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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1244 - 1251
1 Dec 2023
Plastow R Raj RD Fontalis A Haddad FS

Injuries to the quadriceps muscle group are common in athletes performing high-speed running and kicking sports. The complex anatomy of the rectus femoris puts it at greatest risk of injury. There is variability in prognosis in the literature, with reinjury rates as high as 67% in the severe graded proximal tear. Studies have highlighted that athletes can reinjure after nonoperative management, and some benefit may be derived from surgical repair to restore function and return to sport (RTS). This injury is potentially career-threatening in the elite-level athlete, and we aim to highlight the key recent literature on interventions to restore strength and function to allow early RTS while reducing the risk of injury recurrence. This article reviews the optimal diagnostic strategies and classification of quadriceps injuries. We highlight the unique anatomy of each injury on MRI and the outcomes of both nonoperative and operative treatment, providing an evidence-based management framework for athletes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(12):1244–1251.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 8 | Pages 915 - 921
1 Aug 2022
Marya S Tambe AD Millner PA Tsirikos AI

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), defined by an age at presentation of 11 to 18 years, has a prevalence of 0.47% and accounts for approximately 90% of all cases of idiopathic scoliosis. Despite decades of research, the exact aetiology of AIS remains unknown. It is becoming evident that it is the result of a complex interplay of genetic, internal, and environmental factors. It has been hypothesized that genetic variants act as the initial trigger that allow epigenetic factors to propagate AIS, which could also explain the wide phenotypic variation in the presentation of the disorder. A better understanding of the underlying aetiological mechanisms could help to establish the diagnosis earlier and allow a more accurate prediction of deformity progression. This, in turn, would prompt imaging and therapeutic intervention at the appropriate time, thereby achieving the best clinical outcome for this group of patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):915–921.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1189 - 1196
1 Jul 2021
Murray IR Makaram NS Rodeo SA Safran MR Sherman SL McAdams TR Murray AD Haddad FS Abrams GD


The aim of this study was to prepare a scoping review to investigate the use of biologic therapies in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in professional and Olympic athletes.


Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension for scoping reviews and Arksey and O’Malley frameworks were followed. A three-step search strategy identified relevant published primary and secondary studies, as well as grey literature. The identified studies were screened with criteria for inclusion comprising clinical studies evaluating the use of biologic therapies in professional and Olympic athletes, systematic reviews, consensus statements, and conference proceedings. Data were extracted using a standardized tool to form a descriptive analysis and a thematic summary.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 3 | Pages 423 - 429
1 Mar 2021
Diez-Escudero A Hailer NP

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most dreaded complications after arthroplasty surgery; thus numerous approaches have been undertaken to equip metal surfaces with antibacterial properties. Due to its antimicrobial effects, silver is a promising coating for metallic surfaces, and several types of silver-coated arthroplasty implants are in clinical use today. However, silver can also exert toxic effects on eukaryotic cells both in the immediate vicinity of the coated implants and systemically. In most clinically-used implants, silver coatings are applied on bulk components that are not in direct contact with bone, such as in partial or total long bone arthroplasties used in tumour or complex revision surgery. These implants differ considerably in the coating method, total silver content, and silver release rates. Safety issues, such as the occurrence of argyria, have been a cause for concern, and the efficacy of silver coatings in terms of preventing PJI is also controversial. The application of silver coatings is uncommon on parts of implants intended for cementless fixation in host bone, but this option might be highly desirable since the modification of implant surfaces in order to improve osteoconductivity can also increase bacterial adhesion. Therefore, an optimal silver content that inhibits bacterial colonization while maintaining osteoconductivity is crucial if silver were to be applied as a coating on parts intended for bone contact. This review summarizes the different methods used to apply silver coatings to arthroplasty components, with a focus on the amount and duration of silver release from the different coatings; the available experience with silver-coated implants that are in clinical use today; and future strategies to balance the effects of silver on bacteria and eukaryotic cells, and to develop silver-coated titanium components suitable for bone ingrowth.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(3):423–429.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 7 - 9
1 Nov 2014
Berend ME Berend KR Lombardi Jr AV

Over the past 30 years there have been many improvements in implant fixation, correction of deformity, improved polyethylene wear, and survival after knee replacement. The work over the last decade has focused on less invasive surgical techniques, multimodal pain management protocols, more rapid functional recovery and reduced length of stay, aiming to minimise the side effects of treatment while maintaining function and implant durability. When combined and standardised these pre-, intra- and post-operative factors have now facilitated outpatient knee replacement procedures for unicompartmental replacement, patella femoral arthroplasty and total knee replacement (TKR).

