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Volume 102-B, Issue SUPP_11 December 2020 The 28th Annual Meeting of the European Orthopaedic Research Society (EORS), held online, 17–18 September 2020.

Clemens Leo Gögele Vera Kerling Armin Lenhart Sven Wiltzsch Kerstin Schäfer-Eckart Bernd Minnich Thomas Michael Weiger Gundula Schulze-Tanzil

Cartilage injuries often represent irreversible tissue damage because cartilage has only a low ability to regenerate. Thus, cartilage loss results in permanent damage, which can become the starting point for osteoarthritis. In the past, bioactive glass scaffolds have been developed for bone replacement and some of these variants have also been colonized with chondrocytes. However, the hydroxylapaptite phase that is usually formed in bioglass scaffolds is not very suitable for cartilage formation (chondrogenesis). This interdisciplinary project was undertaken to develop a novel slowly degrading bioactive glass scaffold tailored for cartilage repair by resembling the native extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM) in structure and surface properties. When colonized with articular chondrocytes, the composition and topology of the scaffolds should support cell adherence, proliferation and ECM synthesis as a prerequisite for chondrogenesis in the scaffold.

To study cell growth in the scaffold, the scaffolds were colonized with human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and primary porcine articular chondrocytes (pACs) (27,777.8 cells per mm3) for 7 – 35 d in a rotatory device. Cell survival in the scaffold was determined by vitality assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) visualized cell ultramorphology and direct interaction of hMSCs and pACs with the bioglass surface. Cell proliferation was detected by CyQuant assay. Subsequently, the production of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) typical for chondrogenic differentiation was depicted by Alcian blue staining and quantified by dimethylmethylene blue assay assay. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) revealed gene expression of cartilage-specific aggrecan, Sox9, collagen type II and dedifferentiation-associated collagen type I. To demonstrate the ECM-protein synthesis of the cells, the production of collagen type II and type I was determined by immunolabelling.

The bioactive glass scaffold remained stable over the whole observation time and allowed the survival of hMSCs and pACs for 35 days in culture. The SEM analyses revealed an intimate cell-biomaterial interaction for both cell types showing cell spreading, formation of numerous filopodia and ECM deposition. Both cell types revealed initial proliferation, decreasing after 14 days and becoming elevated again after 21 days. hMSCs formed cell clusters, whereas pACs showed an even distribution. Both cell types filled more and more the pores of the scaffold. The relative gene expression of cartilage-specific markers could be proven for hMSCs and pACs. Cell associated sGAGs deposition could be demonstrated by Alcian blue staining and sGAGs were elevated in the beginning and end of the culturing period. While the production of collagen type II could be observed with both cell types, the synthesis of aggrecan could not be detected in scaffolds seeded with hMSCs.

hMSCs and pACs adhered, spread and survived on the novel bioactive glass scaffolds and exhibited a chondrocytic phenotype.

V. Carbone A. Palazzin M.A. Bisotti R. Bursi L. Emili

Regulatory bodies impose stringent pre-market controls to certify the safety and compatibility of medical devices. However, internationally recognized standard tests may be expensive, time consuming and challenging for orthopedic implants because of many possible sizes and configurations. In addition, cost and time of standard testing may endanger the feasibility of custom-device production obtained through innovative manufacturing technologies like 3d printing.

Modeling and simulation (M&S) tools could be used by manufactures and at point-of-care to improve design confidence and reliability, accelerate design cycles and processes, and optimize the amount of physical testing to be conducted.

We propose an integrated cloud platform to perform in silico testing for orthopedic devices, assessing mechanical safety and electromagnetic compatibility, in line with recognized standards and regulatory guidelines.

The InSilicoTrials.com platform contains two M&S tools for orthopedic devices: CONSELF and NuMRis.

CONSELF (conself.com) uses Salome-Meca 2017 to compute static implant stresses and strains on metallic orthopedic devices, following the requirements and considerations of ASTM F2996-20 for non-modular hip femoral stems and ASTM F3161-16 for total knee femoral components. Simulation results were consistent with those reported in the two standards.

NuMRis (numris.insilicomri.com) uses ANSYS HFSS and ANSYS Mechanical 2019R3 to compute radio-frequency energy absorption and induced heating in 1.5T and 3T MRI coils, replicating the ASTM F2182-19e2 Standard Test Method. Simulation results were validated against in vitro measurements.

The integrated M&S workflow on the cloud platform allows the user to upload the 3D geometry and the material properties of the orthopedic device to be tested, automatically set up the standard testing scenarios, run simulations and process outcome, with the option to summarize the results in accordance with current FDA guidance on M&S reporting.

The easy-to-use interfaces of InSilicoTrials tools run through commercial web browsers, requiring no specific expertise in computational methods or additional on-premise software and hardware resources, since all simulations are run remotely on cloud infrastructure.

The integrated cloud platform can be used to evaluate design alternatives, test multi-configuration devices, perform multi-objective design optimization and identify worst-case scenarios within a family of implant sizes, or to assess the safety and compatibility of custom-made orthopedic devices.

InSilicoTrials.com is the first cloud platform offering a collection of M&S tools to perform in silico standard testing for orthopedic devices. The proposed tools allow to assess mechanical safety and electromagnetic compatibility before prototyping, preventing risks and criticalities for the patient, and helping manufacturers and point-of-care to accelerate time and reduce costs during the device development.

The proposed platform promotes the broader adoption of digital evidence in preclinical trials, supporting the device submission process and pre-market regulatory evaluation, and helping secure regulatory approval.

Thomas M. Grupp Christoph Schilling Bernhard Fritz Ana Laura Puente Reyna Andreas Pfaff Charles Taunt William M. Mihalko


Beneath infection, instability and malalignment, aseptic tibial component loosening remains a major cause of failure in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) [1]. This emphasizes the need for stable primary and long-term secondary fixation of tibial baseplates. To evaluate the primary stability of cemented tibial baseplates, different pre-clinical test methods have been undergone: finite element analysis [2], static push-out [3,4] or dynamic compression-shear loading [5] until interface failure. However, these test conditions do not reflect the long-term endurance under in vivo loading modes, where the tibial baseplate is predominantly subjected to compression and shear forces in a cyclic profile [5,6].

To distinguish between design parameters the aim of our study was to develop suitable pre-clinical test methods to evaluate the endurance of the implant-cement-bone interface fixation for tibial baseplates under severe anterior (method I) and internal-external torsional (method II) shear test conditions.

Materials & Methods

To create a clinically relevant cement penetration pattern a 4th generation composite bone model was customised with a cancellous core (12.5 PCF cellular rigid PU foam) to enable for high cycle endurance testing. VEGA System® PS & Columbus® CRA/PSA ZrN-multilayer coated tibial baseplates (2×12) were implanted in the customised bone model using Palacos® R HV bone cement (Figure 1).

An anterior compression-shear test (method II) was conducted at 2500 N for 10 million cycles and continued at 3000 N & 3500 N for each 1 million cycles (total: 12 million cycles) simulating post-cam engagement at 45° flexion. An internal-external torsional shear test (method II) was executed in an exaggeration of clinically relevant rotations [7,8] with ±17.2° for 1 million cycles at 3000 N tibio-femoral load in extension. After endurance testing either under anterior shear or internal-external torsion each tibial baseplate was mounted into a testing frame and maximum push-out strength was determined [3].

Elyarbek Tashmetov Berik Tuleubaev Dina Saginova Amina Koshanova Ibrahim Rustambek


Cancellous and cortical bone used as a delivery vehicle for antibiotics. Recent studies with cancellous bone as an antibiotic carrier in vitro and in vivo showed high initial peak concentrations of antibiotics in the surrounding medium. However, high concentrations of antibiotics can substantially reduce osteoblast replication and even cause cell death.


To determine whether impregnation with gentamycine impair the incorporation of bone allografts, as compared to allografts without antibiotic.

Coskun Ulucakoy İsmail Burak Atalay Ali Ekber Yapar Mehmet Fatih Ekşioğlu Ahmet Yiğit Kaptan Mehmet Doğan


Extraskeletal chondrosarcoma is a rare tumor with an indolent course and high propensity for local recurrence and metastasis. This tumor most commonly presents in the proximal extremities of middle-aged males, and is commonly asymptomatic. Although slow growing, these tumors have a significant risk of eventual relapse and metastases, especially to the lung. There are no clinical trials that investigated the best treatment options for this tumor given its very low incidence. The aim of this study is to present the surgical and clinical results of extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, which is a rare tumor.


In our clinic, the information of 13 patients who were diagnosed with extra-skeletal chondrosarcoma between 2006 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic information, tumor size, surgical treatments, chemotherapy and radiotherapy status, follow-up times, recurrence and metastases of the patients were recorded.

Sanjay Narayana Murthy Srikanth K. N. Rao

Preoperative planning for Total Hip Arthroplasty has been acknowledged as a vital step to facilitate a successful outcome. Templating ascertains the dimensions and positioning of the implants, minimizing both intraoperative and postoperative complications. The purpose of this study is to compare the accuracy of digital templating to acetate templating in the preoperative planning of Total Hip Arthroplasty.

Preoperative planning was performed on 40 consecutive patients (mean age = 70.5 years), undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty. Digital templating was performed by the Hip fellow 1, using Orthoview software (Jacksonville, FL, USA) and recorded the sizes of the cup and stem for each of the 40 patients. Subsequently, the same 40 patients were templated by Hip fellow 2, with X-rays done with a lead marker of known size by the side of the femur, using, acetate templating method. Templating results were compared to the actual sizes of the implants used, as noted in operative notes. Templating scores for the acetabular cup were 40% (16/40) with digital templating and 50% (20/40) with acetate templating. The templating scores for stem were 28% (11/40) with digital templating and 90% (36/40) with acetate templating. The differences between templating and actual implant sizes were plotted in Bland–Altman plot. Acetate templating proved to be statistically, significantly more accurate than digital templating (p value= 0.0083).

Our results indicate that the traditional acetate method is solid and valid to use for preoperative planning. This method is accurate and offers a more affordable option for preoperative templating. Although the templated size is one, there is a tendency to increase cup size to use bigger heads, which is the recent National Joint Registries trend. We recommend that acetate templating should be used as the default option.

Holger Jahr Yageng Li Prathyusha Pavanram Karel Lietaert Julia Schenkel Marius Leeflang J. Zhou Thomas Pufe Amir A. Zadpoor

Bioabsorbable metals hold a lot of potential as orthopaedic implant materials. Three metal families are currently being investigated: iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn). Currently, however, biodegradation of such implants is poorly predictable. We thus used Direct Metal Printing to additively manufacture porous implants of a standardized bone-mimetic design and evaluated their mechanical properties and degradation behaviour, respectively, under in vivo-like conditions.

Atomized powder was manufactured to porous implants of repetitive diamond unit cells, using a ProX DMP 320 (Layerwise, Belgium) or a custom-modified ReaLizer SLM50 metal printer. Degradation behaviour was characterized under static and dynamic conditions in a custom-built bioreactor system (37ºC, 5% CO2 and 20% O2) for up of 28 days. Implants were characterized by micro-CT before and after in vivo-like degradation. Mechanical characterization (according to ISO 13314: 2011) was performed on an Instron machine (10kN load cell) at different immersion times in simulated body fluid (r-SBF). Morphology and composition of degradation products were analysed (SEM, JSM-IT100, JEOL). Topographically identical titanium (Ti-6Al-4V, Ti64) specimen served as reference.

Micro-CT analyses confirmed average strut sizes (420 ± 4 μm), and porosity (64%), to be close to design values. After 28 days of in vivo-like degradation, scaffolds were macroscopically covered by degradation products in an alloy-specific manner. Weight loss after cleaning also varied alloy-specifically, as did the change in pH value of the r-SBF. Corrosion time-dependent changes in Young's moduli from 1200 to 800 MPa for Mg, 1000 to 700 MPa for Zn and 48-8 MPa for iron were statistically significant.

In summary, DMP allows to accurately control interconnectivity and topology of implants from all three families and micro-structured design holds potential to optimize their degradation speed. This first systematic report sheds light into how design influences degradation behaviour under in vivo-like conditions to help developing new standards for future medical device evaluation.

C.S. Kaya C.A. Yucesoy


Spastic muscles of patients with cerebral palsy (CP) are considered structurally as shortened muscles, that produce high force in short muscle lengths. Yet, previous intraoperative studies in which muscles’ forces are measured directly as a function of joint angle showed consistently that spastic knee flexor muscles produce a low percentage of their maximum force in flexed knee positions. They also showed effects of epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT): simultaneous activation of different muscles elevated target muscle's force. However, quantification of spastic muscle's force - muscle-tendon unit length (lMTU) data during gait is lacking.


Combining intraoperative experiments with participants’ musculoskeletal models developed based on their gait analyses, we aimed to test the following hypotheses: activated spastic semitendinosus (ST) muscle (1) operates at short lMTU's during gait, forces are (2) low at short lMTU's and (3) increase by co-activating other muscles.

Geert Meermans Jan-Jaap Kats Jacco Van Doorn Moritz Innman George Grammatopoulos


In total hip arthroplasty, a high radiographic inclination angle (RI) of the acetabular component has been linked to short- and long-term complications. There are several factors that lead to RI outliers including cup version, pelvic orientation and angle of the cup introducer relative to the floor. The primary aim of this study was to analyse what increases the risk of having a cup with an RI outside the target zone when controlling cup orientation with a digital inclinometer.


In this prospective study, we included 200 consecutive patients undergoing uncemented primary THA in the lateral decubitus position using a posterior approach. Preoperatively, the surgeon determined the target intraoperative inclination (IOItarget). The intra-operative inclination of the cup (IOIcup) was measured with the aid of a digital inclinometer after seating of the acetabular component. Anteroposterior pelvic radiographs were made to measure the RI of the acetabular component. The target zones were defined as 30°-45° and 35°-45° of RI. The operative inclination relative to the sagittal plane of the pelvis (OImath) was calculated based on the radiographic inclination and anteversion angle. The difference between two outcome measures was expressed as Δ.

Jiang An Lim Azeem Thahir Vinayak Amar Korde Matija Krkovic


The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management and outcome of patients with neck of femur fractures.


Data was collected for 96 patients with neck of femur fractures who presented to the emergency department between March 1, 2020 and May 15, 2020. This data set included information about their COVID-19 status.

Parameters including inpatient complications, hospital quality measures, mortality rates, and training opportunities were compared between the COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative groups. Furthermore, our current cohort of patients were compared against a historical control group of 95 patients who presented with neck of femur fractures before the COVID-19 pandemic.


Ponseti method has become the most common and validated initial non-operative and/or minimally invasive treatment modality of idiopathic clubfoot regardless of the severity of the deformity worldwide. Despite hundreds of publications in the literature favoring Ponseti method, the data about secondary procedures performed in the follow-up period of clubfoot and their incidence remains sparse and given as small details in the articles. The objective of this study was to analyse our incidence of secondary procedures performed in the midterm followup period of idiopathic clubfoot patients treated with Ponseti method and review of the relevant literature. For this purpose 86 feet of 60 patients with idiopathic clubfoot who were treated with original Ponseti method were enrolled in this retrospective case control study. Unilateral ankle foot orthosis (AFO) was used rather than standart bar-connected foot abduction orthosis varying from 12 months to 25 months in the follow-up period and 74 of 86 (86%) feet required percutaneous achilles tenotomy. The average age of initial cast treatment was 12.64 days (range 1 to 102 days). The mean follow-up time was 71 months (range 19 to 153 months). Thirty seven feet of 24 patients recieved secondary procedures (43%) consisting of; supramalleolary derotational osteotomy (SMDO) (1 patient/2 feet), complete subtalar release (3 patients/5 feet), medial opening lateral closing osteotomy (double osteotomy) (2 patients/3 feet), double osteotomy with transfer of tibialis anterior tendon (TTAT) (2 patients/3 feet), partial subtalar release (PSTR) (3 patients/5 feet), PSTR with SDO (1 patient/1 foot), posterior release (PR) with repeated achillotomy (1 patient/2 feet), TTAT (6 patients/10 feet), TTAT with PR (2 patients/2 feet), TTAT with Vulpius procedure (1 patient/1 foot) and TTAT with SMDO (2 patients/3 feet) respectively.

The amount of percutaneous achilles tenotomy (86%) in our study correlated with the literature which ranged from 80 to 90 %. The transfer of tibialis anterior tendon continued to be the most performed secondary procedure both in our study (51%) and in the literature, but the amount of total secondary procedures in our study (43%) was determined to be higher than the literature data varying from 7 to 27 percent which may be due to unilateral AFO application after Ponseti method for idiopathic clubfoot deformity in our study.


Critical shoulder angle (CSA), lateral acromial angle (LAA), and acromion index (AI) are common radiologic parameters used to distinguish between patients with rotator cuff tears (RCT) and those with an intact rotator cuff. This study aims to assess the predictive power of these parameters in degenerative RCT.

This retrospective study included data from 92 patients who were divided into two groups: the RCT group, which included 47 patients with degenerative full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears, and a control group of 45 subjects without tears. CSA, AI, and LAA measurements from standardized true anteroposterior radiographs were independently derived and analyzed by two orthopedic surgeons. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the cutoff values.

No significant differences were found between patients in the RCT and control groups in age (p = 0.079), gender (p = 0.804), or injury side (p = 0.552). Excellent inter-observer reliability was seen for CSA, LAA, and AI values. Mean CSA (38.1°) and AI (0.72) values were significantly larger in the RCT group than in the control group (34.56° and 0.67°, respectively, p < 0.001) with no significant difference between groups for LAA (RCT, 77.99° vs. control, 79.82°; p = 0.056). ROC analysis yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.815 for CSA with a cutoff value of 37.95°, and CSA was found to be the strongest predictor of the presence of a RCT, followed by AI with an AUC of 0.783 and a cutoff value of 0.705.

We conclude that CSA and AI may be useful predictive factors for degenerative RCT in the Turkish population.

Samet Erinç Bahattin Kemah Tayyar Öz


This study aimed to compare MIPO and IMNr in the treatment of supracondylar femur fracture following TKA in respect of fracture healing, complications and functional results.

Materials and Methods

A retrospective analysis was made of 32 supracondylar femur fractures classified according to the Rorabeck classification, comprising 20 cases treated with MIPO and 12 with IMNr. The two techniques were compared in respect of ROM, KSS, SF-12 scores, intraoperative blood loss, surgery time, and radiological examination findings.

Zakir Haider Farhad Iranpour Padmanabhan Subramanian

The number of total knee arthroplasties continues to increase annually with over 90,000 total knee replacements performed in the United Kingdom in 2018. Multiple national bodies including the British Association for Surgery of the Knee (BASK) and the British Orthopaedic Association collaborated in July 2019 to produce best practice guidance for knee arthroplasty surgery. This study aims to review practice in a regional healthcare trust against these guidelines.

