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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 4 | Pages 365 - 371
1 Apr 2024
Ledford CK Shirley MB Spangehl MJ Berry DJ Abdel MP

Aims

Breast cancer survivors have known risk factors that might influence the results of total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study evaluated clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer history after primary THA and TKA.

Methods

Our total joint registry identified patients with breast cancer history undergoing primary THA (n = 423) and TKA (n = 540). Patients were matched 1:1 based upon age, sex, BMI, procedure (hip or knee), and surgical year to non-breast cancer controls. Mortality, implant survival, and complications were assessed via Kaplan-Meier methods. Clinical outcomes were evaluated via Harris Hip Scores (HHSs) or Knee Society Scores (KSSs). Mean follow-up was six years (2 to 15).


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 4 | Pages 372 - 379
1 Apr 2024
Straub J Staats K Vertesich K Kowalscheck L Windhager R Böhler C

Aims

Histology is widely used for diagnosis of persistent infection during reimplantation in two-stage revision hip and knee arthroplasty, although data on its utility remain scarce. Therefore, this study aims to assess the predictive value of permanent sections at reimplantation in relation to reinfection risk, and to compare results of permanent and frozen sections.

Methods

We retrospectively collected data from 226 patients (90 hips, 136 knees) with periprosthetic joint infection who underwent two-stage revision between August 2011 and September 2021, with a minimum follow-up of one year. Histology was assessed via the SLIM classification. First, we analyzed whether patients with positive permanent sections at reimplantation had higher reinfection rates than patients with negative histology. Further, we compared permanent and frozen section results, and assessed the influence of anatomical regions (knee versus hip), low- versus high-grade infections, as well as first revision versus multiple prior revisions on the histological result at reimplantation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), chi-squared tests, and Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 139 - 146
15 Feb 2024
Wright BM Bodnar MS Moore AD Maseda MC Kucharik MP Diaz CC Schmidt CM Mir HR

Aims

While internet search engines have been the primary information source for patients’ questions, artificial intelligence large language models like ChatGPT are trending towards becoming the new primary source. The purpose of this study was to determine if ChatGPT can answer patient questions about total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) with consistent accuracy, comprehensiveness, and easy readability.

Methods

We posed the 20 most Google-searched questions about THA and TKA, plus ten additional postoperative questions, to ChatGPT. Each question was asked twice to evaluate for consistency in quality. Following each response, we responded with, “Please explain so it is easier to understand,” to evaluate ChatGPT’s ability to reduce response reading grade level, measured as Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL). Five resident physicians rated the 120 responses on 1 to 5 accuracy and comprehensiveness scales. Additionally, they answered a “yes” or “no” question regarding acceptability. Mean scores were calculated for each question, and responses were deemed acceptable if ≥ four raters answered “yes.”


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 2 | Pages 166 - 173
1 Feb 2024
Scott CEH Yapp LZ MacDonald DJ Howie CR Clement ND

Aims

The primary aim was to assess change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients as they waited from six to 12 months for a total hip (THA) or total or partial knee arthroplasty (KA). Secondary aims were to assess change in joint-specific function, mental health, quality of sleep, number living in a state worse than death (WTD), wellbeing, and patient satisfaction with their healthcare.

Methods

This prospective study included 142 patients awaiting a THA (mean age 66.7 years (SD 11.4); 71 female) and 214 patients awaiting KA (mean age 69.7 years (SD 8.7); 117 female). Patients completed questionnaires (EuroQol five-dimension health questionnaire (EQ-5D), Oxford Hip and Knee Scores (OHS/OKS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS), University of California, Los Angeles Activity Scale, wellbeing assessment, and satisfaction with their healthcare) at six and 12 months while awaiting surgery.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 1 | Pages 60 - 68
24 Jan 2024
Shawon MSR Jin X Hanly M de Steiger R Harris I Jorm L

Aims

It is unclear whether mortality outcomes differ for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery who are readmitted to the index hospital where their surgery was performed, or to another hospital.

Methods

We analyzed linked hospital and death records for residents of New South Wales, Australia, aged ≥ 18 years who had an emergency readmission within 90 days following THA or TKA surgery between 2003 and 2022. Multivariable modelling was used to identify factors associated with non-index readmission and to evaluate associations of readmission destination (non-index vs index) with 90-day and one-year mortality.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1294 - 1302
1 Dec 2023
Knoll L Steppacher SD Furrer H Thurnheer-Zürcher MC Renz N

Aims

A higher failure rate has been reported in haematogenous periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) compared to non-haematogenous PJI. The reason for this difference is unknown. We investigated the outcome of haematogenous and non-haematogenous PJI to analyze the risk factors for failure in both groups of patients.