We have found liposomal bupivacaine, with potential for longer therapeutic action, to be a helpful adjunct and describe our current pain management program. The next step in our multimodal program is to improve the duration of patient satisfaction and reduce cost and length of stay after TKR.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B(11 Suppl A):7–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 3 - 6
1 Nov 2013
Wassef AJ Schmalzried TP

A modular femoral head–neck junction has practical advantages in total hip replacement. Taper fretting and corrosion have so far been an infrequent cause of revision. The role of design and manufacturing variables continues to be debated. Over the past decade several changes in technology and clinical practice might result in an increase in clinically significant taper fretting and corrosion. Those factors include an increased usage of large diameter (36 mm) heads, reduced femoral neck and taper dimensions, greater variability in taper assembly with smaller incision surgery, and higher taper stresses due to increased patient weight and/or physical activity. Additional studies are needed to determine the role of taper assembly compared with design, manufacturing and other implant variables.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B, Supple A:3–6.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 3 - 7
1 Nov 2012
Barrack RL

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains an immediate threat to patients following total hip and knee replacement. While there is a strong consensus that steps should be taken to minimise the risk to patients by utilising some forms of prophylaxis for the vast majority of patients, the methods utilised have been extremely variable. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been published by various professional organisations for over 25 years to provide recommendations to standardise VTE prophylaxis. Historically, these recommendations have varied widely depending in underlying assumptions, goals, and methodology of the various groups. This effort has previously been exemplified by the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). The former group of medical specialists targeted minimising venographically proven deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (the vast majority of which are asymptomatic) as their primary goal prior to 2012. The latter group of surgeons targeted minimising symptomatic VTE. As a result prior to 2012, the recommendations of the two groups were widely divergent. In the past year, both groups have reassessed the current literature with the principal goals of minimising symptomatic VTE events and bleeding complications. As a result, for the first time the CPGs of these two major subspecialty organisations are in close agreement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 11 - 13
1 Nov 2012
Cuckler JM

Hip implant retrieval analysis is the most important source of insight into the performance of new materials and designs of hip arthroplasties. Even the most rigorous in vitro testing will not accurately simulate the behavior of implant materials and new designs of prosthetic arthroplasties. Retrieval analysis has revealed such factors as the effects of gamma-in-air sterilisation of polyethylene, fatigue failure mechanisms of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement, fretting corrosion of Morse taper junctions, third body wear effects of both hard-on-hard and hard-on-soft bearing couples, and the effects of impingement of components on the full spectrum of bearing surfaces, none of which was predicted by pre-implantation in vitro testing of these materials and combinations. The temporal sequence of the retrieval process is approximately six years from first implantation through retrieval analysis, laboratory investigation, and publication of results, and thus, in addition to rigorous clinical evaluation, represents the true development and insight cycle for new designs and materials.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 8 - 10
1 Nov 2012
Watts CD Pagnano MW

Despite advances in contemporary hip and knee arthroplasty, blood loss continues to be an issue. Though blood transfusion has long been used to treat post-operative anemia, the associated risks are well established. The objective of this article is to present two practical and effective approaches to minimising blood loss and transfusion rates in hip and knee arthroplasty: the use of antifibrinolytic medications such as tranexamic acid and the adoption of more conservative transfusion indications.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 14 - 18
1 Nov 2012
Lombardi, Jr AV Barrack RL Berend KR Cuckler JM Jacobs JJ Mont MA Schmalzried TP