Fifty total knee replacement operation notes were reviewed between January and February 2020 from 11 different consultant orthopaedic surgeons. Documents were assessed against 17 criteria recommended by the BASK guidance. Personnel names and grades were generally well documented. Tourniquet time and pressure were documented in over 98% of operation notes however, protection from spirit burns was not documented at all. Trialling and soft tissue balancing was well recorded in 100% and 96% of operation notes respectively.

Areas lacking in documentation included methods utilised to optimise cementation technique and removal of cement debris. Protection of key knee structures was documented in only 56% of operation notes clearly. Prior to closure, final assessment of mechanism integrity, collateral ligament was not documented at all and final ROM after implantation of components was recorded 34% of the time.

Subsequently authors have created a universal operation note template, uploaded onto the patient electronic notes, which prompts surgeons to complete documentation of the relevant criteria advocated by BASK.

In conclusion, detailed and systematic documentation is vital to prevent adverse events and reduce the risk of litigation. By producing detailed operative templates this risk can be mitigated.

Zakir Haider Bashaar Aweid Padmanabhan Subramanian Farhad Iranpour

Telemedicine is the delivery of healthcare from a remote location using integrated computer/communication technology. This systematic review aims to explore evidence for telemedicine in orthopaedics to determine its advantages, validity, effectiveness and utilisation particularly during our current pandemic where patient contact is limited.

Databases of PubMed, Scopus and CINHAL were systematically searched and articles were included if they involved any form of telephone or video consultation in an orthopaedic population. Findings were synthesised into four themes: patient/clinician satisfaction, accuracy and validity of examination, safety and patient outcomes and cost effectiveness. Quality assessment was undertaken using Cochrane and Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal tools.

Twenty studies were included consisting of nine RCTs across numerous orthopaedic subspecialties including fracture care, elective orthopaedics and oncology. Studies revealed high patient satisfaction with telemedicine for convenience, less waiting and travelling time. Telemedicine was cost effective particularly if patients had to travel long distances, required hospital transport or time off work. No clinically significant differences were found in patient examination nor measurement of patient reported outcome measures. Telemedicine was reported to be a safe method of consultation. However, studies were of variable methodological quality with selection bias.

In conclusion, evidence suggests that telemedicine in orthopaedics can be safe, cost effective, valid in clinical assessment with high patient/clinician satisfaction. Further work with high quality RCTs is required to elucidate long term outcomes. This systematic review presents up-to-date evidence on the use of telemedicine and provides data for organisations considering its use in the current COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

Michail G Kontakis Jacob Schou Nils Hailer

Bone tissue engineering attempts at substituting critical size bone defects with scaffolds that can be primed with osteogenic cells, usually mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from the bone marrow. Although overlooked, peripheral blood is a valuable source of MSC and circulating osteoprogenitors (COP), bearing a significant regenerative potential, and peripheral blood is easier to access than bone marrow. We thus studied osteodifferentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbMNC) under different culture conditions, and how they compared to primary human osteoblasts.

pbMNC were isolated from healthy adult volunteers by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, and they were then cultured using media supplemented with 100nM Dexamethasone, 10mM sodium β-glycero phosphate and ascorbic acid (either 40mM or 0.05mM). For comparison, primary osteoblasts were isolated from the femoral heads of patients undergoing hip arthroplasty. After 4 weeks of culture, osteogenic activation was quantified with spectrometric measurement of alkalic phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The extent of osteoid mineralization was measured with Alizarin red staining. We studied the effects of 1) varying cell concentration at seeding, 2) surface coating of culture wells with collagen and 3) high compared to low ascorbic acid (40mM and 0.05mM) media.

Higher numbers of pbMNC (0.5–5.9 versus 0.062–0.25 million cells per well) at seeding resulted in a lower ALP/LDH-ratio (mean ± standard deviation), 0.39 ± 0.33 arbitrary units (AU) versus 1.36 ± 1.06 AU, but led to higher amount of osteoid production, 0.10 ± 0.06 versus 0.065 ± 0.02 AU, p < 0.05. Culture of pbMNC on collagen did not confer any difference in ALP/LDH-ratios, with 0.43 ± 0.3 AU for collagen-coated and 0.43 ± 0.41 AU for uncoated wells (p = 0.95), and we also observed no relevant difference in osteoid production (0.07 ± 0.01 AU for collagen-coated versus 0.1 ± 0.08 AU for uncoated wells, p = 0.28). Cultures of pbMNC on collagen in media supplemented with a higher concentration of ascorbic acid showed a 130% higher ALP/LDH-ratio when compared to cultures exposed to a lower ascorbic acid concentration (p < 0.05). Cultures with a low initial concentration of pbMNC (0.5 − 1 million cells) had no significantly different ALP/LDH-ratio when compared to primary human osteoblasts, but the cultures of pbMNC resulted in a 90% increase in osteoid mineralization when compared to primary human osteoblasts (p < 0.05).

These findings indicate that progenitor cells derived from peripheral blood have a significant osteogenic potential, rendering them interesting candidates for seeding of scaffolds intended to fill critical sized bone defects. pbMNC produced almost double the amount of osteoid as primary osteoblasts. The isolation of pbMSC and COP is non-invasive and easy, and they might be seeded directly onto scaffolds without prior ex-vivo expansion, a question that we intend to pursue further.

Markus Winther Frost

Electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements might be used for real-time monitoring of bone healing. Differences in electrical characteristics of different tissues during fracture healing can provide information of the tissue composition within the fracture region. This concept embraces the digital revolution of orthopaedics allowing for a sensor-based and home-based monitoring of bone healing. Furthermore, real-time monitoring will allow individualized and timely treatment adjustments to prevent bone healing complications. However, electrodes must be placed at a distance to the fracture site in order not to interfere with bone healing. Therefore, we investigated whether longitudinal and transverse electrical impedance measurements from electrodes placed at a distance to the bone defect can detect differences between intact bone and bone defects in vivo.

Approval was granted from the Inspectorate of the Animal Experimentation under the Danish Ministry of Justice. Six rabbits were anaesthetized and had both tibias subjected to an osteotomy protocol where first the medial, then the lateral, and final the posterior cortex were removed resulting in a complete 2 mm bone defect. Electrical impedance was measured prior to and after each step of the osteotomy protocol. Recordings were obtained at different frequencies (10 Hz to 1 MHz) from an inner electrode placed into the medullary canal and two different electrodes placed extracortical on the lateral and posterior bone with a distance of 5 mm to the defect. For each rabbit, one tibia had measurements with a free inner electrode and the other tibia had measurements both with a nail and an isolated nail.

For all tibias, the intact bone resulted in higher impedance compared with the complete defect, and this difference was most pronounced in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 100 kHz. This applied for all types of internal electrodes including electrode, nail, isolated nail. The isolated nail showed the biggest impedance difference between the intact bone and the complete defect. Incomplete bone defects had lower impedance compared with intact bone, but no consistent pattern for differences in impedance was observed between the different applied defects.

Consistent impedance differences between intact bone and complete defects were detected in-vivo in rabbits. Further research is needed to explore whether the presented method of electrical impedance measurements can be used to characterize bone healing over time.

Sílvia Tatiana Sá Paiva Fergal J. O’Brien Ciara M. Murphy

Bone remodelling is mediated through the synchronism of bone resorption (catabolism) by osteoclasts and bone formation (anabolism) by osteoblasts. Imbalances in the bone remodelling cycle represent an underling cause of metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, where bone resorption exceeds formation (1). Current therapeutic strategies to repair osteoporotic bone fractures focus solely in targeting anabolism or supressing catabolism (2). However, these therapeutics do not reverse the structural damage present at the defect site, ultimately leading to impaired fracture healing, making the repair of osteoporotic fractures particularly challenging in orthopaedics. Herein, we focus on investigating a combined versatile pro-anabolic and anti-catabolic effect of Magnesium (Mg2+) to modulate bone cell behaviour (3), to develop an engineered biomimetic bio-instructive biomaterial scaffold structurally designed to enhance bone formation while impeding pathological osteoclast resorption activities to facilitate better bone healing and promote repair.

Pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 (OBs) and osteoclasts progenitors RAW 264.7 (OCs) cell lines were cultured in growth media exposed to increasing concentrations of MgCl2 (0, 0.5, 1, 10, 25 and 50mM) and the optimal concentration to concurrently promote the differentiation of OBs and inhibit the differentiation or funtion of RANKL-induced OCs was assessed. We next used Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy to investigate changes in the metabolic pathways during OBs and OCs differentiation when exposed to increasing MgCl2 concentrations. We developed a range of magnesium-incorporated collagen scaffolds to permit the spatiotemporal release of Mg2+ within the established therapeutic window, and to investigate the behaviour of bone cells in a 3D environment.

In our results, we reported an increase in the expression of the bone formation markers osteocalcin and osteopontin for OBs exposed to 10mM MgCl2, and a significant downregulation of the osteoclast-specific markers TRAP and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced OCs differentiation when exposed to 25mM MgCl2. Moreover, 25mM MgCl2 induced changes in the energy metabolism of OCs from a predominantly oxidative phosphorylation towards a more glycolytic pathway suggesting a regulatory effect of Mg2+ in the underlying mechanisms of osteoclasts formation and function. The developed porous collagen-magnesium scaffolds significantly reduced the expression of early osteoclastogenic markers RANK and NFkB, and an elevated expression of the osteogenic markers Runx2 and Col1A1 was reported after 7 days.

Our research to date has provided evidences to demonstrate the potential of Mg2+ to concurrently enhance osteogenesis while inhibiting osteoclastogenesis in vitro, potentially introducing new targets for developing therapies to repair osteoporotic bone fractures.

Alexander Lloyd Berry Sean David Scattergood James A Livingstone

Diabetes has been associated with greater risk of complications and prolonged postoperative recovery following ankle trauma. Our cohort study reviewed the operative management and outcomes of ankle fractures in diabetic adults relative to non-diabetic adults from Jan 2016–2019. Non-diabetic controls were frequency age-matched 2:1.

34 of 572 ankle fracture presentations were in diabetic patients, 32% managed non-operatively compared to 29% of the matched non-diabetic cohort. The distribution in Lauge-Hansen fracture pattern was comparable between cohorts.

Mean length of follow-up was significantly longer for diabetics (26 weeks) compared to non-diabetics (16 weeks). Post-operative wound complications (superficial wound infection, breakdown, dehiscence) occurred in 48% of the operated diabetic ankles, compared to 5% in non-diabetics (RR 8.1, 95% CI 2.5–26.4). Reoperation (RR 4.3, 95% CI 2.5–26.4, p=0.03) and non-wound complication rates (Charcot joint, mal/non-union, metalware infection) were likewise significantly higher (RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.4–10.8, p=0.008) in diabetics. Amongst diabetics alone, those with an HbA1c >69 mmol/mol (n=14, 41%) demonstrated a significantly higher rate still of non-wound complications (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–18., p=0.03) with a trend towards higher wound complication rates (RR 3, 95% CI 0.52–17, p=0.13).

Poorly controlled diabetes is associated with substantially greater complication rates following ankle fracture than those with well controlled or normal blood sugar; high HbA1c > 69mmol/mol is a significant predictor of complicated follow-up. Locally we recommend management strategies that are influenced by the fracture pattern stability and the presence or absence of complicated or poorly managed diabetes.

Murat Celal Sozbilen Kubra Evren Sahin

Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is a substance that requires repeated application due to its effectiveness being lost 12–16 weeks post application. Performing these intra-muscular injections under anesthesia reduces pain and distress during applications, ensuring effective and successful functional results. This study evaluates motor development of patients undergoing 3 or more repeated BoNT-A application in a tertiary pediatric hospital and the safety as well as effect of 3 different types of anesthesia.

75 children with cerebral palsy who underwent BoNT-A application at least three times consecutively with 6-month intervals and a total of 320 procedures admitted between January 2008 and January 2018 were retrospectively examined. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was employed in motor development evaluation. To observe the improvement in motor development, those with 2-1-0 level decreases in GMFCS classes were grouped and compared in terms of birth time, birth weight, cerebral palsy type and first BoNT-A application age. The 3 types of anesthesia methods (sedation analgesia, larengeal mask anesthesia (LMA) and inhalation mask anesthesia) applied during the procedures were compared in terms of sedation, procedure, recovery and total operation room time.

The mean age of the children for all procedures was 45.51 ± 22.40 months. As a result of procedures, significant motor development was observed in 60 (80%) patients (p <0,000∗). No significant difference was observed when the children with cerebral palsy whose GMFCS declined in the form of level 2, 1 and unchanged were compared in terms of first application age, birth weight and gestational age. It was found that 106 (33.1%) were applied sevoflurane with anesthesia mask, 103 (32.1%) were administered sevoflurane with laryngeal mask, and 111 (34.6%) were sedation-analgesia. Only 10 out of 320 procedures were seen to develop side effects (8 vomiting, 2 bronchospasm). In the patients who underwent sedation analgesia during the first 3 BoNT-A procedures, the duration of recovery and total operating room time was seen to be significantly shorter than the others, while there was no difference between the anesthesia methods in the 4th and subsequent procedures. Regardless of the type of anesthesia, the recovery and total operating room times of those having undergone 6 or more procedures were longer than those with less than 6 procedures (p <0.009, p <0.016, respectively).

As conclusion, repeated BoNT-A applications in children with CP provides progress in motor steps, it can be applied safely and effectively under anesthesia. Sedation analgesia application provides easier recovery compared to general anesthesia with LMA and mask only in the first three applications. However, recovery time increases with 4 and more repeated applications as the number of applications increases.

Sean David Scattergood James W. A. Fletcher Sanchit A. Mehendale Stephen R. Mitchell

Infected non-unions of proximal femoral fractures are difficult to treat. If debridement and revision fixation is unsuccessful, staged revision arthroplasty may be required. Non-viable tissue must be resected, coupled with the introduction of an antibiotic-eluting temporary spacer prior to definitive reconstruction. Definitive tissue microbiological diagnosis and targeted antibiotic therapy are required. In cases of significant proximal femoral bone loss, spacing options are limited.

We present a case of a bisphosphonate-induced subtrochanteric fracture that progressed to infected non-union. Despite multiple washouts and two revision fixations, the infection remained active with an unfavourable antibiogram. The patient required staged revision arthroplasty including a proximal femoral resection. To enable better function by maintaining leg length and offset, a custom-made antibiotic-eluting articulating temporary spacer, the Cement-a-TAN, was fabricated. Using a trochanteric entry cephalocondylar nail as a scaffold, bone cement was moulded in order to fashion an anatomical, patient-specific, proximal femoral spacer. Following resolution of the infection, the Cement-a-TAN was removed and a proximal femoral arthroplasty was successfully performed.

Cement-a-TAN is an excellent temporary spacing technique in staged proximal femoral replacement for infected non-union of the proximal femur where there has been significant bone loss. It preserves mobility and maintains leg length, offset and periarticular soft-tissue tension.

Dean Owyang Cara Valente Namal Weerasuriya

Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is an essential part of orthopaedic surgeries in preventing life-threatening thromboembolic events such as Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE). Orthopaedic surgery has the highest incidence rate of thromboembolic events as compared to any other surgical specialities, making it an essential component in managing any orthopaedic case. At Queen's Medical Centre (QMC), a major trauma centre in the United Kingdom (UK), sees up to 750 NOF fracture cases annually, making it one of the busiest trauma and orthopaedic centres in the UK. Our study aims to evaluate how VTE Prophylaxis is conducted in a UK Major Trauma Centre for NOF and pelvic fragility fractures and how human factors can improve its efficacy.

The Nottingham University Hospitals (NUH) Trust has implemented new guidelines from August 2019 that patients with fragility fractures such as NOF and pelvic fractures are prescribed with 28 days VTE prophylaxis with Enoxaparin, or their own anti-coagulants if risk of thrombosis exceed the risk of bleeding. This is an adaptation from the trust to align their guidelines closer to the NICE 2018 guidelines. We will be evaluating the initial compliance of VTE Prophylaxis, identify and utilise human factors, then re-analyse the department after implementing interventions on the same batch of junior doctors working in the department. Data of 100 patients with fragility fractures were collected, 50 consecutive patients in the pre-intervention window during August 2019 and 50 in the post-intervention window during November 2019.

The pre-intervention data had 43 NOF and 7 Pelvic fractures. Our study showed that 93% of NOF fracture and 100% of pelvic fracture received the correct course of VTE prophylaxis. The data was presented at the local department junior doctor academic session. Three simple human factor interventions were implemented over the course of September and October: Education to the trauma and orthopaedic department on the new guideline, extended VTE labels on drug charts for patients with fragility fractures, VTE reminder labels at doctors' stations. Another 50 consecutive patients' data were collected during November 2019. Data shows that 97.8% of NOF (p>0.05) and 60% of pelvic fracture (p>0.05) received the correct course of VTE prophylaxis

Our data has shown an increase in correct VTE prescription for NOF fracture patients, which is the main bulk of our fragility fracture patients whilst we see a drop in pelvic fracture patients. Due to the limited time frame of four months where junior doctors in the UK rotate between specialities, we are only able to collect data during the first month, implement interventions between datasets and collect data on the final month of the four-month rotation. A future bigger study might provide a more significant result on the department. We believe that the key to achieving 100% VTE prophylaxis in the T&O department is optimising human factors, educating junior doctors, who are not orthopaedic trained, with sufficient information of the guidelines, and evidence of the risk and benefits of providing prolonged VTE prophylaxis for orthopaedic patients.

In conclusion, we found that QMC, a major trauma centre with high patient volume and turnover, has a high level of compliance with VTE prophylaxis for fragility fractures and it is imperative that utilising human factors will inch the department closer to its goal of 100% VTE compliance.

Abdullah MERTER

With the increase in the elderly population, there is a dramatic increase in the number of spinal fusions. Spinal fusion is usually performed in cases of primary instability. However it is also performed to prevent iatrogenic instability created during surgical treatment of spinal stenosis in most cases. In literature, up to 75% of adjacent segment disease (ASD) can be seen according to the follow-up time.1 Although ASD manifests itself with pathologies such as instability, foraminal stenosis, disc herniation or central stenosis.1,2 There are several reports in the literature regarding lumbar percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic interventions for lumbar foraminal stenosis or disc herniations. However, to the best our knowledge, there is no report about the treatment of central stenosis in ASD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the short-term results of unilateral biportal endoscopic decompressive laminotomy (UBEDL) technique in ASD cases with symptomatic central or lateral recess stenosis.

