD 2.0°) was calculated for both definitions, and FMAA was compared using univariate analyses across sex, BMI, knee alignment, and femur length.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 13, Issue 2 | Pages 66 - 82
5 Feb 2024
Zhao D Zeng L Liang G Luo M Pan J Dou Y Lin F Huang H Yang W Liu J

Aims

This study aimed to explore the biological and clinical importance of dysregulated key genes in osteoarthritis (OA) patients at the cartilage level to find potential biomarkers and targets for diagnosing and treating OA.

Methods

Six sets of gene expression profiles were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differential expression analysis, weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), and multiple machine-learning algorithms were used to screen crucial genes in osteoarthritic cartilage, and genome enrichment and functional annotation analyses were used to decipher the related categories of gene function. Single-sample gene set enrichment analysis was performed to analyze immune cell infiltration. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship among the hub genes and immune cells, as well as markers related to articular cartilage degradation and bone mineralization.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 2 | Pages 158 - 165
1 Feb 2024
Nasser AAHH Sidhu M Prakash R Mahmood A

Aims

Periprosthetic fractures (PPFs) around the knee are challenging injuries. This study aims to describe the characteristics of knee PPFs and the impact of patient demographics, fracture types, and management modalities on in-hospital mortality.

Methods

Using a multicentre study design, independent of registry data, we included adult patients sustaining a PPF around a knee arthroplasty between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2019. Univariate, then multivariable, logistic regression analyses were performed to study the impact of patient, fracture, and treatment on mortality.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 1 | Pages 20 - 27
17 Jan 2024
Turgeon TR Vasarhelyi E Howard J Teeter M Righolt CH Gascoyne T Bohm E

Aims

A novel enhanced cement fixation (EF) tibial implant with deeper cement pockets and a more roughened bonding surface was released to market for an existing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) system.This randomized controlled trial assessed fixation of the both the EF (ATTUNE S+) and standard (Std; ATTUNE S) using radiostereometric analysis.

Methods

Overall, 50 subjects were randomized (21 EF-TKA and 23 Std-TKA in the final analysis), and had follow-up visits at six weeks, and six, 12, and 24 months to assess migration of the tibial component. Low viscosity bone cement with tobramycin was used in a standardized fashion for all subjects. Patient-reported outcome measure data was captured at preoperative and all postoperative visits.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 38 - 45
1 Jan 2024
Leal J Mirza B Davies L Fletcher H Stokes J Cook JA Price A Beard DJ

Aims

The aim of this study was to estimate the incremental use of resources, costs, and quality of life outcomes associated with surgical reconstruction compared to rehabilitation for long-standing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the NHS, and to estimate its cost-effectiveness.

Methods

A total of 316 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to either surgical reconstruction or rehabilitation (physiotherapy but with subsequent reconstruction permitted if instability persisted after treatment). Healthcare resource use and health-related quality of life data (EuroQol five-dimension five-level health questionnaire) were collected in the trial at six, 12, and 18 months using self-reported questionnaires and medical records. Using intention-to-treat analysis, differences in costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) between treatment arms were estimated adjusting for baseline differences and following multiple imputation of missing data. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated as the difference in costs divided by the difference in QALYs between reconstruction and rehabilitation.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 28 - 37
1 Jan 2024
Gupta S Sadczuk D Riddoch FI Oliver WM Davidson E White TO Keating JF Scott CEH

Aims

This study aims to determine the rate of and risk factors for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after operative management of tibial plateau fractures (TPFs) in older adults.

Methods

This is a retrospective cohort study of 182 displaced TPFs in 180 patients aged ≥ 60 years, over a 12-year period with a minimum follow-up of one year. The mean age was 70.7 years (SD 7.7; 60 to 89), and 139/180 patients (77.2%) were female. Radiological assessment consisted of fracture classification; pre-existing knee osteoarthritis (OA); reduction quality; loss of reduction; and post-traumatic OA. Fracture depression was measured on CT, and the volume of defect estimated as half an oblate spheroid. Operative management, complications, reoperations, and mortality were recorded.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 12 | Pages 948 - 956
15 Dec 2023
Vella-Baldacchino M Webb J Selvarajah B Chatha S Davies A Cobb JP Liddle AD

Aims

With up to 40% of patients having patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PFJ OA), the two arthroplasty options are to replace solely the patellofemoral joint via patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA), or the entire knee via total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to assess postoperative success of second-generation PFAs compared to TKAs for patients treated for PFJ OA using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and domains deemed important by patients following a patient and public involvement meeting.