Since 1996 more than one million metal-on-metal articulations have been implanted worldwide. Adverse reactions to metal debris are escalating. Here we present an algorithmic approach to patient management. The general approach to all arthroplasty patients returning for follow-up begins with a detailed history, querying for pain, discomfort or compromise of function. Symptomatic patients should be evaluated for intra-articular and extra-articular causes of pain. In large head MoM arthroplasty, aseptic loosening may be the source of pain and is frequently difficult to diagnose. Sepsis should be ruled out as a source of pain. Plain radiographs are evaluated to rule out loosening and osteolysis, and assess component position. Laboratory evaluation commences with erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, which may be elevated. Serum metal ions should be assessed by an approved facility. Aspiration, with manual cell count and culture/sensitivity should be performed, with cloudy to creamy fluid with predominance of monocytes often indicative of failure. Imaging should include ultrasound or metal artifact reduction sequence MRI, specifically evaluating for fluid collections and/or masses about the hip. If adverse reaction to metal debris is suspected then revision to metal or ceramic-on-polyethylene is indicated and can be successful. Delay may be associated with extensive soft-tissue damage and hence poor clinical outcome.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 4 | Pages 427 - 434
1 Apr 2011
Griffin M Iqbal SA Bayat A

Failure of bone repair is a challenging problem in the management of fractures. There is a limited supply of autologous bone grafts for treating nonunions, with associated morbidity after harvesting. There is need for a better source of cells for repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold promise for healing of bone because of their capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts and their availability from a wide variety of sources. Our review aims to evaluate the available clinical evidence and recent progress in strategies which attempt to use autologous and heterologous MSCs in clinical practice, including genetically-modified MSCs and those grown on scaffolds. We have compared various procedures for isolating and expanding a sufficient number of MSCs for use in a clinical setting.

There are now a number of clinical studies which have shown that implantation of MSCs is an effective, safe and durable method for aiding the repair and regeneration of bone.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 3 | Pages 285 - 292
1 Mar 2011
Cash DJW Jones JWM

This paper describes the presence of tenodesis effects in normal physiology and explores the uses of operative tenodesis in surgery of the upper limb.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 145 - 150
1 Feb 2011
Ng CY McQueen MM

The fracture most commonly treated by orthopaedic surgeons is that of the distal radius. However, as yet there is no consensus on what constitutes an ‘acceptable’ radiological position before or after treatment. This should be defined as the position that will predict good function in the majority of cases. In this paper we review the radiological indices that can be measured in fractures of the distal radius and try to identify potential predictors of functional outcome. In patients likely to have high functional demands, we recommend that the articular reconstruction be achieved with less than 2 mm of gap or step-off, the radius be restored to within 2 mm of its normal length, and that carpal alignment be restored. The ultimate aim of treatment is a pain-free, mobile wrist joint without functional limitation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 1 | Pages 1 - 11
1 Jan 2011
Murray IR Amin AK White TO Robinson CM

Most proximal humeral fractures are stable injuries of the ageing population, and can be successfully treated non-operatively. The management of the smaller number of more complex displaced fractures is more controversial and new fixation techniques have greatly increased the range of fractures that may benefit from surgery.

This article explores current concepts in the classification and clinical aspects of these injuries, reviewing the indications, innovations and outcomes for the most common methods of treatment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1622 - 1627
1 Dec 2010
Nathan ST Fisher BE Roberts CS

Coccydynia is a painful disorder characterised by coccygeal pain which is typically exaggerated by pressure. It remains an unsolved mystery because of the perceived unpredictability of the origin of the pain, some psychological traits that may be associated with the disorder, the presence of diverse treatment options, and varied outcomes. A more detailed classification based on the aetiology and pathoanatomy of coccydynia helps to identify patients who may benefit from conservative and surgical management.