The number of patients participating in the prospective study was 8. The mean follow-up was 6.9 (ranged 6 to 11) months. The mean age of the patients was 68 (5m, 3F). The development of ASD time after fusion was 30.6 months(ranged 19 to 42). Mean fused segments were 3 (ranged 2 to 8). Preoperative instability was present in 2 of the patients which was proven by dynamic lumbar x-rays. Preoperative mean VAS-back score was 7.8, VAS Leg score was 5.6. The preoperative mean JOA (Japanese Orthopaedic Association) score was 11.25. At 6th month follow-up, the mean VAS back score of the patients was 1, and the VAS leg score was 0.5. This improvement was statistically significant (p = 0.11 and 0.016, respectively). The mean JOA score at the 6th month was 22.6 and it was also statistically significant comparing preoperative JOA score(p = 0.011). The preoperative mean dural sac area measured in MR was 0.50 cm2, and it was measured as 2.1 cm2 at po 6 months.(p = 0.012). There was no progress in any patient's instability during follow-up.

In orthopedic surgery, when implant related problems develop in any region of body (pseudoarthrosis, infection, adjacent fracture, etc.), it is generally treated by using more implants in its final operation. This approach is also widely used in spinal surgery.3 However, it carries more risk in terms of devoloping ASD, infection or another complications. In the literature, endoscopic procedures have almost always been used in the treatment of ventral pathologies which constitute only 10%. In ASD, disease devolops as characterized by wide facet joint arthrosis and hypertrophied ligamentum flavum in the cranial segment and it is mostly presented both lateral recess and santal stenosis symptoms (39%). In this study, we found that UBEDL provides successful results in the treatment of patients without no more muscle and ligament damage in ASD cases with spinal stenosis. One of the most important advantages of UBE is its ability to access both ventral and dorsal pathologies by minimally invasive endoscopic aproach. I think endoscopic decompression also plays an important role in the absence of additional instability at postoperatively in patients. UBE which has already been described in the literature given successful results in most of the spinal degenerative diseases besides it can also be used in the treatment of ASD. Studies with longer follow-up and higher patient numbers will provide more accurate results.

Natasha Faye Daniels Jiang An Lim Azeem Thahir Matija Krkovic


Pilon fractures represent one of the most surgically challenging fractures in orthopaedics. Different techniques exist for their management, with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and External fixation (Ex-Fix) the most widely used. Whilst there is a plethora of data regarding these strategies for Pilon fractures as a whole, very limited data exists solely on the management of open Pilon fractures. This study aimed to elucidate how surgical management options can influence postoperative complications, and if this can influence future management protocols.

Materials and methods

We conducted a search in PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL for postoperative complications and functional outcomes in open pilon fractures in those treated with Ex-Fix vs ORIF (PROSPERO-CRD42020184213). The postoperative complications measured included non-union, mal-union, delayed union, bone grafting, amputation, osteoarthritis, deep infection and superficial infection. Functional outcomes in the form of the AOFAS score was also measured where possible. We were able to carry out a meta-analysis for both deep infections and non-unions.

Amit lakhani Ena Sharma


Pediatric femoral fracture including supracondylar and subtrochantric fracture constitutes 1.6% of all pediatrics fractures1. Elastic nails remain the standard treatment of choice in mid shaft transverse femoral fracture in children weighting less than 45kg2. But in subtrochantric and spiral femoral fracture, failure rate of TENS nails are quite high3.

Material and methods

We retrospectively reviewed 30 subtrochantric fracture in children (average age 9 years) treated with bridge plate by mini invasive approach.

Maaike Schotanus George Grammatopoulos Geert Meermans


Acetabular component orientation is an important determinant of outcome following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Although surgeons aim to achieve optimal cup orientation, many studies demonstrate their inability to consistently achieve this. Factors that contribute are pelvic orientation and the surgeon's ability to correctly orient the cup at implantation. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy with which surgeons can achieve cup orientation angles.


In this in vitro study using a calibrated left and right sawbone hemipelvis model, participants (n=10) were asked to place a cup mounted on its introducer giving different targets. Measurements of cup orientation were made using a stereophotogrammetry protocol to measure radiographic inclination and operative anteversion (OA). A digital inclinometer was used to measure the intra-operative inclination (IOI) which is the angle of the cup introducer relative to the floor. First, the participant stated his or her preferred IOI and OA and positioned the cup accordingly. Second, the participant had to position the cup parallel to the anteversion of the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL). Third, the participant had to position the cup at IOI angles of 35°, 40° and 45°. Fourth, the participant used the mechanical alignment guide (45° of IOI and 30° of OA) to orient the cup. Each task was analysed separately and subgroup analysis included left versus right side and hip surgeons versus non-hip surgeons.

B. Gueorguiev I. Zderic M. Blauth A. Weber R. Koch J. Dauwe J. Schader K. Stoffel C. Finkemeier M. Hessmann

Unstable distal tibia fractures are challenging injuries requiring surgical treatment. Intramedullary nails are frequently used; however, distal fragment fixation problems may arise, leading to delayed healing, malunion or nonunion. Recently, a novel angle-stable locking nail design has been developed that maintains the principle of relative construct stability, but introduces improvements expected to reduce nail toggling, screw migration and secondary loss of reduction, without the requirement for additional intraoperative procedures.

The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical competence of a novel angle-stable intramedullary nail concept for treatment of unstable distal tibia fractures, compared to a conventional nail in a human cadaveric model under dynamic loading.

Ten pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaveric tibiae with a simulated AO/OTA 42-A3.1 fracture were assigned to 2 groups for reamed intramedullary nailing using either a conventional (non-angle-stable) Expert Tibia Nail with 3 distal screws (Group 1) or the novel Tibia Nail Advanced system with 2 distal angle-stable locking low-profile screws (Group 2). The specimens were biomechanically tested under conditions including quasi-static and progressively increasing combined cyclic axial and torsional loading in internal rotation until failure of the bone-implant construct, with monitoring by means of motion tracking.

Initial axial construct stiffness, although being higher in Group 2, did not significantly differ between the 2 nail systems, p=0.29. In contrast, initial torsional construct stiffness was significantly higher in Group 2 compared to Group 1, p=0.04. Initial nail toggling of the distal tibia fragment in varus and flexion was lower in Group 2 compared to Group 1, being significant in flexion, p=0.91 and p=0.03, respectively. After 5000 cycles, interfragmentary movements in terms of varus, flexion, internal rotation, axial displacement and shear displacement at the fracture site were all lower in Group 2 compared to Group 1, with flexion and shear displacement being significant, p=0.14, p=0.04, p=0.25, p=0.11 and p=0.04, respectively. Cycles to failure until both interfragmentary 5° varus and 5° flexion were significantly higher in Group 2 compared to Group 1, p=0.04.

From a biomechanical perspective, the novel angle-stable intramedullary nail concept has the potential of achieving a higher initial axial and torsional relative stability and maintaining it with a better resistance towards loss of reduction under dynamic loading, while reducing the number of distal locking screws, compared to conventional locking in intramedullary nailed unstable distal tibia fractures.

Sezgin Bahadır Tekin Burçin Karslı Vahap Kurt Erman Öğümsöğütlü

Evidence that L5 transverse process fracture indicates pelvic instability is insufficient and controversial. Because of unstable pelvis fractures have high mortality rate, they require urgent treatment and good follow-up. The lumbar region is also affected by high-energy traumas in the pelvis region, which causes damage to the muscles and ligamentous structures that adhere to the lumbar transverse process. For this reason, L5 transverse process fracture is thought to be an indicator showing pelvic instability. However, our study shows that this is not like that. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of L5 transvers process fracture on pelvic instability and lack of sufficient data in the literature.

Between 2017–2020, 86 Patient who were hospitalized and treated with a diagnosis of pelvic fracture were retrospectively studied in our clinic. Pelvic X-Ray and tomography was taken pre-op for all patient. Demographic features, pre-op and post-op hemoglobin counts, how many units of blood transfusion needed in total, fixation method, surgical intervention, presence of additional injury, mechanism of injury for all patient were analyzed and the patients were categorized by investigating L5 transvers process fracture in their tomography. Fractures of patients were classified according toTyle classification. The patients were divided into two main groups as who stabil and unstabil pelvic fractures and L5 transvers process fracture and without.

On stabil pelvic fractures and unstabil pelvic fractures, in term of instability effects of L5 transvers process fractures and those without were investigated. Also, changes in preop and post op hemoglaobin counts were investigated in pelvis with and without L5 transvers process fractures. With these, in terms of blood transfusion need the patients were evaluated whether there was a difference between those with L5 transvers process fractures and who did not. Again, whether the blood transfusion was statistically different in stable and unstable pelvis fractures was among the parameters looked at. In statistical analysis, no correlation was found between pelvic instability and L5 transvers process fracture. (p=0,933) No statistically significant difference was found in the evalution of blood transfusion between those with and without L5 transvers process fractures. (P=0,409)When the same parameter was evaluated in terms of stability and instability of the pelvis, it was seen that stability did not significantly affect the need for blood transfusion. (P=0,989) Pre-op and post-op hemoglobin changes of the patients who with L5 transvers process fracture and without were also analized. İn the analysis performed, there was no significant difference in patients with and without L5 transvers process fractures on pre-op and post-op hemoglobin values. (p=0.771/p=0.118)However, Postoperative hemoglobin values were significanly lower in patient with L5 transvers process fracture compared to preopetative hemoglobin values. (p=0.001)

L5 transvers process fracture is not a parameter to showing pelvic instability. Stabil and unstabil fractures did not change the need for blood transfusion. The literatüre still needs much more study on this topic.

Azeem Thahir Jiang An Lim Cavan West Matija Krkovic


Calcium sulphate (CS) is a recent alternative for antibiotic elution in infected bones and joints. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of antibiotic impregnated calcium sulphate (AICS) beads in the management of infected tibia and femur, with regards to patient outcomes and complication rates (including reinfection rate, remission rate and union rate).


Searches of AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, EMCARE, Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar were conducted in June 2020, with the mesh terms: “Calcium sulphate beads” or “Calcium sulfate beads” or “antibiotic beads” or “Stimulan” AND “Bone infection” or “Osteomyelitis” or “Debridement” AND “Tibia” or “Femur”. Risk of bias was assessed using the Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies of interventions (ROBINS-i) tool, and quality assessed via the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria.

Mirella Haartmans Maxime Eveque-Mourroux Gert Eijkel Kaj Emanuel Gabrielle Tuijthof Lodewijk van Rhijn Ron Heeren Pieter Emans Berta Cillero-Pastor

The incidence of osteoarthritis (OA) is increasing in our younger population. OA development early in life is often related to cartilage damage, caused by (sport) injury or trauma. Detection of early knee OA is therefore crucial to target early treatment. However, early markers for OA prognosis or diagnosis are lacking. Hoffa's fat pad (HFP) is an emerging source for knee biomarkers, as it is easily accessible and shows important interaction with the homeostasis of the knee. In this study, we used Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) as a first approach. MALDI-MSI allows the study of tissue-specific molecular distributions. Therefore, we used MALDI-MSI to analyze the lipid profiles in the HFP of three patients with OA and three patients undergoing cartilage regenerative treatment. We demonstrate that the lipid profile of patients with OA is different from patients with cartilage defects.

HFP of each patient were snap frozen directly after surgical resection and cryosectioned at 15 μm. Each slide was sublimed with Norharmane matrix and analyzed by MALDI-MSI in positive and negative ion modes at a lateral resolution of 50 μm on a RapifleX Tissue Typer. The difference between patient groups were analyzed using principle component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Lipid identifications were obtained on an Orbitrap Elite™ Hybrid Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer in data dependent acquisition mode and analyzed using Lipostar software.

Linear discriminant analysis showed a specific lipid profile for each group (variance 33.94%). Score projections revealed a differential lipid spatial distribution of OA patients compared to cartilage defect patients. Among the lipids that differed significantly, for instance, the m/z 760.59 [M+H]+ was associated to osteoarthritis and identified as glycerophospholipid (PC 34:1), a main component of biological membranes. Additionally, the samples were found to be intra-tissue heterogeneous, with molecular profiles found in adipose-, connective- and synovial tissue.

These results suggest that lipid profiles in HFP could be useful for early OA detection. However, intra-tissue heterogeneity in HFP should be recognized when using HFP as a biomarker source.

Darshan S Shah Orcun Taylan Pieter Berger Luc Labey Hilde Vandenneucker Lennart Scheys

Orthopaedic training sessions, vital for surgeons to understand post-operative joint function, are primarily based on passive and subjective joint assessment. However, cadaveric knee simulators, commonly used in orthopaedic research,1 could potentially benefit surgical training by providing quantitative joint assessment for active functional motions. The integration of cadaveric simulators in orthopaedic training was explored with recipients of the European Knee Society Arthroplasty Travelling Fellowship visiting our institution in 2018 and 2019. The aim of the study was to introduce the fellows to the knee joint simulator to quantify the surgeon-specific impact of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on the dynamic joint behaviour, thereby identifying potential correlations between surgical competence and post-operative biomechanical parameters.

Eight fellows were assigned a fresh-frozen lower limb each to plan and perform posterior-stabilised TKA using MRI-based patient-specific instrumentation. Surgical competence was adjudged using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) adapted for TKA.2 All fellows participated in the in vitro specimen testing on a validated knee simulator,3 which included motor tasks – passive flexion (0°-120°) and active squatting (35°-100°) – and varus-valgus laxity tests, in both the native and post-operative conditions. Tibiofemoral kinematics were recorded with an optical motion capture system and compared between native and post-operative conditions using a linear mixed model (p<0.05). The Pearson correlation test was used to assess the relationship between the OSATS scores for each surgeon and post-operative joint kinematics of the corresponding specimen (p<0.05).

OSATS scores ranged from 79.6% to 100% (mean=93.1, SD=7.7). A negative correlation was observed between surgical competence and change in post-operative tibial kinematics over the entire range of motion during passive flexion – OSATS score vs. change in tibial abduction (r=−0.87; p=0.003), OSATS score vs. change in tibial rotation (r=−0.76; p=0.02). When compared to the native condition, post-operative tibial internal rotation was higher during passive flexion (p<0.05), but lower during squatting (p<0.033). Post-operative joint stiffness was greater in extension than in flexion, without any correlation with surgical competence.

Although trained at different institutions, all fellows followed certain standard intraoperative guidelines during TKA, such as achieving neutral tibial abduction and avoiding internal tibial rotation,4 albeit at a static knee flexion angle. However, post-operative joint kinematics for dynamic motions revealed a strong correlation with surgical competence, i.e. kinematic variability over the range of passive flexion post-TKA was lower for more skilful surgeons. Moreover, actively loaded motions exhibited stark differences in post-operative kinematics as compared to those observed in passive motions. In vitro testing on the knee simulator also introduced the fellows to new quantitative parameters for post-operative joint assessment.

In conclusion, the inclusion of cadaveric simulators replicating functional joint motions could help quantify training paradigms, thereby enhancing traditional orthopaedic training, as was also the unanimous opinion of all participating fellows in their positive feedback.

Mehmet Kaymakoglu Eda Ciftci Dede Petek Korkusuz Erdi Ozdemir Mehmet Ege Erden Egemen Turhan

Adrenomedullin is a peptide hormone that has attracted attention with its proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts in recent years. We investigated the effect of adrenomedullin on healing of the segmental bone defect in a rat model.

36 Wistar rats were randomly divided in six groups based on follow-up periods and administered dose of adrenomedullin hormone. In each group, a 2 mm bone defect was created at the diaphysis of radius, bilaterally. NaCl solution was administered to sham groups three times a week for 4 and 8 weeks, intraperitoneally. Adrenomedullin was administered to study groups three times a week; 15 µg-4 weeks, 15 µg-8 weeks, 30 µg-4 weeks and 30 µg-8 weeks, respectively. After euthanasia, the segmental defects were evaluated by histomorphometric (new bone area (NBA)) and micro-tomographic (bone volume (BV), bone surface (BS), bone mineral density (BMD)) analysis.

Although 4 and 8 weeks 15 μg administered study groups had higher NBA values than the other study and control groups, histomorphometric analysis did not reveal any statistical difference between the control and study groups in terms of new bone area (p > 0.05). In micro-tomographic analysis, BV was higher in 15 μg – 4 weeks group than 30 μg – 4 weeks group (296.9 vs 208.5, p = 0.003) and BS was lower in 30 μg – 4 weeks than 4 week - control group (695.5 vs 1334.7, p = 0.005) but in overall, no significant difference was found between the control and study groups (p > 0.05). Despite these minor differences in histomorphometric and micro-tomographic criteria indicating new bone formation, BMD values of 15 µg-4 and −8 weeks study groups showed significant increase comparing with the control group (p = 0.04, p = 0.001, respectively).

Adrenomedullin seemed to have a positive effect on BMD at a certain dose (15 µg) but it alone is not considered sufficient for healing of the defect with new bone formation. Further studies are needed to assess its effects on bone tissue trauma.

This study was funded by Hacettepe University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit

A. Diez-Escudero B. M. Andersson J. D. Järhult N. P. Hailer

Uncemented implants combining antimicrobial properties with osteoconductivity would be highly desirable in revision surgery due to periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Silver coatings convey antibacterial properties, however, at the cost of toxicity towards osteoblasts. On the other hand, topological modifications such as increased surface roughness or porosity support osseointregation but simultaneously lead to enhanced bacterial colonization. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial and osteoconductive properties of silver-coated porous titanium (Ti) alloys manufactured by electron beam melting, rendering a macrostructure that mimics trabecular bone.

Trabecular implants with silver coating (TR-Ag) or without coating (TR) were compared to grit-blasted Ti6Al4V (GB) and glass cover slips as internal controls. Physicochemical characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) together with morphological characterization through electron scanning microscopy (SEM). Bacterial adherence after incubation of samples with Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and S. epidermidis strains harvested from PJI patients was quantitatively assessed by viable count after detachment of adherent bacteria by collagenase/dispase treatment. Primary human osteoblasts (hOB) were used to investigate the osteoconductive potential by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Cell morphology was investigated by fluorescence microscopy after staining with carboxifluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE) and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI).

The trabecular implants depicted a porosity of 70% with pore sizes of 600µm. The amount of silver analyzed by EDX accounted for 35%wt in TR-Ag but nil in TR. Silver-coated TR-Ag implants had 24% lower S. aureus viable counts compared to non-coated TR analogues, and 9% lower compared to GB controls. Despite trabecular implants, both with and without silver, had higher viable counts than GB, the viable count of S. epidermidis was 42% lower on TR-Ag compared to TR. The percentage of viable hOB, measured by LDH and normalized to controls and area at 1 day, was lower on both TR-Ag (18%) and on TR (13%) when compared with GB (89%). However, after 1 week, cell proliferation increased more markedly on trabecular implants, with a 5-fold increase on TR-Ag, a 3.4-fold increase on TR, and a 1.7-fold increase on GB. Furthermore, after 2 weeks of hOB culture, proliferation increased 20-fold on TR-Ag, 29-fold on TR, and 3.9-fold for GB, compared to 1 day. The osteoconductive potential measured by ALP illustrated slightly higher values for TR-Ag compared to TR at 1 day and 2 weeks, however below those of GB samples. Cell morphology assessed by microscopy showed abundant growth of osteoblast-like cells confined to the pores of TR-Ag and TR.