Methods

Episodes of knee or hip PJI (defined by the European Bone and Joint Infection Society criteria) treated at our institution between January 2015 and October 2020 were included in a retrospective PJI cohort. Episodes with a follow-up of > one year were stratified by route of infection into haematogenous and non-haematogenous PJI. Probability of failure-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared between groups using log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analysis was applied to assess risk factors for failure.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 11 | Pages 899 - 905
24 Nov 2023
Orfanos G Nantha Kumar N Redfern D Burston B Banerjee R Thomas G

Aims

We aim to evaluate the usefulness of postoperative blood tests by investigating the incidence of abnormal results following total joint replacement (TJR), as well as identifying preoperative risk factors for abnormal blood test results postoperatively, especially pertaining to anaemia and acute kidney injury (AKI).

Methods

This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who had elective TJR between January and December 2019 at a tertiary centre. Data gathered included age at time of surgery, sex, BMI, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, preoperative and postoperative laboratory test results, haemoglobin (Hgb), white blood count (WBC), haematocrit (Hct), platelets (Plts), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), creatinine (Cr), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and Ferritin (ug/l). Abnormal blood tests, AKI, electrolyte imbalance, anaemia, transfusion, reoperation, and readmission within one year were reported.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 11 | Pages 859 - 864
13 Nov 2023
Chen H Chan VWK Yan CH Fu H Chan P Chiu K

Aims

The surgical helmet system (SHS) was developed to reduce the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), but the evidence is contradictory, with some studies suggesting an increased risk of PJI due to potential leakage through the glove-gown interface (GGI) caused by its positive pressure. We assumed that SHS and glove exchange had an impact on the leakage via GGI.

Methods

There were 404 arthroplasty simulations with fluorescent gel, in which SHS was used (H+) or not (H-), and GGI was sealed (S+) or not (S-), divided into four groups: H+S+, H+S-, H-S+, and H-S-, varying by exposure duration (15 to 60 minutes) and frequency of glove exchanges (0 to 6 times). The intensity of fluorescent leakage through GGI was quantified automatically with an image analysis software. The effect of the above factors on fluorescent leakage via GGI were compared and analyzed.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 10 | Pages 742 - 749
6 Oct 2023
Mabrouk A Abouharb A Stewart G Palan J Pandit H

Aims

Prophylactic antibiotic regimens for elective primary total hip and knee arthroplasty vary widely across hospitals and trusts in the UK. This study aimed to identify antibiotic prophylaxis regimens currently in use for elective primary arthroplasty across the UK, establish variations in antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and their impact on the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in the first-year post-index procedure, and evaluate adherence to current international consensus guidance.

Methods

The guidelines for the primary and alternative recommended prophylactic antibiotic regimens in clean orthopaedic surgery (primary arthroplasty) for 109 hospitals and trusts across the UK were sought by searching each trust and hospital’s website (intranet webpages), and by using the MicroGuide app. The mean cost of each antibiotic regimen was calculated using price data from the British National Formulary (BNF). Regimens were then compared to the 2018 Philadelphia Consensus Guidance, to evaluate adherence to international guidance.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 9 | Pages 977 - 984
1 Sep 2023
Kamp T Gademan MGJ van Zon SKR Nelissen RGHH Vliet Vlieland TPM Stevens M Brouwer S

Aims

For the increasing number of working-age patients undergoing total hip or total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA), return to work (RTW) after surgery is crucial. We investigated the association between occupational class and time to RTW after THA or TKA.