Methods

MEDLINE, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL, and EBSCO were searched from inception to January 2022. Any study addressing surgical treatment of primary patellofemoral joint OA using second generation PFA and TKA in patients aged above 18 years with follow-up data of 30 days were included. Studies relating to OA secondary to trauma were excluded. ROB-2 and ROBINS-I bias tools were used.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 12 | Pages 923 - 931
4 Dec 2023
Mikkelsen M Rasmussen LE Price A Pedersen AB Gromov K Troelsen A

Aims

The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of revision indications for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and any change to this pattern for UKA patients over the last 20 years, and to investigate potential associations to changes in surgical practice over time.

Methods

All primary knee arthroplasty surgeries performed due to primary osteoarthritis and their revisions reported to the Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register from 1997 to 2017 were included. Complex surgeries were excluded. The data was linked to the National Patient Register and the Civil Registration System for comorbidity, mortality, and emigration status. TKAs were propensity score matched 4:1 to UKAs. Revision risks were compared using competing risk Cox proportional hazard regression with a shared γ frailty component.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1279 - 1285
1 Dec 2023
Baker JF Nadar AC Jouflas AC Smith LS Sachdeva S Yakkanti MR Malkani AL

Aims

The use of cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA) components has increased during the past decade. The initial design of cementless metal-backed patellar components had shown high failure rates due to many factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of a second-generation cementless, metal-backed patellar component of a modern design.

Methods

This was a retrospective review of 707 primary TKAs in 590 patients from a single institution, using a cementless, metal-backed patellar component with a mean follow-up of 6.9 years (2 to 12). A total of 409 TKAs were performed in 338 females and 298 TKAs in 252 males. The mean age of the patients was 63 years (34 to 87) and their mean BMI was 34.3 kg/m2 (18.8 to 64.5). The patients were chosen to undergo a cementless procedure based on age and preoperative radiological and intraoperative bone quality. Outcome was assessed using the Knee Society knee and function scores and range of motion (ROM), complications, and revisions.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1265 - 1270
1 Dec 2023
Hurley ET Sherman SL Chahla J Gursoy S Alaia MJ Tanaka MJ Pace JL Jazrawi LM

Aims

The aim of this study was to establish consensus statements on medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction, anteromedialization tibial tubercle osteotomy, trochleoplasty, and rehabilitation and return to sporting activity in patients with patellar instability, using the modified Delphi process.

Methods

This was the second part of a study dealing with these aspects of management in these patients. As in part I, a total of 60 surgeons from 11 countries contributed to the development of consensus statements based on their expertise in this area. They were assigned to one of seven working groups defined by subtopics of interest. Consensus was defined as achieving between 80% and 89% agreement, strong consensus was defined as between 90% and 99% agreement, and 100% agreement was considered unanimous.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1259 - 1264
1 Dec 2023
Hurley ET Hughes AJ Savage-Elliott I Dejour D Campbell KA Mulcahey MK Wittstein JR Jazrawi LM

Aims

The aim of this study was to establish consensus statements on the diagnosis, nonoperative management, and indications, if any, for medial patellofemoral complex (MPFC) repair in patients with patellar instability, using the modified Delphi approach.

Methods

A total of 60 surgeons from 11 countries were invited to develop consensus statements based on their expertise in this area. They were assigned to one of seven working groups defined by subtopics of interest within patellar instability. Consensus was defined as achieving between 80% and 89% agreement, strong consensus was defined as between 90% and 99% agreement, and 100% agreement was considered to be unanimous.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1286 - 1293
1 Dec 2023
Yang H Cheon J Jung D Seon J

Aims

Fungal periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare, but their diagnosis and treatment are highly challenging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of patients with fungal PJIs treated with two-stage exchange knee arthroplasty combined with prolonged antifungal therapy.

Methods

We reviewed our institutional joint arthroplasty database and identified 41 patients diagnosed with fungal PJIs and treated with two-stage exchange arthroplasty after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between January 2001 and December 2020, and compared them with those who had non-fungal PJIs during the same period. After propensity score matching based on age, sex, BMI, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, 40 patients in each group were successfully matched. The surgical and antimicrobial treatment, patient demographic and clinical characteristics, recurrent infections, survival rates, and relevant risk factors that affected joint survivorship were analyzed. We defined treatment success as a well-functioning arthroplasty without any signs of a PJI, and without antimicrobial suppression, at a minimum follow-up of two years from the time of reimplantation.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 12 | Pages 914 - 922
1 Dec 2023
Sang W Qiu H Xu Y Pan Y Ma J Zhu L

Aims

Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is the preferred treatment for anterior medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) owing to the rapid postoperative recovery. However, the risk factors for UKA failure remain controversial.

Methods

The clinical data of Oxford mobile-bearing UKAs performed between 2011 and 2017 with a minimum follow-up of five years were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, surgical, and follow-up data were collected. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the risk factors that contribute to UKA failure. Kaplan-Meier survival was used to compare the effect of the prosthesis position on UKA survival.