Overall, our findings indicate that the silver coating of trabecular titanium exerts limited cytotoxic effects on osteoblasts and confers antimicrobial effects on two PJI-relevant bacterial strains. We conclude that improving material design by mimicking the porosity and architecture of cancellous bone can enhance osteoconductivity while the deposition of silver confers potent antimicrobial properties.

Eugenia Pugliese Dimitrios Zeugolis

The enthesis is a tissue interface between tendon and bone, essential for adequate force transmission and composed by four distinct zones, namely tendon, fibrocartilage, mineralized fibrocartilage and bone. Given the avascularity of the tendon and the gradual change in tissue architecture and cell phenotype, the enthesis original tissue is often not re-established after chronic injuries, resulting in scar formation. Conservative treatments and surgical approaches are still far from a functional regeneration, whilst tissue engineering based scaffolds have recently showed great potential. In this work, we hypothesised that collagen-based scaffolds that mimic the basic architecture of the enthesis, will be able to spatially direct stem cell differentiation, providing an in vitro platform to study enthesis regeneration.

A three-layer sponge composed of a tendon-like layer (collagen type I), a fibrocartilage-like layer (collagen type II) and a bone-like layer (collagen type I and hydroxyapatite) was fabricated by an iterative layering freeze-drying technique. Scaffold pore size and structural continuity at the interfaces were assessed by SEM and μ-CT analysis. Bone-marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) were seeded on the scaffold and cultured in basal and differentiation media (chondrogenic, tenogenic and osteogenic). At day 7 and 21 the scaffolds were stained with Alizarin Red and Alcian Blue; alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and calcium and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were quantified in order to evaluate BMSC differentiation towards osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage. The presence of collagen I, III, tenascin and decorin in the scaffolds was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining in order to evaluate tenogenic differentiation of BMSCs.

Scaffolds with three distinct but interconnected layers of collagen type I, collagen type II and collagen type I + hydroxyapatite were fabricated, with pore sizes in the range of 100–200 μm. Increased ALP and calcium levels were detected in a localised manner within the bone-like layer when scaffolds were cultured in basal medium (p<0.025 vs the other 2 layers). Similarly, proteoglycans were detected specifically in the fibrocartilage-like layer when scaffolds were cultured in the chondrogenic differentiation medium (p<0.03 vs the other 2 layers). Increased expression of tenogenic markers was observed in the tendon-like layer of scaffolds cultured in tenogenic media (p<0.045 vs the other 2 layers).

In conclusion, the different collagen composition of each layer was able to spatially direct BMSC differentiation in a localized manner within the scaffold. Ongoing work is evaluating the synergistic effect between growth factor functionalized within the fibrocartilage and tendon-like layers for improved BMSC differentiation. Overall, these scaffolds hold promising potential in developing novel and more efficient strategy towards enthesis regeneration.

Sean D. Scattergood Alexander L. Berry Oliver Flannery James W. A. Fletcher Stephen R. Mitchell

Intracapsular neck of femur fractures may be treated with fixation or arthroplasty, depending on fracture characteristics and patient factors. Two common methods of fixation are the sliding hip screw, with or without a de-rotation screw, and cannulated screws. Each has its merits, and to date there is controversy around which method is superior, with either method thought to risk avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) rates in the region of 10–20%.

Fixation with cannulated screws may be performed in various ways, with current paucity of evidence to show an optimum technique. There are a multitude of factors which are likely to affect patient outcomes: technique, screw configuration, fracture characteristics and patient factors. We present a retrospective case series analysis of 65 patients who underwent cannulated screw fixation of a hip fracture.

Electronic operative records were searched from July 2014 until July 2019 for all patients with a neck of femur fracture fixed with cannulated screws: 68 were found. Three patients were excluded on the basis of them having a pathological fracture secondary to malignancy, cases were followed up for 2 years post-operatively. Electronic patient records and X-rays were reviewed for all included patients. All X-rays were examined by each team member twice, with a time interval of two weeks to improve inter-observer reliability.

65 patients were included with 2:1 female to male ratio and average age of 72 years. 36 patients sustained displaced fractures and 29 undisplaced. Ten patients sustained a high-energy injury, none of which developed AVN. Average time to surgery was 40 hours and 57 patients mobilised on day one post-operatively. All cases used either 7 or 7.3mm partially threaded screws in the following configurations: 2 in triangle apex superior, 39 triangle apex inferior, 22 rhomboid and 2 other, with 9 cases using washers. All reductions were performed closed.

Five (8%) of our patients were lost to follow-up as they moved out of area, 48 (74%) had no surgical complications, seven (11%) had mild complications, three (5%) moderate and two (3%) developed AVN. Both of these sustained displaced fractures with low mechanism of injury, were female, ASA 2 and both ex-smokers. One received three screws in apex inferior configuration and one rhomboid, neither fixed with washers.

Our AVN rate following intracapsular hip fracture fixation with cannulated screws is much lower than widely accepted. This study is under-powered to comment on factors which may contribute to the development of AVN. However, we can confidently say that our practice has led to low rates of AVN. This may be due to our method of fixation; we use three screws in an apex inferior triangle or four screws in a rhomboid, our consultant-led operations, closed reduction of all fractures, or our operative technique. We pass a short thread cannulated screw across the least comminuted aspect of the fracture first in order to achieve compression, followed by two or three more screws (depending on individual anatomy) to form a stable construct. Our series shows that fixation of intracapsular hip fractures with cannulated screws as we have outlined remains an excellent option. Patients retain their native hip, have a low rate of AVN, and avoid the risks of open reduction.

Wouter Van Genechten Kristien Vuylsteke Pedro Rojas Martinez Linus Swinnen Peter Verdonk

Autologous micro-fragmented adipose tissue (MFAT) for the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) is gaining interest although there is still a lack of supportive data on safety and clinical efficacy. This study primarily aimed to identify patient- and pathology-related parameters to tighten patient selection criteria for future clinical MFAT application. Secondly, the overall (1) therapeutic response rate (TRR), (2) short-term clinical effect, (3) effect durability and (4) therapeutic safety was investigated at a minimal follow-up of 1 year.

Sixty-four subjects (91 knees) with symptomatic knee OA (mild-severe on MRI) were enrolled in a prospective single-centre case series. Ethical approval was obtained from the local and academic ethical committee (#B300201733775). After liposuction, the adipose tissue was mechanically processed in a Lipogem® device which eventually produced 6–9cc MFAT. Subjects were clinically assessed by means of the KOOS, NRS, UCLA and EQ-5D at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after injection. Adverse events were meticulously recorded. The TRR was defined according to the OMERACT-OARSI criteria. A baseline MRI was scored following the MOAKS system. Paired sample t-tests, independent t-test and Fischer's exact test were applied on appropriate variables. Multiple regression models were fit separately for patient-and pathology-specific factors. Significance level was set at α=0.05.

The overall TRR was 66% at 3 months and 50% at 12 months after injection. Subgroup analysis revealed that specifically patients with no-mild bone marrow lesions (BML) had a TRR of 88% at 3 months and 75% at 12 months after MFAT injection. Therapy responders at these timepoints improved with 29.3±14.1 points and 30.8±15.3 points on KOOS pain, while non-responders deteriorated mildly. All clinical scores were significantly higher at follow-up compared to baseline (p<0.05). BMI (factor 0.17, p=0.002) and age (factor −0.48, p=0.048) were prognosticators for the TRR% at 1 month and for absolute KOOS pain improvement at 6 months, respectively. Posterior horn lesions (PHL) in the medial meniscus (p<0.001) and bone marrow lesions (p=0.003) were negative prognosticators for the TRR at respectively 6 and 12 months post-injection. An inflammatory reaction (pain, swelling or stiffness) to MFAT was reported in 79% knees and resolved spontaneously within 16.6±13.5 days after administration.

The study showed a durable and satisfying TRR (up to 75% at 1 year in selected patients without BML) and clinical improvement after a single intra-articular injection with autologous MFAT. The availability of an index knee MRI is mandatory to select MFAT patients, preferably with no or mild BML and without PHL of the medial meniscus. High BMI and younger age are associated with better early outcomes. In comparison to other injection therapies such as cortisone, hyaluronic acid and PRP, MFAT appears very attractive with an effect durability of at least 1 year.

Berhan Yıldırımkaya Mehmet Salih Söylemez Bekir Yavuz Uçar Fuat Akpınar

Introduction and Purpose

Metacarpal fractures constitute approximately one third of all hand fractures. The majority of these fractures are treated by conservative non-surgical methods. The aim of this study is to obtain the appropriate anatomical alignment of the fracture with dynamic metacarpal stabilization splint (DMSS) and to maintain the proper bone anatomy until the union is achieved. In addition, by comparing this method with short arm plaster splint (SAPS) application, it is aimed to evaluate whether patients are superior in terms of comfort, range of motion (ROM) and grip strength.

Materials and Methods

In our study, SAPS or DMSS was applied to the patients with 5th metacarpal neck fracture randomly after fracture reduction and followed for 3 months. A total of 119 patients with appropriate criteria were included in the study. Radiological alignment of the fracture and amount of joint movements were evaluated during follow-up. Grip strength was evaluated with Jamar dynamometer. EQ-5D-5L and VAS scores were used for clinical evaluation.


The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of arthroscopic unilateral surgery and simultaneous bilateral surgery for posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS) in athletes and to evaluate the usefulness of simultaneous bilateral surgery.

A total 48 hindfeet of 41 athletes (14 hindfeet of 14 males, 34 hindfeet of 27 females) who underwent arthroscopic surgery for PAIS were studied. Japanese society for surgery of the foot (JSSF) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) were compared before and after surgery, using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The operation time and the time to return to sports activity were compared in 10 hindfeet of 5 patients who underwent simultaneous bilateral surgery and 38 hindfeet of 36 patients who underwent unilateral surgery, using Wilcoxon rank sum test.

Classic ballet was the most common type of sport that caused PAIS (59%, 24/41 athletes). Soccer (10%, 4/41 athletes), baseball (10%, 4/41 athletes), badminton (5%, 2/41 athletes), volleyball (5%, 2/41 athletes), and athletics (5%, 2/41 athletes) followed. The JSSF score improved significantly from 72.7 preoperatively to 98.9 postoperatively in unilateral surgery, and significantly improved from 75.2 preoperatively to 99.0 postoperatively in simultaneous bilateral surgery. VAS significantly decreased from 64.7 preoperatively to 4.8 postoperatively in unilateral surgery, and significantly decreased from 72.7 preoperatively to 1.0 postoperatively in simultaneous bilateral surgery. The operating time was 53.7 minutes on average for unilateral surgery and 101.0 minutes for simultaneous bilateral surgery, significantly longer in bilateral simultaneous surgery. The mean time to return to sports activity was 4.8 weeks for unilateral surgery and 9.6 weeks for simultaneous bilateral surgery, significantly longer in simultaneous bilateral surgery.

Both unilateral and simultaneous bilateral surgeries for PAIS in athletes were useful. It should be noted that the operating time and the time to return to sports will be longer. However, considering the 2 times hospitalizations and 2 times surgeries, simultaneous bilateral surgery is one of the treatment options for PAIS.

Engin Çetin İsmail Daldal Ali Eren Saadet Özen Akarca Dizakar Suna Ömeroğlu Bora Uzuner Hakan Çelik Hasan Hüseyin Saygılı Benat Koçkar Alpaslan Şenköylü

Due to well-known disadvantages of the autologous bone graft, many alternatives have been studied for a reliable spinal fusion. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) on posterolateral lumbar fusion in a rat model. 36 male SD rats underwent posterolateral fusion at L4-5 level. They were randomly assigned to 3 groups: Sham control group, Hydoxyapatite β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) group and HA/β-TCP + EGF group. Rats were euthanized at 8 weeks post-surgery. 6 rats from each group were selected for manual palpation examination, micro-computed tomography analysis and histologic analysis; and the rest was used for biomechanical analysis. Based on manual palpation, there was no fusion in the sham control group. Fusion rate was 33.3% in the HA/β-TCP group and 66.7% in the HA/β-TCP + EGF group (p=0.085). Micro-CT results revealed that new bone formation was higher in the HA/β-TCP + EGF group (BV/TV: 40% vs. 65%) (p=0.004). Histologically newly formed bone tissue was more pronounced in the EGF group and compacted and bridging bone spicules were observed. The median maximum bending moment values were 0.51 Nmm (0.42– 0.59), 0.73 Nmm (0.49– 0.88) and 0.91 Nmm (0.66– 1.03) in the sham control, HA/β-TCP and HA/β-TCP + EGF groups, respectively (p=0.013). The median stiffness values were 1.69 N/mm (1.12–2.18), 1.68 N/mm (1.13–2.74) and 3.10 N/mm (1.66–4.40) as in the previous order (p=0.087). This study demonstrates that EGF enhances posterolateral lumbar fusion in the rat model. EGF in combination with ceramic grafts increased the fusion rates.

Halil Yıldırım Mehmet Turgut Emre Çullu Yiğit Uyanıkgil Mustafa Yılmaz Derya Tanrıöver

The effects of Hypericum perforatum on nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury have not yet been evaluated in all its aspects yet. In this experimental study, the effect of Hypericum perforatum on injured nerve tissue was histologically and biochemically investigated. Motor functional healing was surveyed by gait analysis.

Rats were divided into 3 groups: Group I (n=8) was intact control group and no intervention and treatment was applied to this group. Group II (n=16) was surgical control group and Group III (n=16) was Hypericum perforatum group. After the operation, while any treatment was performed on Group II, 30 mg/kg dose Hypericum perforatum extract was intraperitoneally administered to the Group III per day for 8 weeks from the 1st day of post-op. Gait analysis was made to all rats for functional evaluation at 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks, and sciatic functional index (SFI) was evaluated. At the end of the eighth week, sciatic nerve tissue samples were taken from the sacrificed rats. Tissues were examined biochemically, histologically and immnohistochemically. Malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator of oxidative stress and main antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT)] levels were biochemically measured. The nerve degeneration and regeneration were histologically viewed, and also cell count was immnohistochemically done by having done anti-S100 staining.

It was seen that measurement results of SFI were statistically significantly difference between groups (p<0,001). In the sciatic nerve tissue samples taken from the rats, it was not determined a statistically significant difference between MDA, SOD, GPx and CAT levels detected by ELISA method (p>0,05). In the histological evaluation, it was seen that Hypericum perforatum affected positively the regeneration and immunohistochemically, it was found a statistically significant difference between the anti-S-100 positive cell numbers.

The obtained results in this study show that; Hypericum perforatum, which was intraperitoneally administered on rats subjected to nerve injury, has affected positively the nerve regeneration and it can also provide an insight to future studies.

Coskun Ulucakoy Ahmet Yiğit Kaptan Toygun Kağan Eren Sevim Beyza Ölmez Muhammet Baybars Ataoğlu Ulunay Kanatlı


To evaluate the clinical results of arthroscopic repair and open Ahlgren Larsson method in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability.


We retrospectively evaluated 87 patients who were operated in our clinic between 2010 and 2018 with the diagnosis of chronic lateral ankle instability. 16 patients with osteochondral lesion, 5 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 4 patients with ankle fractures of the same side, 2 patients with a history of active or previous malignancy were excluded. Preoperative and postoperative clinical evaluations were performed with AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score, FAOS and VAS scores.

Ömer Özkan Levend Karaçoban Gürhan Dönmez Feza Korkusuz

Adductor strain is a common injury among football players. The adductor muscle group contains the three adductor muscles. (adductor longus, magnus and brevis) Adductor longus muscle is a triangular-shaped long muscle. This muscle originates from the superior ramus of the pubic bone and inserted into the middle part of the linea aspera. Adductor longus muscle is the most commonly injured muscle of adductors. Sudden acceleration, jumping, stretching, and kicking the ball are common causes of an adductor injury. Adductor muscle strains can result in missed playing time for football players.

We present a 26-year-old man soccer player with pain in the left groin and proximal thigh. The symptoms had started during training and after kicking the ball with left foot (dominant side), he felt an acute pain in the groin region and proximal thigh. Despite the injury, he managed to finish the training. The team physician examined the patient immediately after training. The range of motion of both hip joints was in normal ranges and mild pain with adduction. There was a palpable mass at the inner proximal thigh during contraction of adductor muscles. There was no history of groin pain or adductor problems before this injury. Conventional radiographs showed no osseous abnormalities. 36 hours after the injury, MRI revealed acute grade IIB strain in the left adductor longus muscle, including both superior and inferior parts of the muscle. A hematoma was observed in the superior part of the left adductor muscle, with a craniocaudal length of 42 millimeters. There was an adductor muscle strain with hyperintensity extending for a craniocaudal length of approximately 12 centimeters involving more than 50% crosses sectional diameter of the muscle belly. Conservative treatment started immediately, consisting of cold therapy and soft tissue massage. Compression of the injured tissue using a 15-cm elastic bandage roll is done to limit bleeding and provide support. Iced water machine (Game Ready) was used. The team physician examined the player every day and prescribed physiotherapy protocol daily. Additionally, short interval follow-up MRI is used to evaluate the injury. (After 7 and 14 days of the injury) No injection was performed. The player is able to return to play immediately, despite MRI's strain images. The player started straight running 5 days later and joined to team training 8 days later and played 90 minutes-league-match 12 days after injury without any pain. No injection was performed. The player is able to return to play immediately, despite MRI's strain images. The player started straight running 5 days later and joined to team training 8 days later and played 90 minutes-league-match 12 days after injury without any pain.

MRI is a useful technique in diagnosing trauma in football players presenting with groin pain. In this case, to estimate time-to-return-to-play, MRI alone is not strong evidence. MRI is a good option for follow up, but anamnesis and clinical examination is not inferior to diagnostic imaging.

Amelie Sas An Sermon G. Harry van Lenthe

Prophylactic treatment is advised for metastatic bone disease patients with a high risk of fracture. Clinicians face the task of identifying these patients with high fracture risk and determining the optimal surgical treatment method. Subject-specific finite element (FE) models can aid in this decision process by predicting the mechanical effect of surgical treatment. In this study, we specifically evaluated the potential of FE models to simulate femoroplasty, as uncertainty remains whether this prophylactic procedure provides sufficient mechanical strengthening to the weight-bearing femur.

In eight pairs of human cadaveric femurs artificial metastatic lesions were created. In each pair, an identical defect was milled in the left and right femur. Four pairs received a spherical lesion in the neck and the other four an ellipsoidal lesion in the intertrochanteric region, each at the medial, superior/lateral, anterior and posterior side, respectively. One femur of each pair was augmented with polymethylmethacrylate (5–10 ml), while the contralateral femur was left untreated. CT scans were made at three different time points: from the unaffected intact femurs, the defect femurs with lesion and the augmented femurs. Bone strength was measured by mechanical testing until failure in eight defect and eight augmented femurs. Nonlinear CT-based FE models were developed and validated against the experimentally measured bone strength. Subsequently, the validated FE model was applied to the available CT scans for the three different cases: intact (16 scans), defect (16) and augmented (8). The FE predicted strength was compared for the three different cases.