Methods

Data from the prospective multicentre Longitudinal Leiden Orthopaedics Outcomes of Osteoarthritis Study were used. Questionnaires were completed preoperatively and six and 12 months postoperatively. Time to RTW was defined as days from surgery until RTW (full or partial). Occupational class was preoperatively assessed and categorized into four categories according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 (blue-/white-collar, high-/low-skilled). Cox regression analyses were conducted separately for THA and TKA patients. Low-skilled blue-collar work was used as the reference category.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 9 | Pages 512 - 521
1 Sep 2023
Langenberger B Schrednitzki D Halder AM Busse R Pross CM

Aims

A substantial fraction of patients undergoing knee arthroplasty (KA) or hip arthroplasty (HA) do not achieve an improvement as high as the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), i.e. do not achieve a meaningful improvement. Using three patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), our aim was: 1) to assess machine learning (ML), the simple pre-surgery PROM score, and logistic-regression (LR)-derived performance in their prediction of whether patients undergoing HA or KA achieve an improvement as high or higher than a calculated MCID; and 2) to test whether ML is able to outperform LR or pre-surgery PROM scores in predictive performance.

Methods

MCIDs were derived using the change difference method in a sample of 1,843 HA and 1,546 KA patients. An artificial neural network, a gradient boosting machine, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression, ridge regression, elastic net, random forest, LR, and pre-surgery PROM scores were applied to predict MCID for the following PROMs: EuroQol five-dimension, five-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L), EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS), Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (HOOS-PS), and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (KOOS-PS).


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 8 | Pages 888 - 894
1 Aug 2023
Murray J Jeyapalan R Davies M Sheehan C Petrie M Harrison T

Aims

Total femoral arthroplasty (TFA) is a rare procedure used in cases of significant femoral bone loss, commonly from cancer, infection, and trauma. Low patient numbers have resulted in limited published work on long-term outcomes, and even less regarding TFA undertaken for non-oncological indications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes of all TFAs in our unit.

Methods

Data were collected retrospectively from a large tertiary referral revision arthroplasty unit’s database. Inclusion criteria included all patients who underwent TFA in our unit. Preoperative demographics, operative factors, and short- and long-term outcomes were collected for analysis. Outcome was defined using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) outcome reporting tool.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 7 | Pages 490 - 495
4 Jul 2023
Robinson PG Creighton AP Cheng J Dines JS Su EP Gulotta LV Padgett D Demetracopoulos C Hawkes R Prather H Press JM Clement ND

Aims

The primary aim of this prospective, multicentre study is to describe the rates of returning to golf following hip, knee, ankle, and shoulder arthroplasty in an active golfing population. Secondary aims will include determining the timing of return to golf, changes in ability, handicap, and mobility, and assessing joint-specific and health-related outcomes following surgery.

Methods

This is a multicentre, prospective, longitudinal study between the Hospital for Special Surgery, (New York City, New York, USA) and Edinburgh Orthopaedics, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, (Edinburgh, UK). Both centres are high-volume arthroplasty centres, specializing in upper and lower limb arthroplasty. Patients undergoing hip, knee, ankle, or shoulder arthroplasty at either centre, and who report being golfers prior to arthroplasty, will be included. Patient-reported outcome measures will be obtained at six weeks, three months, six months, and 12 months. A two-year period of recruitment will be undertaken of arthroplasty patients at both sites.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 7 | Pages 783 - 794
1 Jul 2023
Karayiannis PN Warnock M Cassidy R Jones K Scott CEH Beverland D

Aims

The aim of this study was to report health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and joint-specific function in patients waiting for total hip or knee arthroplasty surgery (THA or TKA) in Northern Ireland, compared to published literature and a matched normal population. Secondary aims were to report emergency department (ED) and out-of-hours general practitioner (OOH GP) visits, new prescriptions of strong opioids, and new prescriptions of antidepressants while waiting.

Methods

This was a cohort study of 991 patients on the waiting list for arthroplasty in a single Northern Ireland NHS trust: 497 on the waiting list for ≤ three months; and 494 waiting ≥ three years. Postal surveys included the EuroQol five-dimension five-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L), visual analogue scores (EQ-VAS), and Oxford Hip and Knee scores to assess HRQoL and joint-specific function. Electronic records determined prescriptions since addition to the waiting list and patient attendances at OOH GP/EDs.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 6 | Pages 649 - 656
1 Jun 2023
Dagneaux L Amundson AW Larson DR Pagnano MW Berry DJ Abdel MP

Aims

Nonagenarians (aged 90 to 99 years) have experienced the fastest percent decile population growth in the USA recently, with a consequent increase in the prevalence of nonagenarians living with joint arthroplasties. As such, the number of revision total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) in nonagenarians is expected to increase. We aimed to determine the mortality rate, implant survivorship, and complications of nonagenarians undergoing aseptic revision THAs and revision TKAs.