This review focuses on the pathoanatomy, aetiology, clinical features, radiology, treatment and outcome of coccydynia.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1481 - 1488
1 Nov 2010
Guthrie HC Owens RW Bircher MD

High energy fractures of the pelvis are a challenging problem both in the immediate post-injury phase and later when definitive fixation is undertaken. No single management algorithm can be applied because of associated injuries and the wide variety of trauma systems that have evolved around the world.

Initial management is aimed at saving life and this is most likely to be achieved with an approach that seeks to identify and treat life-threatening injuries in order of priority. Early mortality after a pelvic fracture is most commonly due to major haemorrhage or catastrophic brain injury. In this article we review the role of pelvic binders, angiographic embolisation, pelvic packing, early internal fixation and blood transfusion with regard to controlling haemorrhage.

Definitive fixation seeks to prevent deformity and reduce complications. We believe this should be undertaken by specialist surgeons in a hospital resourced, equipped and staffed to manage the whole spectrum of major trauma. We describe the most common modes of internal fixation by injury type and review the factors that influence delayed mortality, adverse functional outcome, sexual dysfunction and venous thromboembolism.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1045 - 1053
1 Aug 2010
Phillips CL Silver DAT Schranz PJ Mandalia V

Many radiographic techniques have been described for measuring patellar height. They can be divided into two groups: those that relate the position of the patella to the femur (direct) and those that relate it to the tibia (indirect). This article looks at the methods that have been described, the logic behind their conception and the critical analyses that have been performed to test them.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 7 | Pages 905 - 913
1 Jul 2010
Jain AK

The dismal outcome of tuberculosis of the spine in the pre-antibiotic era has improved significantly because of the use of potent antitubercular drugs, modern diagnostic aids and advances in surgical management. MRI allows the diagnosis of a tuberculous lesion, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 88%, well before deformity develops. Neurological deficit and deformity are the worst complications of spinal tuberculosis. Patients treated conservatively show an increase in deformity of about 15°. In children, a kyphosis continues to increase with growth even after the lesion has healed. Tuberculosis of the spine is a medical disease which is not primarily treated surgically, but operation is required to prevent and treat the complications. Panvertebral lesions, therapeutically refractory disease, severe kyphosis, a developing neurological deficit, lack of improvement or deterioration are indications for surgery. Patients who present with a kyphosis of 60° or more, or one which is likely to progress, require anterior decompression, posterior shortening, posterior instrumented stabilisation and anterior and posterior bone grafting in the active stage of the disease. Late-onset paraplegia is best prevented rather than treated. The awareness and suspicion of an atypical presentation of spinal tuberculosis should be high in order to obtain a good outcome. Therapeutically refractory cases of tuberculosis of the spine are increasing in association with the presence of HIV and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 6 | Pages 751 - 759
1 Jun 2010
Tsirikos AI Garrido EG

A review of the current literature shows that there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents. Most of the views and recommendations provided in various reports are weakly supported by evidence. There is a limited amount of information about the natural history of the condition, making it difficult to compare the effectiveness of various conservative and operative treatments. This systematic review summarises the current knowledge on spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis and attempts to present a rational approach to the evaluation and management of this condition in children and adolescents.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 4 | Pages 469 - 476
1 Apr 2010
Shimmin AJ Walter WL Esposito C

The survivorship of contemporary resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip using metal-on-metal bearings is better than that of first generation designs, but short-term failures still occur. The most common reasons for failure are fracture of the femoral neck, loosening of the component, osteonecrosis of the femoral head, reaction to metal debris and malpositioning of the component. In 2008 the Australian National Joint Registry reported an inverse relationship between the size of the head component and the risk of revision in resurfacing hip arthroplasty. Hips with a femoral component size of ≤ 44 mm have a fivefold increased risk of revision than those with femoral components of ≥ 55 mm irrespective of gender. We have reviewed the literature to explore this observation and to identify possible reasons including the design of the implant, loading of the femoral neck, the orientation of the component, the production of wear debris and the effects of metal ions, penetration of cement and vascularity of the femoral head. Our conclusion is that although multifactorial, the most important contributors to failure in resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip are likely to be the design and geometry of the component and the orientation of the acetabular component.