The FE models predicted the experimental bone strength with a strong correspondence, both for the defect (R2 = 0.97, RMSE= 0.75 kN) and the augmented femurs (R2 = 0.90, RMSE = 0.98 kN). Although all lesions had a “moderate” to “high” risk for fracture according to the Mirels’ scoring system (score 7 or 8), three defect femurs did not fracture through the lesion (intertrochanteric anterior, lateral and posterior), indicating that these lesions did not act as a critical weak spot. In accordance with the experimental findings, the FE models indicated almost no reduction in strength between the intact and defect state for these femurs (0.02 ± 0.1%). For the remaining “critical” lesions, bone strength was reduced with 15.7% (± 14.9%) on average. The largest reduction was observed for lesions on the medial side (up to 43.1%). For the femurs with critical lesions, augmentation increased bone strength with 29.5% (± 29.7%) as compared to the defect cases, reaching strength values that were 2.5% (± 3.7%) higher than the intact bone strength.

Our findings demonstrate that FE models can accurately predict the experimental bone strength before and after augmentation, thereby enabling to quantify the mechanical benefit of femoroplasty. This way FE models could aid in identifying suitable patients for whom femoroplasty provides sufficient increase in strength. For all lesions evaluated in this study, femoroplasty effectively restored the initial bone strength. Yet, additional studies on larger datasets with a wide variation of lesion types are required to confirm these results.

Şerife Şeyma Torgutalp Feza Korkusuz


Although there are predictive equations that estimate the total fat mass obtained from multiple-site ultrasound (US) measurements, the predictive equation of total fat mass has not been investigated solely from abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. Therefore, the aims of this study were; (1) to develop regression-based prediction equations based on abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for predicting fat mass in young- and middle-aged adults, and (2) to investigate the validity of these equations to be developed.


The study was approved by the Local Research Ethics Committee (Decision number: GO 19/788). Twenty-seven males (30.3 ± 8.7 years) and eighteen females (32.4 ± 9.5 years) were randomly divided into two groups as the model prediction group (19 males and 12 females) and the validation group (8 males and 6 females). Total body fat mass was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was measured by US. The predictive equations for total fat mass from US were determined as fat thickness (in mm) × standing height (in m). Statistical analyses were performed using R version 4.0.0. The association between the total fat mass and the abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was interpreted using the Pearson test. The linear regression analysis was used to predict equations for total body fat mass from the abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness acquired by US. Then these predictive equations were applied to the validation group. The paired t-test was used to examine the difference between the measured and the predicted fat masses, and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was used as a further measure of agreement.

S. Dalal P. Setia A. Debnath R. Guro R. Kotwal A. Chandratreya


Recurrent patellar dislocation in combination with cartilage injures are difficult injuries to treat with confounding pathways of treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical and functional outcomes of patients operated for patellofemoral instability with and without cartilage defects.


82 patients (mean age-28.8 years) with recurrent patellar dislocations, who underwent soft-tissue or bony procedures, were divided into 2 matched groups (age, sex, follow-up and type of procedure) of 41 each based on the presence or absence of cartilage defects in patella. Chondroplasty, microfracture, osteochondral fixation or Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis(AMIC)-type procedures were done depending on the nature of cartilage injury. Lysholm, Kujala, Tegner and Subjective Knee scores of both groups were compared and analysed. Complications and return to theatre were noted.

Hossein Jodati Zafer Evis Ayşen Tezcaner

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a well-known synthetic biomaterial that has been extensively employed in orthopedic fields as bone grafts or coating of metallic implants. During recent years, ion doping or ionic substitution has been used to improve the performance of bioceramics. Owing to the benefits of a bioactive element such as boron (B) in bone health, and reported impaired bone growth or abnormal development of bone in case of boron deficiency, it was expected that doping of boron could make a positive effect on physicochemical and biological properties of HAp.

In this study, boron-doped hydroxyapatite (BHAp) was synthesized successfully through utilizing microwaved assisted wet precipitation route. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to characterize the phase purity, lattice parameters, degree of crystallinity, particle size and elemental composition of synthesized BHAp powders. Substitution of borate (BO33-) ion with the phosphate (PO43-) in HAp crystal caused lattice distortion due to radius difference between the dopant and the replaced element, which also led to smaller crystalline size and lower crystallinity degree in doped samples (∼ 91 % in 0.5 mol doped BHAp compared to 95 % of pure HAp). In vitro results revealed that although there was no significant difference in biodegradability of doped BHAp, after submerging samples in simulated body fluid for 14 days, intense growth of apatite particles (Ca/P ratio of 1.74) was observed on the surface of BHAp pellets, especially in samples with 0.25 and 0.5 mole B. Observed higher bioactivity was expected due to lower crystallinity degree of BHAp samples.

Due to the results of this study, incorporation of B into the structure of HAp could be considered as a positive step to improve the bioactivity and biological performance of these biomaterials in orthopedic applications.

Claudia Cicione Rocco Papalia Giuseppina Di Giacomo Veronica Tilotta Luca Ambrosio Fabrizio Russo Gianluca Vadalà Vincenzo Denaro

Anterior cruciate ligament injury is the most common and economically costly sport injuries, frequently requiring expensive surgery and rehabilitation. Post-operative knee septic arthritis represents a serious complication with an incidence rate between 0.14% and 1.7%. A common practice to avoid septic arthritis is the “vancomycin wrap”, consisting in the soaking of the graft for 10–15 minutes within a sterile gauze swab previously saturated with 5 mg/mL vancomycin. Even though several studies have been conducted to investigate vancomycin toxicity on different musculoskeletal tissues or cells, little is known about the effect of such antimicrobial on tendon-derived cells.

The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro toxicity of different concentrations of vancomycin at different time points on human primary tenocytes (hTCs).

hTCs were isolated from hamstring grafts of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. After expansion, cells were treated with different concentrations of vancomycin (2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL) for 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes. In vitro toxicity was evaluated measuring: metabolic activity through the reduction of 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT Assay); cytotoxicity (Live/Dead assay); and cell apoptosis (Annexin V apoptosis kit).

The metabolic activity of hTCs was affected by vancomycin treatment starting from 10 mg/mL at all time points (p < 0.05) and dropped down at 100 mg/mL at all time points (0.05 < p < 0.001). Cells viability resulted to be unaffected only by 2.5 mg/mL vancomycin at all time points. Vancomycin resulted to be cytotoxic starting from 10 mg/mL after 15 minutes of treatment and at all higher concentrations under study at all time points. Cells died when treated with vancomycin concentrations higher than 5 mg/mL but not through apoptosis, as confirmed by negative staining for Annexin V.

In our experimental conditions, vancomycin resulted to be toxic on hTCs at concentrations higher than 5 mg/mL. The use of this antibiotic on tendons to prevent infections could be useful and safe for resident cells if used at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL up to 1 hour of treatment.


Previous studies revealed the close relation of anxiety and low back pain. Among people with chronic low back pain, anxiety is the most commonly reported mental disorder. Thus, in the literature, there are several studies considering the anxiety as a risk factor for chronic low back pain. The authors also documented a significant differences between sexes in anxiety and quality of life due to low back pain. US National Institute of Mental Health reports that the lifetime prevalence of an anxiety disorder is 60 % higher in women than in men and that the onset, severity, clinical course, and treatment response of anxiety disorders differ significantly in women. In addition, literature has showed that women may have a worse quality of life when they have low back pain. University students may undergo an undue amount of stress, with negative outcomes in terms of academic resuşts and personal, emotional or health, consequences. Moreover, stress can be experienced at different time periods, not only during university life, but also before, during the transition from undergraduate to professional level, and after, during the transition to the life work. After all these literature knowledge, we designed the study to compare the anxiety and quality of life levels of female and male specifically university students with low back pain aged between 18–26.

In this study, 100 female and male university students with low back pain aged between 18–26 were included. The low back pain level were measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the disability level due to the pain was measured by Revised Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI). Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used to evaluate the anxiety level and also, Short Form 36 survey (SF-36) was used to understand the quality of life for subjects. These questionnaires were asked to participants on online platform via Google Forms between March 2020 and May 2020. SPSS Version 25.0 program was used for statistical analyses.

The result of the study showed that there was a statistically significant difference between female and male students on anxiety levels (p<0.05). There were no statistically differences between female and male students on ODI and VAS (p>0.05). In female group, BAI and “Physical function” and “General Health” subgroups of SF-36 have negative correlations (p<0.05). When we correlated BAI and all subgroups of SF-36 in male group, the statistical results were showed that negative correlation with all subgroups (p<0.05) except “Energy and Fatigue” subgroup (p>0.05).

We conclude that female university students with low back pain have higher anxiety levels than male students. Future studies can work on young students to cope with the psychological problems for well-being.

Biser Makelov Boyko Gueorguiev Theerachai Apivatthakakul


Being challenging, multifragmentary proximal tibial fractures in patients with severe soft tissue injuries and/or short stature can be treated using externalized locked plating. A recent finite element study, investigating the fixation stability of plated unstable tibial fractures with 2-mm, 22-mm and 32-mm plate elevation under partial and full weight-bearing, reported that from a virtual biomechanical point of view, externalized plating seems to provide appropriate relative stability for secondary bone healing under partial weight-bearing during the early postoperative phase. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of using a LISS plate as a definitive external fixator for the treatment of multifragmentary proximal tibial fractures.


Following appropriate indirect reduction, externalized locked plating was performed and followed up in 12 patients with multifragmentary proximal tibial fractures with simple intraarticular involvement and injured soft tissue envelope.

Egemen Odabaşı Omer Faruk Erkoçak Fatih Ertem


It is an example of tendon to bone healing of rotator cuff tears. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is used in pain literature, pain palliation, tendinopathies, osteoarthritis treatment, implant osteointegration in jaw surgery, wound healing, fracture healing, tendon healing, nerve healing. But; there is not a study on tendon-bone healing. It is aimed to investigate the effects of tendon to bone healing with the rotator cuff experimental tear model.

Material and Methods

60 Wistor Albino Rat right shoulders were used in our project in four groups. Effectiveness of the study in each study group to increase and use the minimum number of animals that would be significant it was planned to use 15 (6 histology + 9 biomechanical) subjects. In our study, there are 4 groups in total. 1. Group 4. Week sacrified control group 2. Group 4. Week sacrificed LLLT group 3. Group 8. Week sacrified control group 4. Group is postoperative LLLT group. The 4 round SSP tendons have been cut with a full course. A total of eight sessions of biostimulation were performed with 24 j energy per session. Biomechanical tensile test and histopathological examination were performed on rats sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks. In histological examination, cellularity at the repair site with hemotoxylin-eosin staining, extracellular matrix localization with Masson trichrome staining and fibrosis, TRAP (Tartrate Resistance Acid Phosphatase) and osteoclast activity, collagen fibril organization with picrochucine were evaluated. In immunohistological examination, proliferation activity was evaluated by CD-31 (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA) through vascular endothelial cells, Ki-67 (Tucson, AZ) and tendon proliferation index. Failure load for comparison of biomechanical stability between groups drawing will be done. Biomechanical pulling applications Linear pulling force over tendon It will be realized by applying. Last failure load (Newton), elongation (mm) and hardness values was recorded.

Muhammad Murtaza Khan Bethan Pincher Recardo Pacheco

Aims and objectives

Our aim was to evaluate the indications for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee prior to referral to an orthopaedic specialist, and ascertain whether these scans altered initial management.

Materials and Method

We retrospectively reviewed all referrals received by a single specialist knee surgeon over a 1-year period. Patient demographics, relevant history, examination findings and past surgical procedures were documented. Patients having undergone MRI prior to referral were identified and indications for the scans recorded. These were reviewed against The NHS guidelines for Primary Care Physicians to identify if the imaging performed was appropriate in each case.

Tarık Elma Hakan Yusuf Selek Tuğba Çuhadar Mehmet Ali Tokgöz Aliekber Yapar

Antibiotic-laden bone cement is an important strategy of treatment for an established bone infection. It was aimed to find the safe antibiotic dose intervals of the antibiotic cements soaked in Phosphate Buffered Saline solution and to determine whether there was a difference in terms of mechanical strength between the prepared samples.

This study was done in our institute Microbiology and Metallurgy laboratories. All samples were prepared using manual mixing technique using 40 g radiopaque Biomet® Bone cement (Zimmer Biomet, Indiana, USA) under sterile conditions at 19 ± 2 ºC.

In this study, vancomycin (4 groups − 0.5, 2, 4, 6 g), teicoplanin (4 groups − 0.8, 1.2, 2, 2.4 g), daptomycin (4 groups − 1, 2, 2.5, 3 g), piperacillin-tazobactam (4 groups − 0.125, 0.5, 1, 2 g) and meropenem (4 groups − 0.5, 2, 4, 6 g) were measured in a assay balance and added to the cement powder. Antibiotic levels ranged from the lowest 0.625% to the highest 15%.

80×10×4 mm rectangle prism-shaped sample for mechanical measurements in accordance to ISO 5833 standart and 12×6×1 mm disc-shaped samples for microbiological assesments were used. Four sample for each antibiotic dose and control group was made. Prepared samples were evaluated macroscopically and faulty samples were excluded from the study. Prepared samples were kept in Phosphate Buffered Saline solution renewed every 24 hours at 37 ºC. At the end of 6 weeks, all samples were tested with Instron ® 3369 (Norwood Massachusetts, USA) four point bending test.

Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) strain was used for samples of antibiotics containing vancomycin, teicoplanin and daptomycin after the samples prepared for antibiotic release were maintained under sterile conditions and kept in Phosphate Buffered Saline solution as appropriate. For samples containing meropenem and piperacillin - tazobactam antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) strain was used.

The addition of more than 5% antibiotics to the cement powder was significantly reduced mechanical strength in all groups(p <0.05) however the power of significance was changed depending on the type of antibiotic. In general, adding antibiotics with 2.5% and less for cement amount was not cause significant changes in mechanical measurements. There was a negative correlation between the increase in the amount of antibiotics mixed with cement and the durability of the cement (p: <0.001, r: −0.883 to 0.914).

In this study, especially the antibacterial effects of piperacillin-tazobactam, containing 0.25 gr and 0.5 gr antibiotic doses, were found to be low. There was no bacterial growth in all other groups for 21 days. Considering the mechanical properties of groups containing meropenem, vancomycin, daptomycin and teicoplanin, it was observed that all antibiotic cements remained above the limit value of 50 MPa in the bending test at concentrations containing 2.5% and less antibiotics. This was not achieved for the piperacillin-tazobactam group. The findings of the study showed that each antibiotic has different MPa values at different doses. Therefore, it could be concluded that not only the antibiotic dose but also the type oould change the mechanical properties. In the light of these findings, mixing more than 2.5% antibiotics in cement for the antibiotic types included in the study was ineffective in terms of antibacterial effect and mechanically reduces the durability of cement below the standard value of 50 MPa.

Elif Tuğçe Çil Gülşah Gökçek Uğur Şaylı Tacha Şerif Feryal Subaşı

Foot pain and related problems are quite common in the community. It is reported that 24% of individuals older than 45 experienced foot pain. Also, it is stated that at least two thirds of individuals experiences moderate physical disability due to foot problems. In the absence of evaluation of risk factors such as limited ankle dorsiflexion in the early period of the diseases (Plantar fasciitis, Achilles Tendinopathy e.g.) and the lack of mobile systems with portable remote access, foot pain becomes refractory/chronic foot pain, secondary pathologies and ends with workload of 1., 2. and 3rd level healthcare services. In the literature, manuel and dijital methods have been used to analyze the ankle range of motion (ROM). These studies are generally based on placing protractors on the image and / or angle detection from inclination measurement by using the gyroscope sensor of the mobile device. Some of these applications are effective and they are designed to be suitable for measuring in a clinical setting by a physician or physiotherapist. To the best of our knowledge, there is no system developed to measure real-time ankle ROM remotely with collaboration of the patients. In this research, we proposed to develop an ankle ROM analyze system with smart phone application that can be used comfortably by subjects.

We present a case of a 22-year-old male with a symptomatic pes planus. The mobile application, which was used for data collection, was designed and implemented for Android devices. Initially, before the mobile application home page is opened, a consent page was submitted to the acceptance of individual within the scope of Law (KVKK) data privacy. Then, the participant was asked to state his sociodemographic characteristics [age, gender, height, weight] and dominant side. No history of foot-ankle injury, trauma, and surgery was recorded. Activity pain of the foot was 6 according to visual anolog scale (VAS) in the mobile application. His ankle dorsiflexion was 15 ° by manuel goniometer. Besides, server was responsible for storing the collected data and ROM measurement. ROM was calculated by processing the foot video which was sent through the mobile application. During the processing phase, a segmentation model was used which was trained with image process and deep learning methods. With the developed system, we obtained the manual goniometric measurement result with 2 degrees deviation. As the application is calibrated, it is expected to approach the actual measurement of ROM.

We can conclude that mobile app-goniometer result in dorsiflexion measurement is a novel promising evaluation method for ankle ROM. it will be easy and practical to detect and monitor risk factor of the diseases, decrease medical costs, provide health services in rural areas, and contribution to life quality and to reduce the workload on physicians and physiotherapist.

Ismail Eralp Kacmaz Ercument Egeli Can Doruk Basa Vadym Zhamilov

Proximal femur fractures are common in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between fracture type and proximal femoral geometric parameters.

We retrospectively studied the electronic medical records of 85 elderly patients over 60 years of age who were admitted to the orthopedic department with hip fractures between January 2016 and January 2018 in a training and research hospital in Turkey. Age, fracture site, gender, implant type and proximal femoral geometry parameters (neck shaft angle [NSA], center edge angle [CEA], femoral head diameter [FHD], femoral neck diameter [FND], femoral neck axial length [FNAL], hip axial length [HAL], and femoral shaft diameter [FSD]) were recorded. Patients with femoral neck fractures and femur intertrochanteric fractures were divided into two groups. The relationship between proximal femoral geometric parameters and fracture types was examined. SPSS 25.0 (IBM Corparation, Armonk, New York, United States) program was used to analyze the variables. Independent samples t test was used to compare the fracture types according to NSA, FHD, FND and FSD variables.

A statistically significant difference was found in FSD (p=0,002) and age (p=0,019). FSD and age were found to be greater in intertrochanteric fractures than neck fractures. Gender, site, CEA, FNAL, HAL, NSA, FHD and FND parametres were not significantly different.

In the literature, it is seen that different results have been reached in different studies. In a study conducted in the Chinese population, a significant difference was found between the two groups in NSA, CEA and FNAL measurements. In a study conducted in the Korean population, a significant difference was found only in NSA measurements. The FSD is generally associated with bone mineral densitometry in the literature and has been shown to be a risk factor for fracture formation. However, a study showing that there is a relationship between FSD and fracture type is not available in the literature.