Methods

Our institutional total joint registry was used to identify 96 nonagenarians who underwent 97 aseptic revisions (78 hips and 19 knees) between 1997 and 2018. The most common indications were aseptic loosening and periprosthetic fracture for both revision THAs and revision TKAs. Mean age at revision was 92 years (90 to 98), mean BMI was 27 kg/m2 (16 to 47), and 67% (n = 65) were female. Mean time between primary and revision was 18 years (SD 9). Kaplan-Meier survival was used for patient mortality, and compared to age- and sex-matched control populations. Reoperation risk was assessed using cumulative incidence with death as a competing risk. Mean follow-up was five years.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 6 | Pages 641 - 648
1 Jun 2023
Bloch BV Matar HE Berber R Gray WK Briggs TWR James PJ Manktelow ARJ

Aims

Revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) and revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA) are complex procedures with higher rates of re-revision, complications, and mortality compared to primary TKA and THA. We report the effects of the establishment of a revision arthroplasty network (the East Midlands Specialist Orthopaedic Network; EMSON) on outcomes of rTKA and rTHA.

Methods

The revision arthroplasty network was established in January 2015 and covered five hospitals in the Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire areas of the East Midlands of England. This comprises a collaborative weekly multidisciplinary meeting where upcoming rTKA and rTHA procedures are discussed, and a plan agreed. Using the Hospital Episode Statistics database, revision procedures carried out between April 2011 and March 2018 (allowing two-year follow-up) from the five network hospitals were compared to all other hospitals in England. Age, sex, and mean Hospital Frailty Risk scores were used as covariates. The primary outcome was re-revision surgery within one year of the index revision. Secondary outcomes were re-revision surgery within two years, any complication within one and two years, and median length of hospital stay.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 6 | Pages 362 - 371
1 Jun 2023
Xu D Ding C Cheng T Yang C Zhang X

Aims

The present study aimed to investigate whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) undergoing joint arthroplasty have a higher incidence of adverse outcomes than those without IBD.

Methods

A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify eligible studies reporting postoperative outcomes in IBD patients undergoing joint arthroplasty. The primary outcomes included postoperative complications, while the secondary outcomes included unplanned readmission, length of stay (LOS), joint reoperation/implant revision, and cost of care. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model when heterogeneity was substantial.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 5 | Pages 357 - 362
17 May 2023
Naathan H Ilo K Berber R Matar HE Bloch B

Aims

It is common practice for patients to have postoperative blood tests after total joint replacement (TJR). However, there have been significant improvements in perioperative care with arthroplasty surgery, and a drive to reduce the length of stay (LOS) and move towards day-case TJR. We should reconsider whether this intervention is necessary for all patients.

Methods

This retrospective study included all patients who underwent a primary unilateral TJR at a single tertiary arthroplasty centre during a one-year period. Electronic medical records of 1,402 patients were reviewed for patient demographics, LOS, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade. Blood tests were examined to investigate the incidence of postoperative anaemia, electrolyte abnormalities, and incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI).


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 526 - 533
1 May 2023
Harmer JR Wyles CC Duong SQ Morgan III RJ Maradit-Kremers H Abdel MP

Aims

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders prior to total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to assess their impact on the rates of any infection, revision, or reoperation.

Methods

Between January 2000 and March 2019, 21,469 primary and revision arthroplasties (10,011 THAs; 11,458 TKAs), which were undertaken in 15,504 patients at a single academic medical centre, were identified from a 27-county linked electronic medical record (EMR) system. Depressive and anxiety disorders were identified by diagnoses in the EMR or by using a natural language processing program with subsequent validation from review of the medical records. Patients with mental health diagnoses other than anxiety or depression were excluded.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 4 | Pages 241 - 249
7 Apr 2023
Bayram JM Wickramasinghe NR Scott CEH Clement ND

Aims

The aims were to assess whether preoperative joint-specific function (JSF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were associated with level of clinical frailty in patients waiting for a primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or knee arthroplasty (KA).

Methods

Patients waiting for a THA (n = 100) or KA (n = 100) for more than six months were prospectively recruited from the study centre. Overall,162 patients responded to the questionnaire (81 THA; 81 KA). Patient demographics, Oxford score, EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D) score, EuroQol visual analogue score (EQ-VAS), Rockwood Clinical Frailty Score (CFS), and time spent on the waiting list were collected.