In this study; FSD was found to be higher in intertrochanteric fractures (p = 0.002). However, for the clinical significance of this difference, we think that larger patient series and biomechanical studies are needed.

E. Pourreza B.C. Cengiz A. Duyan Çamurdan G. Bora Taş M. Zinnuroğlu S. Gürses

It has been recently being investigated how the pressure distribution beneath the foot points to the active usage of the foot in standing adults. Nevertheless, it offers new perspectives in postural research by introducing foot-triggered sensory-motor control strategies in quiet standing dynamics. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal evolution of physiological postural control strategies has not clearly been identified yet. Thus, we have chosen developmental aspects of the infant's postural adjustments as a media to explore learning of biped standing. This study investigates developmental changes in active usage of a contact surface and pressure distribution beneath infants’ foot during learning of upright posture. We started studying longitudinally on 22 female and 22 male infants at their 12.5th months (1st trimester, T1) and kept on screening the same subjects at every three months (19 females and 12 males at 15.5th months (T2), 17 females and 7 males at 18.4th months (T3)), during their normal checkup appointments in Gazi University Hospital, Social Pediatrics Department-Ankara/Turkey. Each trial was fulfilled by an infant standing on a pressure pad placed on top of a force plate to collect the pressure distribution data beneath the feet for 15 sec at T1, and 25-sec long duration at T2 and T3 and was repeated at least three times. During the data collection, infants’ parents were beside them trying to get infants’ attention towards themselves preventing them from being distracted and/or moving and walking around. The data collection setup additionally contained one camera for videotaping the infants’ reactions.

Our main research interest in this study was to explore the spatiotemporal evolution of the behavioral characteristics of human postural sway. We expected to monitor the developmental changes at an infant's standing experience during their 2nd-year epoch through time-frequency domain analyses and explorative/exploitative informatics’ metrics. We computed Center of Pressure (CoP) time signal from the data collected by the force plate and the pressure pad. In time domain, mean and the variance at the CoP time signal were estimated in both antero-posterior (CoPx) and medio-lateral (CoPy) directions. In the frequency domain, 50% and 95% power frequency, centroidal frequency (CF), and frequency dispersion were calculated. We observed substantial developmental changes in every trimester, each being comparable with the previous one, which points to infants experiencing a major developmental milestone that can be noticed considerably even in the shorter time intervals. The phase plane analysis performed through the time signals and their time derivatives (estimated velocity of CoPx and CoPy) revealed a shrinkage in the characteristic pattern observed through the following epochs. One-Way ANOVA analysis demonstrated significant differences in 50% and 95% power and centroidal frequency of CoPx (p=0.001, p=0.000, p=0.000) and CoPy (p=0.002, p=0.000, p=0.000) respectively. Further, post hoc analyses demonstrated a significant difference at T1 compared against T2 and T3 for all three frequency domain metrics. Particularly speaking, CF dropped from 2.39 to 1.65 Hz, and from 2.86 to 1.70 Hz for CoPx and CoPy respectively, while passing from T1 to T2. The current status of this research managed to grasp the developmental aspects of infant standing through frequency domain metrics and reconstructed phase space analysis up to their 18 months old.

Ayşe Gül TOKTAŞ Salih AKYÜREKLİ Yiğitalp OKUMUŞ Mert GÜL Nusret KÖSE Aydın DOĞAN

Musculoskeletal disorders is one of most important health problems human population is facing includes. Approximately 310 thousand of hip protheses have been used in 45 years and older patients in total according to the recent studies have been done. [1, 2]. Many factors, including poor osseointegration or relaxation of the implant due to stress, limit the life of the load-bearing implants [3]. To overcome these difficulties and to protect metal implants inside the body, the surfaces of the implants were coated with silver ion doped hydroxyapatite/bioglass. In this study, silver doped hydroxyapatite ceramic powder and 6P57 bioglass were synthesized. Two different coating suspensions, 100% bioglass and 70% Ag-HAp / 30% bioglass, were prepared in methyl alcohol with a solid content of 1% by weight.

Two layers were coated on the external fixator nails by using electrospray method with the bioglass and Ag-Hap/Bioglass suspensions respectively. The coated implants were cut with an equal surface area and kept in human blood plasma for different time. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Zeiss Supra 50VP and Zeiss Evo 50EP) and stereo microscope (Zeiss Axiocam Stemi 2000-C) were used to characterize microstructure and thickness of coated surface. Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy was used characterized of chemical composition of coating. Changing of pH value of plasma was measured by pH meter (Hanna HI83414). In addition, the ICP method was used to determine the elements contained in the plasma fluid after dissolution. As a result of this study, physical and chemical changes occurring on the coating surface in different time periods are presented in detail

Yiğit Burak Ateş Emre Çullu Mutlu Çobanoğlu


To investigate the effect of the eight plate position in sagittal plane on tibial slope in temporary epiphysiodesis technique applied to the proximal tibia and whether there is a rebound effect after removing the plate.


Forty New Zealand rabbits (6 weeks old) were divided into four groups. In all groups, two 1.3 mm mini plates and cortical screws implantation were placed on both medial and lateral side of the proximal epiphysis of the right tibia. In Group 1 and 3, the plates were placed on anterior of the proximal tibial anatomical axis in the sagittal plane, and placed posteriorly in Group 2 and 4. The left tibia was examined as control in all groups. Group 1 and Group 2 were sacrificed after four week-follow-up. In Group 3 and Group 4, the implants were removed four weeks after index surgery and the rabbits were followed four more weeks to investigate the rebound effect. The tibial slope was measured on lateral X-rays every two weeks. Both medial and lateral plateau slopes were evaluated on photos of the dissected tibia.

John Ranson Graham Nuttall Robin Paton

Aims & Background

Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) is the most common congenital musculoskeletal birth defect affecting 1 in 1000 births per annum. We have compared our surgical results to the British Society of Children's Orthopaedics (BSCOS) published guidelines


Between, 2006–16, patients who were referred for treatment of pathological CTEV were audited. Data from a combination of Clinical Portal, Orthotic Patient Administration System and Surgical Elogbook were assessed. In addition, the degree of deformity was classified by the Harrold & Walker method at the time of diagnosis (senior author). Most of this information was recorded prospectively and analysed retrospectively. Ponseti technique was the method of treatment.

John Ranson Samuel Grant Qaisar Choudry Robin Paton


Patients who undergo elective hip and knee arthroplasty often have multiple risk factors increasing their likelihood of suffering from hyponatraemia post operatively. Consequently suffering from hyponatraemia post elective hip and knee arthroplasty is common. Consequently we wanted to assess the occurrence of hyponatraemia in our elective arthroplasty unit, assess our effectiveness in managing this and importantly assess how its occurrence impacted on length of patient stay.


Retrospective analysis of elective hip and knee arthroplasty patients over a five month period. Pre-operative and post-operative sodium levels analysed and their grade measured using NICE reference ranges. In post-operative hyponatraemic patients blood results were analysed up until discharge. Discharge summaries were reviewed to assess communication between primary and secondary care. Length of admission calculated. Formal action plan developed in partnership with the anaesthetic department to improve future management.

Giovanni Barbanti Brodano Cristiana Griffoni Jarkko Halme Giuseppe Tedesco Silvia Terzi Stefano Bandiera Riccardo Ghermandi Gisberto Evangelisti Marco Girolami Valerio Pipola Asdrubal Falavigna Alessandro Gasbarrini


To face the problem of surgical complications, which is generally relevant in surgical fields, an intraoperative checklist (Safety Surgical Checklist, SSC) was elaborated and released by the World Health Organization in 2008, and its use has been described in 2009. In our Institution, the WHO SSC was introduced in 2011.

In spinal surgery, many preventive measures were investigated to reduce complications, but there is no report on the effectiveness of the WHO checklist in reducing complications.


The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of complications between the two periods, from January to December 2010 (without checklist) and from January 2011 to December 2012 (with checklist), in order to assess the checklist effectiveness.

António Ramos Michel Mesnard Pedro Sampaio


The ankle cartilage has an important function in walking movements, mainly in sports; for active young people, between 20 and 30 years old, the incidence of osteochondral lesions is more frequent. They are also more frequent in men, affecting around 21,000 patients per year in USA with 6.5% of ankle injuries generating osteochondral lesions. The lesion is a result of ankle sprain and is most frequently found in the medial location, in 53% of cases.

The main objective of this work was to develop an experimental and finite element models to study the effect of the ankle osteochondral lesion on the cartilage behavior.

Materials and Methods

The right ankle joint was reconstructed from an axial CT scan presenting an osteochondral lesion in the medial position with 8mm diameter in size. An experimental model was developed, to analyze the strains and influence of lesion size and location similar to the patient. The experimental model includes two cartilages constructed by Polyjet™ 3D printing from rubber material (young modulus similar to cartilage) and bone structures from a rigid polymer. The cartilage was instrumented with two rosettes in the medial and lateral regions, near the osteochondral region. The fluid considered was water at room temperature and the experimental test was run at 1mm/s. The Finite element model (FE) includes all the components considered in the experimental apparatus and was assigned the material properties of bone as isotropic and linear elastic materials; and the cartilage the same properties of rubber material. The fluid was simulated as hyper-elastic one with a Mooney-Rivlin behavior, with constants c1=0.07506 and c2=0.00834MPa. The load applied was 680N in three positions, 15º extension, neutral and 10º flexion.

Kerem Yildirim Tahsin Beyzadeoglu


Return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is multifactorial and rotational stability is one of the main concerns. Anterolateral ligament reconstruction (ALLR) has been recommended to enhance rotational stability.


To assess the effect of ALLR on return to sports.

Anindya Debnath Shaival Dalal Piyush Setia Randy Guro Rahul Sudhakar Kotwal Amit P. Chandratreya


Recurrent patellar dislocation is often reported in bilateral knees in young active individuals. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) tear is the attributable cause behind many of them and warrants reconstruction of the ligament to stabilize the patellofemoral joint. Besides, trochleoplasty and Fulkerson's osteotomy are some other procedures that are performed to treat this problem. This study aimed to compare the clinical and functional outcomes in a cohort of patients with single-stage bilateral realignment procedures vs staged procedures.


It was a retrospective matched cohort study with prospectively collected data. A total of 36 patients (mean age-26.9 years, range 13 years to 47 years) with recurrent patellar dislocations, who underwent a surgical correction in both the knees, were divided into two matched groups (age, sex, follow-up, and type of procedure). Among them, 18 patients had surgeries in one knee done at least six months later than the other knee. The remaining 18 patients had surgical interventions for both knees done in a single stage. Lysholm, Kujala, Tegner, and subjective knee scores of both groups were compared and analyzed. The rate of complications and return to the theatre were noted in both groups.

Abdulhamit Misir Volkan Kaya Hakan Basar

The ideal treatment method regarding various defect sizes after local aggressive tumor resection is unknown. We investigated the biomechanical properties of metaphyseal defect filling regarding different defect sizes and fixation methods.

Ninety-one sheep tibias were divided into five groups as 21 tibias per four study groups and 7 tibias in the control group. Study groups were further divided into three subgroups according to 25%, 50% and 75% metaphyseal defect size. Control group tibias were left intact. In study group 1, a metaphyseal defect was created and no further process was applied. Metaphyseal defects were filled with cement without fixation in group 2. Cement filling and fixation with 2 screws were performed in group 3. In addition to cement filling, plate-screw fixation was performed in group 4. Axial loading test was applied to all tibias and the results were compared between study subgroups and control group.

Plate-screw fixation was found to have the best biomechanical properties in all defect sizes. Load to failure for screw fixation was found to be significantly decreased between 25% and 50% defect size (P<0.05). However, load to failure for isolated cement filling was not affected from defect size (p>0.05).

In conclusion, size of the defect predicts the fixation method in addition to filling with cement. Filling with cement in metaphyseal defects was found to be biomechanically insufficient. In addition to filling with cement, additional screw fixation in less than 25% defects and plate-screw fixation in more than 25% defects may decrease tibial plateau fracture or metaphyseal fracture risk after local aggressive tumor resection.

Vasiliki Panagiotopoulou Marzieh Ovesy Boyko Gueorguiev Geoff Richards Philippe Zysset Peter Varga

Proximal humerus fractures are the third most common fragility fractures with treatment remaining challenging. Mechanical fixation failure rates of locked plating range up to 35%, with 80% of them being related to the screws perforating the glenohumeral joint. Secondary screw perforation is a complex and not yet fully understood process. Biomechanical testing and finite element (FE) analysis are expected to help understand the importance of various risk factors. Validated FE simulations could be used to predict perforation risk. This study aimed to (1) develop an experimental model for single screw perforation in the humeral head and (2) evaluate and compare the ability of bone density measures and FE simulations to predict the experimental findings.

Screw perforation was investigated experimentally via quasi-static ramped compression testing of 20 cuboidal bone specimens at 1 mm/min. They were harvested from four fresh-frozen human cadaveric proximal humeri of elderly donors (aged 85 ± 5 years, f/m: 2/2), surrounded with cylindrical embedding and implanted with a single 3.5 mm locking screw (DePuy Synthes, Switzerland) centrally. Specimen-specific linear µFE (ParOSol, ETH Zurich) and nonlinear explicit µFE (Abaqus, SIMULIA, USA) models were generated at 38 µm and 76 µm voxel sizes, respectively, from pre- and post-implantation micro-Computed Tomography (µCT) images (vivaCT40, Scanco Medical, Switzerland). Bone volume (BV) around the screw and in front of the screw tip, and tip-to-joint distance (TJD) were evaluated on the µCT images. The µFE models and BV were used to predict the experimental force at the initial screw loosening and the maximum force until perforation.

Initial screw loosening, indicated by the first peak of the load-displacement curve, occurred at a load of 64.7 ± 69.8 N (range: 10.2 – 298.8 N) and was best predicted by the linear µFE (R2 = 0.90), followed by BV around the screw (R2 = 0.87). Maximum load was 207.6 ± 107.7 N (range: 90.1 – 507.6 N) and the nonlinear µFE provided the best prediction (R2 = 0.93), followed by BV in front of the screw tip (R2 = 0.89). Further, the nonlinear µFE could better predict screw displacement at maximum force (R2 = 0.77) than TJD (R2 = 0.70). The predictions of non-linear µFE were quantitatively correct.

Our results indicate that while density-based measures strongly correlate with screw perforation force, the predictions by the nonlinear explicit µFE models were even better and, most importantly, quantitatively correct. These models have high potential to be utilized for simulation of more realistic fixations involving multiple screws under various loading cases. Towards clinical applications, future studies should investigate if explicit FE models based on clinically available CT images could provide similar prediction accuracies.

Jin Chu Christian Pfeifer Volker Alt Denitsa Docheva


Cell-based tendon engineering is an attractive alternative therapeutic approach to established treatments of tendon injuries. Numerous cell types are promising source of tendon engineering; however, there are certain disadvantages for each cell type. Interestingly, dermal fibroblasts (DFs) are able to transdifferentiate into other cell types, they are widely distributed in dermis and easy to harvest and isolate. Furthermore, pilot clinical studies suggested a promising therapeutic potential of autologous DFs for discorded tendons (Connell et al., 2009&2011), but the underlining repair mechanisms remain unclarified. To investigate tenogenic differentiation process in great detail, we have previously established a three-dimensional (3D) cell sheet model, comprising of three consecutive step (expansion, stimulation and maturation) leading to the formation of 3D tendon-like tube (Hsieh et al., 2018; Yan et al., 2020). Hence, the aim of this study was to carry out pilot examination of the tenogenic potential of human DFs (hDFs) by implementing the 3D cell sheet model.


hDFs (company purchased, n=2), hBMSCs (human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, n=1) and hTSPCs (human tendon stem/progenitor cells, n=1) were used and subjected to the 3D model. In 2D culture, semi-qPCR was performed to validate the expression of DF markers in hDFs, namely NTN1, PDPN and CD26 for papillary dermis layer, and PPARG, ACTA2 and CD36 for reticular dermis layer). FACS analysis and immunofluorescence were employed to validate expression of CD73, CD90, CD105 and vimentin (mesenchyme marker), respectively. After harvesting the 3D cell sheets, wet weigh measurements, H&E and collagen type I stainings, and semi-qPCR for Scleraxis and tenomodulin were executed.

Anindya Debnath Nitesh Rathi Santanu Suba Dinesh Raju


Intraarticular calcaneal fractures often need open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with plate osteosynthesis. The wound complication is one of the common problems encountered following this and affects the outcome adversely. Our study was done to assess how far postoperative slab/cast can avert wound complications.


Out of 42 patients with unilateral intraarticular calcaneal fractures, 20 were offered postoperative slab/cast and this was continued for six weeks. The remaining 22 patients were not offered any plaster. All patients were followed-up for two years.

Orçun Taylan Josh Slane Ignace Ghijselings Hendrik Pieter Delport Lennart Scheys

Poor soft tissue balance in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most primary causes of dissatisfaction and reduced joint longevity, which are associated with postoperative instability and early implant failure1. Therefore, surgical techniques, including mechanical instruments and 3-D guided navigation systems, in TKA aim to achieve optimum soft tissue balancing in the knee to improve postoperative outcome2. Patella-in-Place balancing (PIPB) is a novel technique which aims to restore native collateral ligament behaviour by preserving the original state without any release. Moreover, reduction of the joint laxity compensates for the loss of the visco-elastic properties of the cartilage and meniscus. Following its clinical success, we aimed to evaluate the impact of the PIPB technique on collateral ligament strain and laxity behaviour, with the hypothesis that PIPB would restore strains in the collateral ligaments3.

Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric legs were obtained (KU Leuven, Belgium, H019 2015-11-04) and CT images were acquired while rigid marker frames were affixed into the femur, and tibia for testing. After carefully removing the soft tissues around the knee joint, while preserving the joint capsule, ligaments, and tendons, digital extensometers (MTS, Minnesota, USA) were attached along the length of the superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL). A handheld digital dynamometer (Mark-10, Copiague, USA) was used to apply an abduction or adduction moment of 10 Nm at fixed knee flexion angles of 0°, 30°, 60° and 90°. A motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, UK) was used to record the trajectories of the rigid marker frames while synchronized strain data was collected for MCL/LCL. All motion protocols were applied following TKA was performed using PIPB with a cruciate retaining implant (Stryker Triathlon, MI, USA). Furthermore, tibiofemoral kinematics were calculated4 and combined with the strain data. Postoperative tibial varus/valgus stresses and collateral ligament strains were compared to the native condition using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test (p<0.05).

Postoperative tibial valgus laxity was lower than the native condition for all flexion angles. Moreover, tibial valgus of TKA was significantly different than the native condition, except for 0° (p=0.32). Although, tibial varus laxity of TKA was lower than the native at all angles, significant difference was only found at 0° (p=0.03) and 90° (p=0.02). No significant differences were observed in postoperative collateral ligament strains, as compared to the native condition, for all flexion angles, except for MCL strain at 30° (p=0.02) and 60° (p=0.01).

Results from this experimental study supported our hypotheses, barring MCL strain in mid-flexion, which might be associated with the implant design. Restored collateral ligament strains with reduced joint laxity, demonstrated by the PIPB technique in TKA in vitro, could potentially restore natural joint kinematics, thereby improving patient outcomes.

In conclusion, to further prove the success of PIPB, further biomechanical studies are required to evaluate the success rate of PIPB technique in different implant designs.



To analyze the short-term outcome after medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy with a 3D-printing technology in early medial keen osteoarthritis and varus malalignment.

Design and Method

32 knees(28 cases) of mOWHTO (fixation with an angular-stable TomoFix implant(Synthes)) with a 3D-printing technology combined with arhtroscopy were prospectively surveyed with regard to functional outcome(Hospital for special knee score [HSS] score). Pre- and postoperative tibial bone varus angle (TBVA), mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), and alignment were analyzed with regard to the result.



Medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) has been accepted as a highly effective option for the treatment of medial unicompartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. Although pain in the medial joint line is significantly relieved after MOWHTO, some patients complain of pain over pes anserinus after the osteotomy, necessitating implant removal for pain relief.


The purpose of this study is to define the implant removal rate after MOWHTO due to patient complaints.

Yavor Pukalski Jan Barcik Ivan Zderic Parvan Yanev Asen Baltov Mihail Rashkov Geoff Richards Boyko Gueorguiev Dian Enchev

Coronoid fractures account for 2 to 15% of the cases with elbow dislocations and usually occur as part of complex injuries. Comminuted fractures and non-unions necessitate coronoid fixation, reconstruction or replacement. The aim of this biomechanical study was to compare the axial stability achieved via an individualized 3D printed prosthesis with curved cemented intramedullary stem to both radial head grafted reconstruction and coronoid fixation with 2 screws. It was hypothesized that the prosthetic replacement will provide superior stability over the grafted reconstruction and screw fixation.

Following CT scanning, 18 human cadaveric proximal ulnas were osteotomized at 40% of the coronoid height and randomized to 3 groups (n = 6). The specimens in Group 1 were treated with an individually designed 3D printed stainless steel coronoid prosthesis with curved cemented intramedullary stem, individually designed based on the contralateral coronoid scan. The ulnas in Group 2 were reconstructed with an ipsilateral radial head autograft fixed with two anteroposterior screws, whereas the osteotomized coronoids in Group 3 were fixed in situ with two anteroposterior screws.

All specimens were biomechanically tested under ramped quasi-static axial loading to failure at a rate of 10 mm/min. Construct stiffness and failure load were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed at a level of significance set at 0.05.

Prosthetic treatment (Group 1) resulted in significantly higher stiffness and failure load compared to both radial head autograft reconstruction (Group 2) and coronoid screw fixation, p ≤ 0.002. Stiffness and failure load did not reveal any significant differences between Group 2 and Group 3, p ≥ 0.846.

In cases of coronoid deficiency, replacement of the coronoid process with an anatomically shaped individually designed 3D printed prosthesis with a curved cemented intramedullary stem seems to be an effective method to restore the buttress function of the coronoid under axial loading. This method provides superior stability over both radial head graft reconstruction and coronoid screw fixation, while achieving anatomical articular congruity. Therefore, better load distribution with less stress at the bone-implant interface can be anticipated. In the clinical practice, implementation of this prosthesis type could allow for early patient mobilization with better short- and long-term treatment outcomes and may be beneficial for patients with irreparable comminuted coronoid fractures, severe arthritic changes or non-unions.



Simultaneous correction of knee varus malalignment with medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) combined with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery aims to address symptomatic unicompartmental osteoarthritis in addition to restore knee stability in order to improve outcomes. The aim of this study is to present at least 5 years results of 32 patients who underwent simultaneous knee realignment osteotomy with ACL surgery.


Patients with symptomatic instability due to chronic ACL deficiency or failed previous ACL surgery together with a varus malalignment of ≥6°, previous medial meniscectomy and symptomatic medial compartment pain who were treated with MOWHTO combined with ACL surgery were enrolled. ACL surgery was performed with the anatomical single bundle all-inside technique using TightRope® RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) and MOWHTO using TomoFix® medial high tibia plate (DePuy Synthes, Raynham, MA, USA) in all cases. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 6 months, 12 months and annually postoperatively using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and Euroqol's Visual Analogue Score (VAS) for pain.

Cihangir Turemis Oylum Colpankan Gunes Gizem Baysan Merve Perpelek Aylin Ziylan Albayrak Hasan Havitcioglu

Bone fractures are highly observed clinical situation in orthopaedic treatments. In some cases, there might be non-union problems. Therefore, recent studies have focused on tissue engineering applications as alternative methods to replace surgical procedures. Various biopolymer based scaffolds are produced using different fabrication techniques for bone tissue engineering applications.

In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) and loofah containing carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) scaffolds were prepared. In this regard, first 4 ml of CMC solution, 0.02 g of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and 0.06 g of poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) were mixed in an ultrasonic bath until the HAp powders were suspended. Next, 0.04 g of loofah was added to the suspension and with the help of PEGDE as the cross-linking agent, then, the mixture was allowed to cross-link at 40oC overnight. Finally, the three-dimensional, porous and sponge-like scaffolds were obtained after lyophilization (TELSTAR - LyoQuest −85) at 0.1 mbar and −25°C for 2 days.

Morphologies, chemical structures and thermal properties of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), respectively. In addition, swelling behavior and mechanical properties of the scaffolds under compression loading were determined.

In order to investigate biocompatibility of the scaffolds, WST-1 colorimetric assay at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 was conducted by using human dermal fibroblast. Also, histological and morphological analysis were performed for cell attachment at day 7.

In conclusion, the produced scaffolds showed no cytotoxic effect. Therefore, they can be considered as a candidate scaffold for bone tissue regeneration. Further studies will be performed by using bone marrow and periosteum derived mesenchymal stem cells with these scaffolds.

Nusret Köse Çağdaş Hünkar Bayrak Aydan Ayşe Köse Adnan Sevencan Ayşe Gül Toktaş Aydın Doğan

Orthopaedic and trauma implant related infection remains one of the major complications that negatively impact clinical outcome and significantly increase healthcare expenditure.

Hydroxyapatite has been used for many years to increase implant osseointegration. Silver has been introduced into hydroxyapatite as an antimicrobial coating for orthopedic implants. This surface coatings can both increase tissue compatibility and prevent implant-related infections.

We examined infection markers and blood silver values, liver and kidney function tests of 30 patients with of three groups of orthopedic implants, external fixators, intramedullary nails and hip replacements, coated with Ag + ion doped CaP based ceramic powder to determine safety and effectiveness of this dual-function coating.

During 1 year follow-up, the pin sites were observed at the external fixator group, and wound areas for the proximal femoral nail and hip arthroplasty group at regular intervals. In addition, liver and kidney function tests, infection markers and blood silver values were checked in patients. In the external fixator group, only 4 out of 91 pin sites (%4.39) were infected. The wound areas healed without any problem in patients with proximal femoral nails and hip arthroplasty. There was no side effect suggesting silver toxicity such as systemic toxic side effect or argyria in any patient and blood silver level did not increase.

Compared to similar patient groups in the literature, much lower infection rates were obtained (p = 0.001), and implant osseointegration was good. In patients with chronic infection, the implants were applied acutely after removing the primary implant and with simple debridement. Unlike other silver coating methods, silver was trapped in hydroxyapatite crystals in the ionic form, which is released from the coating during the process of osseointegration, thus, the silver was released into the systemic circulation gradually that showed antibacterial activity locally.

We conclude that the use of orthopedic implants with a silver ion added calcium phosphate-based special coating is a safe method to prevent the implant-related infection.

This work was supported by TUBİTAK Project Number 315S101

Benjamin Burkhard Clemens Schopper Daniel Ciric Dominic Mischler Boyko Gueorguiev Peter Varga

Proximal humerus fractures (PHF) are the third most common fractures in the elderly. Treatment of complex PHF has remained challenging with mechanical failure rates ranging up to 35% even when state-of-the-art locked plates are used. Secondary (post-operative) screw perforation through the articular surface of the humeral head is the most frequent mechanical failure mode, with rates up to 23%. Besides other known risk factors, such as non-anatomical reduction and lack of medial cortical support, in-adverse intraoperative perforation of the articular surfaces during pilot hole drilling (overdrilling) may increase the risk of secondary screw perforation. Overdrilling often occurs during surgical treatment of osteoporotic PHF due to minimal tactile feedback; however, the awareness in the surgical community is low and the consequences on the fixation stability have remained unproved. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate biomechanically whether overdrilling would increase the risk of cyclic screw perforation failure in unstable PHF.

A highly unstable malreduced 3-part fracture was simulated by osteotomizing 9 pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaveric proximal humeri from elderly donors (73.7 ± 13.0 ys, f/m: 3/6). The fragments were fixed with a locking plate (PHILOS, DePuy Synthes, Switzerland) using six proximal screws, with their lengths selected to ensure 6 mm tip-to-joint distance. The pairs were randomized into two treatment groups, one with all pilot holes accurately predrilled (APD) and another one with the boreholes of the two calcar screws overdrilled (COD). The constructs were tested under progressively increasing cyclic loading to failure at 4 Hz using a previously developed setup and protocol. Starting from 50 N, the peak load was increased by 0.05 N/cycle. The event of initial screw loosening was defined by the abrupt increase of the displacement at valley load, following its initial linear behavior. Perforation failure was defined by the first screw penetrating the joint surface, touching the artificial glenoid component and stopping the test via electrical contact.

Bone mineral density (range: 63.8 – 196.2 mgHA/cm3) was not significantly different between the groups. Initial screw loosening occurred at a significantly lower number of cycles in the COD group (10,310 ± 3,575) compared to the APD group (12,409 ± 4,569), p = 0.006. Number of cycles to screw perforation was significantly lower for the COD versus APD specimens (20,173 ± 5,851 and 24,311 ± 6,318, respectively), p = 0.019. Failure mode was varus collapse combined with lateral-inferior translation of the humeral head. The first screw perforating the articular surface was one of the calcar screws in all but one specimen.

Besides risk factors such as fracture complexity and osteoporosis, inadequate surgical technique is a crucial contributor to high failure rates in locked plating of complex PHF. This study shows for the first time that overdrilling of pilot holes can significantly increase the risk of secondary screw perforation. Study limitations include the fracture model and loading method. While the findings require clinical corroboration, raising the awareness of the surgical community towards this largely neglected risk source, together with development of devices to avoid overdrilling, are expected to help improve the treatment outcomes.

Efe Kemal Akdogan Gizem Baysan Gözde Erkul Ulker Cankurt Hasan Havitcioglu

Meniscus has many important functions in the knee joint such as load bearing, shock absorption, joint stability, joint lubrication and proprioception. In the recent years, meniscus injuries have been the focus of orthopaedic surgeons and musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications because of its avascular nature.

In this study, we aimed to compare the regeneration capacities of two composite scaffolds in a New Zealand Rabbit meniscal defect model. The first scaffold consists Poly-Lactic Acid (PLA) + chitosan + loofah and the second PLA + Hydroxyapatite (HAp) + loofah. In order to produce these scaffolds; 4% chitosan, 4% PLA and 4% HAp solutions were seperately prepared. The loofah pieces were saturated with these solutions and vacuum-dried for 14 days and sterilized with ethylene oxide.

There were several characterizations performed such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the investigation of chemical structure, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for morphological analysis, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) for thermal properties, mechanical compression and swelling ratio analysis. Moreover, in order to investigate biocompatibility of the scaffolds, WST-1 colorimetric assay at days 3, 7, 10, 14 and 21 was conducted.

After these biocompatibility analysis, a 1.5-mm cylindrical defect was created in the avascular portion of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus in 14 New Zealand rabbits (2.5–3 kg weight) which were randomly grouped in two. The scaffolds were implanted at the defect site with the help of a freshly prepared fibrin glue. 8 weeks after the operation, the rabbits were sacrificed and their tissues were kept for further mechanical, radiological and histological analysis.

In conclusion, we succeeded to produce a new meniscus scaffold. The proliferation ability of PLA + chitosan + loofah scaffold is higher than PLA + HAp + loofah scaffold. However, there was no statistically significant difference among them.

Stoyan Ivanov Alexandar Stefanov Ivan Zderic Dominic Gehweiler Geoff Richards Dimitar Raykov Boyko Gueorguiev

Displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures are debilitating injuries with significant socioeconomic and psychological effects primarily affecting patients in active age between 30 and 50 years. Recently, minimally and less invasive screw fixation techniques have become popular as alternative to locked plating. The aim of this study was to analyze biomechanically in direct comparison the primary stability of 3 different cannulated screw configurations for fixation of Sanders type II-B intraarticular calcaneal fractures.

Fifteen fresh-frozen human cadaveric lower limbs were amputated mid-calf and through the Chopart joint. Following, soft tissues at the lateral foot side were removed, whereas the medial side and Achilles tendon were preserved. Reproducible Sanders type II-B intraarticular fracture patterns were created by means of osteotomies. The proximal tibia end and the anterior-inferior aspect of the calcaneus were then embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. Based on bone mineral density measurements, the specimens were randomized to 3 groups for fixation with 3 different screw configurations using two 6.5 mm and two 4.5 mm cannulated screws. In Group 1, two parallel longitudinal screws entered the tuber calcanei above the Achilles tendon insertion and proceeded to the anterior process, and two transverse screws fixed the posterior facet perpendicular to the fracture line. In Group 2, two parallel screws entered the tuber calcanei below the Achilles tendon insertion, aiming at the anterior process, and two transverse screws fixed the posterior facet. In Group 3, two screws were inserted along the bone axis, entering the tuber calcanei above the Achilles tendon insertion and proceeding to the central-inferior part of the anterior process. In addition, one transverse screw was inserted from lateral to medial for fixation of the posterior facet and one oblique screw – inserted from the posterior-plantar part of the tuber calcanei – supported the posterolateral part of the posterior facet. All specimens were tested in simulated midstance position under progressively increasing cyclic loading at 2 Hz. Starting from 200N, the peak load of each cycle increased at a rate of 0.1 N/cycle. Interfragmentary movements were captured by means of optical motion tracking and triggered mediolateral x-rays.

Plantar movement, defined as displacement between the anterior process and the tuber calcanei at the most inferior side was biggest in Group 2 and increased significantly over test cycles in all groups (P = 0.001). Cycles to 2 mm plantar movement were significantly higher in both Group 1 (15847 ± 5250) and Group 3 (13323 ± 4363) compared to Group 2 (4875 ± 3480), P = 0.048. Medial gapping after 2500 cycles was significantly bigger in Group 2 versus Group 3, P = 0.024. No intraarticular displacement was observed in any group during testing.

From biomechanical perspective, screw configuration implementing one oblique screw seems to provide sufficient hindfoot stability in Sanders Type II-B intraarticular calcaneal fractures under dynamic loading. Posterior facet support by means of buttress or superiorly inserted longitudinal screws results in less plantar movement between the tuber calcanei and anterior fragments. On the other hand, inferiorly inserted longitudinal screws seem to be associated with bigger interfragmentary movements.

Félix Dandois Orçun Taylan Jan D'hooge Hilde Vandenneucker Laura Slane Lennart Scheys

In-situ assessment of collateral ligaments strain could be key to improving total knee arthroplasty outcomes by improving the ability of surgeons to properly balance the knee intraoperatively. Ultrasound (US) speckle tracking methods have shown promise in their capability to measure in-situ soft tissue strain in large tendons but prior work has also highlighted the challenges that arise when attempting to translate these approaches to the in-situ assessment of collateral ligaments strain. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop and validate an US speckle tracking method to specifically assess in-situ strains of both the MCL and LCL. We hypothesize that coefficients of determination (R2) would be above 0.90 with absolute differences below 0.50% strain for the comparison between US-based and the reference strain, with better results expected for the LCL compared with the MCL.

Five cadaveric legs with total knee implants (NH019 2017-02-03) were submitted to a varus (LCL) and valgus (MCL) ramped loading (0 – 40N). Ultrasound radiofrequency (rf) data and reference surface strains data, obtained with 3D digital image correlation (DIC), were collected synchronously. Prior to processing, US data were qualitatively assessed and specimens displaying substantial imaging artefacts were discarded, leaving five LCL and three MCL specimens in the analysis. Ultrasound rf data were processed in Matlab (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA) with a custom-built speckle tracking approach adapted from a method validated on larger tendons and based on normalized cross-correlation. Digital image correlation data were processed with commercial software VIC3D (Correlated Solutions, Inc., Columbia, SC). To optimize speckle tracking, several tracking parameters were tested: kernel and search window size, minimal correlation coefficient and simulated frame rate. Parameters were ranked according to three comparative measures between US- and DIC-based strains: R2, mean absolute error and strains differences at 40N. Parameters with best average rank were considered as optimal.

To quantify the agreement between US- and DIC-based strain of each specimen, the considered metrics were: R2, mean absolute error and strain differences at 40N. The LCL showed a good agreement with a high average R2 (0.97), small average mean absolute difference (0.37%) and similar strains at 40N (DIC = 2.92 ± 0.10%; US = 2.99 ± 1.16%). The US-based speckle tracking method showed worse performance for the MCL with a lower average correlation (0.55). Such an effect has been observed previously and may relate to the difficulty in acquiring sufficient image quality for tracking the MCL compared to the LCL, which likely arises due to structural or mechanical differences; notably MCL is larger, thinner, more wrapped around the bone and stretches less. However, despite these challenges, the MCL tracking still showed small average mean absolute differences (0.44%) and similar strains at 40N (DIC = 1.48 ± 0.06%; US = 1.44 ± 1.89%).

We conclude that the ultrasound speckle tracking method developed is ready to be used as a tool to assess in-situ strains of LCL. Concerning the MCL strain assessment, despite some promising results in terms of strain differences, further work on acquisition could be beneficial to reach similar performance.

Maria Stefanou Andriana Vasilakou Zoi Fryda Sevasti-Athina Giannakou Georgios Papadimitriou Anastasia Pilichou Konstantinos Antonis Ioannis Anastasopoulos


Ultrasound of the neonatal and infantile hip is a useful tool in diagnosis and treatment of the developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), especially given the fact that numerous cases of DDH do not present any findings in the clinical examination.


Between January 2014 and May 2020, 10536 (5273 neonates and infants, 53% girls, 47% boys) consecutive neonatal and infantile hip joints were studied using the Graf Hip Ultrasound method.

Abdulvahap Kahveci Berat Can Cengiz Veysel Alcan Murat Zinnuroğlu Senih Gürses

Differences at motor control strategies to provide dynamic balance in various tasks in diabetic polyneuropatic (DPN) patients due to losing the lower extremity somatosensory information were reported in the literature. It has been stated that dynamics of center of mass (CoM) is controlled by center of pressure (CoP) during human upright standing and active daily movements. Indeed analyzing kinematic trajectories of joints unveil motor control strategies stabilizing CoM. Nevertheless, we hypothesized that imbalance disorders/CoM destabilization observed at DPN patients due to lack of tactile information about the base of support cannot be explained only by looking at joint kinematics, rather functional foot usage is proposed to be an important counterpart at controlling CoM.

In this study, we included 14 DPN patients, who are diagnosed through clinical examination and electroneuromyography, and age matched 14 healthy subjects (HS) to identify control strategies in functional reach test (FRT). After measuring participants’ foot arch index (FAI) by a custom-made archmeter, they were tested by using a force plate, motion analysis system, surface electromyography and pressure pad, all working in synchronous during FRT. We analyzed data to determine effect of structural and functional foot pathologies due to neuropathy on patient performance and postural control estimating FAI, reach length (FR), FR to height (H) ratio (FR/H; normalized FR with respect to height), displacement of CoM and CoP in anteroposterior direction only, moment arm (MA, defined as the difference between CoP and CoM at the end of FRT), ankle, knee and hip joint angles computed at the sagittal plane for both extremities. Kinematic metrics included initial and final joint angles, defined with respect to start and end of reaching respectively. Further difference in the final and initial joint angles was defined as Δ.

FAI was founded significantly lower in DPN patients (DPN: 0.3404; HS: 0.3643, p= <0.05). The patients’ FR, FR/H and absolute MA and displacement of CoM were significantly shorter than the control group (p= <0.05). Displacement of CoP between the two groups were not significant. Further we observed that CoM was lacking CoP in DPN patients (mean MA: +0.88 cm), while leading CoP in HS (mean MA: −1.59 cm) at the end of FRT. All initial angles were similar in two groups, however in DPN patients final right and left hip flexion angle (p=0.016 and p=0.028 respectively) and left ankle plantar flexion angle (p=0.04) were smaller than HS significantly. DPN patients had significantly less (p=0.029) hip flexion (mean at right hip angle, Δ=25.0°) compared to HS (Δ=33.53°) and ankle plantar flexion (DPN mean at right ankle angle, Δ=6.42°, HS mean Δ=9.07°; p=0.05).

The results suggest that movement of both hip and ankle joints was limited simultaneously in DPN patients causing lack of CoM with respect to CoP at the end of reaching with significantly lower FAI. These results lead to the fact that cutaneous and joint somatosensory information from foot and ankle along with the structure of foot arch may play an important role in maintaining dynamic balance and performance of environmental context. In further studies, we expect to show that difference at control strategies in DPN patients due to restricted functional foot usage might be a good predictor of how neuropathy evolves to change biomechanical aspects of biped erect posture.

Ivan Zderic Clemens Schopper Daniel Wagner Boyko Gueorguiev Pol Rommens Yves Acklin

Surgical treatment of fragility sacrum fractures with percutaneous sacroiliac (SI) screw fixation is associated with high failure rates in terms of screw loosening, cut-through and turn-out. The latter is a common cause for complications, being detected in up to 20% of the patients. The aim of this study was to develop a new screw-in-screw concept and prototype implant for fragility sacrum fracture fixation and test it biomechanically versus transsacral and SI screw fixations.

Twenty-seven artificial pelves with discontinued symphysis and a vertical osteotomy in zone 1 after Denis were assigned to three groups (n = 9) for implantation of their right sites with either an SI screw, the new screw-in-screw implant, or a transsacral screw. All specimens were biomechanically tested to failure in upright position with the right ilium constrained. Validated setup and test protocol were used for complex axial and torsional loading, applied through the S1 vertebral body. Interfragmentary movements were captured via optical motion tracking. Screw motions in the bone were evaluated by means of triggered anteroposterior X-rays.

Interfragmentary movements and implant motions in terms of pull-out, cut-through, tilt, and turn-out were significantly higher for SI screw fixation compared to both transsacral screw and screw-in-screw fixations. In addition, transsacral screw and screw-in-screw fixations revealed similar construct stability. Moreover, screw-in-screw fixation successfully prevented turn-out of the implant, that remained at 0° rotation around the nominal screw axis unexceptionally during testing.

From biomechanical perspective, fragility sacrum fracture fixation with the new screw-in-screw implant prototype provides higher stability than with the use of one SI screw, being able to successfully prevent turn-out. Moreover, it combines the higher stability of transsacral screw fixation with the less risky operational procedure of SI screw fixation and can be considered as their alternative treatment option.

Ivan Zderic Adam Breceda Clemens Schopper Jana Schader Dominic Gehweiler Geoff Richards Boyko Gueorguiev Andrew Sands

It is common belief that consolidated intramedullary nailed trochanteric femur fractures can result in secondary midshaft or supracondylar fractures, involving the distal screws, when short or long nails are used, respectively. In addition, limited data exists in the literature to indicate when short or long nails should be selected for treatment. The aim of this biomechanical cadaveric study was to investigate short versus long Trochanteric Femoral Nail Advanced (TFNA) fixation in terms of construct stability and generation of secondary fracture pattern following trochanteric fracture consolidation.

Eight intact human cadaveric femur pairs were assigned to 2 groups of 8 specimens each for nailing using either short or long TFNA with blade as head element. Each specimen was first biomechanically preloaded at 1 Hz over 2000 cycles in superimposed synchronous axial compression to 1800 N and internal rotation to 11.5 Nm. Following, internal rotation to failure was applied over an arc of 90° within 1 second under 700 N axial load. Torsional stiffness, torque at failure, angle at failure and energy at failure were evaluated. Fracture patterns were analyzed.

Outcomes in the groups with short and long nails were 9.7±2.4 Nm/° and 10.2±2.9 Nm/° for torsional stiffness, 119.8±37.2 Nm and 128.5±46.7 Nm for torque at failure, 13.5±3.5° and 13.4±2.6° for angle at failure, and 887.5±416.9 Nm° and 928.3±461.0 Nm° for energy at failure, respectively, with no significant differences between them, P≥0.167. Fractures through the distal locking screw occurred in 5 and 6 femora instrumented with short and long nails, respectively. Fractures through the lateral entry site of the head element were detected in 3 specimens within each group. For short nails, fractures through the distal shaft region, not interfacing with the implant, were detected in 3 specimens.

From biomechanical perspective, the risk of secondary peri-implant fracture after intramedullary nailed trochanteric fracture consolidation is similar when using short or long TFNA. Moreover, for both nail versions the fracture pattern does not unexceptionally involve the distal locking screw.

Darshan S Shah Orcun Taylan Luc Labey Lennart Scheys

Understanding the long-term effects of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on joint kinematics is vital to assess the success of the implant design and surgical procedure. However, while in vitro cadaveric studies quantifying post-operative biomechanics primarily reflect joint behaviour immediately after surgery,1in vivo studies comprising of follow-up TKA patients often reflect joint behaviour a few months after surgery.2 Therefore, the aim of this cadaveric study was to explore the long-term effects of TKA on tibiofemoral kinematics of a donor specimen, who had already undergone bilateral TKA, and compare them to post-operative kinematics reported in the literature.

Two fresh-frozen lower limbs from a single donor (male, age: 83yr, ht: 1.83m, wt: 86kg), who had undergone bilateral TKA (Genesis II, Smith&Nephew, Memphis, USA) 19 years prior to his demise, were obtained following ethical approval from the KU Leuven institutional board. The specimens were imaged using computed tomography (CT) and tested in a validated knee simulator3 replicating active squatting and varus-valgus laxity tests. Tibiofemoral kinematics were recorded using an optical motion capture system and compared to various studies in the literature using the same implant – experimental studies based on cadaveric specimens (CAD)1,4 and an artificial specimen (ART)5, and a computational study (COM)6.

Maximum tibial abduction during laxity tests for the left leg (3.54°) was comparable to CAD (3.30°), while the right leg exhibited much larger joint laxity (8.52°). Both specimens exhibited valgus throughout squatting (left=2.03±0.57°, right=5.81±0.19°), with the change in tibial abduction over the range of flexion (left=1.89°, right=0.64°) comparable to literature (CAD=1.28°, COM=2.43°). The left leg was externally rotated (8.00±0.69°), while the right leg internally rotated (−15.35±1.50°), throughout squatting, with the change in tibial rotation over the range of flexion (left=2.61°, right=4.79°) comparable to literature (CAD=5.52°, COM=4.15°). Change in the femoral anteroposterior translation over the range of flexion during squatting for both specimens (left=14.88mm, right=6.76mm) was also comparable to literature (ART=13.40mm, COM=20.20mm).

Although TKA was reportedly performed at the same time on both legs of the donor by the same surgeon, there was a stark difference in their post-operative joint kinematics. A larger extent of intraoperative collateral ligament release could be one of the potential reasons for higher post-operative joint laxity in the right leg. Relative changes in post-operative tibiofemoral kinematics over the range of squatting were similar to those reported in the literature. However, differences between absolute magnitudes of joint kinematics obtained in this study and findings from the literature could be attributed to different surgeons performing TKA, with presumable variations in alignment techniques and/or patient specific instrumentation, and the slightly dissimilar ranges of knee flexion during squatting.

In conclusion, long-term kinematic effects of TKA quantified using in vitro testing were largely similar to the immediate post-operative kinematics reported in the literature; however, variation in the behaviour of two legs from the same donor suggested that intraoperative surgical alterations might have a greater effect on joint kinematics over time.

Ender Gümüşoğlu Fehmi Volkan Öztuna Zeynel Mert Asfuroğlu Hatice Oruç Demirbağ Savaş Aktaş Mehmet Tuğhan Kızıltuğ Mehmet Emin Erdal

Fracture healing is an issue that has not yet been fully elucidated. It is generally accepted in the literature that head trauma accelerates fracture healing and causes higher volume callus tissue. Recent studies have examined the relationship between head trauma and fracture healing more molecularly. Based on this research; the aim of this study is to show the effect of head trauma on fracture healing radiologically and histologically and to investigate the relationship between serum β-Catenin level and fracture healing with the experiment we performed on rats.

A total of 36 Wistar Albino female rats with a mean age of 24 weeks were included in the study with the permission of Mersin University Animal Experiments Local Ethics Committee. Six rats in the first group were not traumatized and their blood samples were collected on the day of the experiment started, end of the third week and end of the sixth week. In the second group, only head trauma was performed and blood samples were collected at the end of the third and sixth weeks. In the third group, only open femoral fracture model was applied, blood samples were collected at the third and sixth weeks and AP and Lateral radiographs of the fractured femurs were taken. After sacrification, femurs were dissected from the surrounding soft tissues and subjected to histological examination. In the fourth group, both head trauma and open femur fracture model were applied, blood samples were collected at the end of third and sixth weeks and AP and Lateral radiographs of the fractured femurs were taken. After sacrification, femurs were dissected from the surrounding soft tissues and subjected to histological examination. The expression level of β-Catenin was measured by PCR from all blood samples. Direct radiographs of the third and fourth groups at 3 and 6 weeks were evaluated by two orthopedists according to Rust and Lane & Sandhu scoring system. The histomorphometric examination was performed by evaluating the Huo scoring and the ratio of fracture callus components (cartilage callus, bone callus, fibrous callus) to areas.

According to PCR analysis, the change of expression of β-Catenin by weeks was not statistically significant in the first and second groups. However, a statistically significant decrease was observed in the 0–6 week interval in the third and fourth groups (p = 0.002, p <0.0001, respectively). In the radiological examination, the union scores of the rats with head trauma + femoral fracture were higher than the isolated femoral fractures at 3 weeks and 6 weeks. In histomorphometric examination, no statistically significant difference was found between head trauma + femur fracture group and isolated femur fracture group. In addition, there was no correlation between the groups in the correlation studies between radiological findings, histomorphmetric findings and PCR findings.

Considering that each molecule involved in fracture healing processes has a time interval and concentration; We concluded that the expression levels of β-catenin can be repeated in smaller time periods including the early stages of fracture healing.

Aleksandar Stefanov Stoyan Ivanov Ivan Zderic Asen Baltov Mihail Rashkov Dominic Gehweiler Geoff Richards Boyko Gueorguiev Dian Enchev

Treatment of comminuted intraarticular calcaneal fractures remains controversial and challenging. Anatomic reduction with stable fixation has demonstrated better outcomes than nonoperative treatment of displaced intraarticular fractures involving the posterior facet and anterior calcaneocuboid joint (CCJ) articulating surface of the calcaneus. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical performance of three different methods for fixation of comminuted intraarticular calcaneal fractures.

Comminuted calcaneal fractures, including Sanders III-AB fracture of the posterior facet and Kinner II-B fracture of the CCJ articulating calcaneal surface, were simulated in 18 fresh-frozen human cadaveric lower legs by means of osteotomies. The ankle joint, medial soft tissues and midtarsal bones along with the ligaments were preserved. The specimens were randomized according to their bone mineral density to 3 groups for fixation with either (1) 2.7 mm variable-angle locking anterolateral calcaneal plate in combination with one 4.5 mm and one 6.5 mm cannulated screw (Group 1), (2) 2.7 mm variable-angle locking lateral calcaneal plate (Group 2), or (3) interlocking calcaneal nail with 3.5 mm screws in combination with 3 separate 4.0 mm cannulated screws (Group 3). All specimens were biomechanically tested until failure under axial loading with the foot in simulated midstance position. Each test commenced with an initial quasi-static compression ramp from 50 N to 200 N, followed by progressively increasing cyclic loading at 2Hz. Starting from 200 N, the peak load of each cycle increased at a rate of 0.2 N/cycle. Interfragmentary movements were captured by means of optical motion tracking. In addition, mediolateral X-rays were taken every 250 cycles with a triggered C-arm. Varus deformation between the tuber calcanei and lateral calcaneal fragments, plantar gapping between the anterior process and tuber fragments, displacement at the plantar aspect of the CCJ articular calcaneal surface, and Böhler angle were evaluated.

Varus deformation of 10° was reached at significantly lower number of cycles in Group 2 compared to Group 1 and Group 3 (P ≤ 0.017). Both cycles to 10° plantar gapping and 2 mm displacement at the CCJ articular calcaneal surface revealed no significant differences between the groups (P ≥ 0.773). Böhler angle after 5000 cycles (1200 N peak load) had significantly bigger decrease in Group 2 compared to both other groups (P ≤ 0.020).

From biomechanical perspective, treatment of comminuted intraarticular calcaneal fractures using variable-angle locked plate with additional longitudinal screws or interlocked nail in combination with separate transversal screws seems to provide superior stability as opposed to variable-angle locked plating only.

Zeynep Bal Takashi Kaito Hiroyuki Ishiguro Rintaro Okada Sadaaki Kanayama Junichi Kushioka Joe Kodama Ryota Chijimatsu Petek Korkusuz Eda Çiftci Dede Merve Gizer Hideki Yoshikawa Feza Korkusuz

To prevent the reported side effects of rhBMP-2, an important cytokine with bone forming capacity, the sustained release of rhBMP-2 is highly important. Synthetic copolymer polylactic acid-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) is already shown to be a good carrier for rhBMP-2. The nano-sized hydroxyapatite (nHAp) is mentioned to be superior to conventional hydroxyapatite due to its decreased particle size which increases the surface area, so protein-cell adhesion and mechanical properties concomitantly. In the literature no study is reported with PLA-PEG / rhBMP-2/ nHAp for bone regeneration. In this study, we assessed the controlled release profile of rhBMP-2 from the novel biomaterial of PLA-PEG / rhBMP-2 / nHAp in vitro and evaluated the bone forming capacity of the composite in rat posterolateral spinal fusion (PSF) model in vivo.

Composites were prepared via addition of rhBMP-2 (0µg, 3µg or 10µg) and nHAp (12.5mg) into PLA-PEG (5mg) + acetone solution and shaping. The release kinetics of the cytokine from the composites with 5µg BMP-2 was investigated by ELISA. The effect of nHAp and nHAp with rhBMP-2 on cell differentiation (rat BMSC cells, passage 3) was tested with ALP staining. In vivo bone formation was investigated by PSF on L4-L5 in a total of 36 male SD rats and weekly µCT results and histology at 8th weeks post operation were used for assessment of the bone formation. All animal experiments was approved by the institutional review board confirming to the laws and regulations of Japan.

The composite showed an initial burst release in the first 24 hours (51.7% of the total released rhBMP-2), but the release was continued for the following 21 days. Thus, the sustained release of rhBMP-2 from the composite was verified. ALP staining results showed nHAp with rhBMP-2 contributed better on differentiation than nHAp itself. µCT and histology demonstrated that spinal fusion was achieved either one or both transverse processes in almost all BMP 3µg and BMP 10µg treated animals. On the contrary, only small or no bone formation was observed in the BMP0µg group (bilateral non-union / unilateral fusion/ bilateral fusion, BMP0µg group; 9/0/0, BMP3µg group; 1/0/11, BMP10µg group; 0/1/11).

We developed a new technology for bone regeneration with BMP-2/PLA-PEG/nHAp composite. With this composite, the required dose of BMP-2 for spinal fusion in rats (10µg) was decreased to 1/3 (3µg) which can be explained by the superior properties of nano-sized hydroxyapatite and by the achievement of sustainable release of rhBMP-2 from the composite.

This study is supported by Japanese Society of the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). [Project No: 215S834]

Markus Winther Frost Laura Amalie Rytoft Ming Shen Yunfeng LI Stanislav Stefanov Zhekov Arash Ghaffari Ben Klauman Kr⊘yer Gert Fr⊘lund Pedersen Ole Rahbek S⊘ren Kold

In 2019, Lin et al. published a proof-of-concept study of electrical impedance spectroscopy as a simple and low-cost method to characterize progression of fracture repair (Lin et al., Sci Rep 2019). However, the electrical impedance sensors were placed in the fracture site which may impair the transfer to clinical use. To further explore the concept of monitoring fracture healing by electrical impedance spectroscopy, we established a tibial fracture model in the rabbit where sensors are positioned in proximity to the fracture site but without being placed in the fracture site. The aim of this pilot study was to explore whether distinct patterns of electrical impedance would evolve as tibial fractures in rabbits were evaluated until radiographic signs of healing.

Approval was granted from the Inspectorate of the Animal Experimentation under the Danish Ministry of Justice. Four rabbits were anaesthetized, and in each rabbit a tibial osteotomy was made and stabilized by an external fixator. Electrical impedance was measured immediately postoperative and hereafter daily until euthanization after 3 weeks. Recordings were obtained within a wide frequency range (10 Hz to 1 MHz) from an inner electrode placed into the medullary canal and an outer electrode placed extracortical on the lateral with a distance of 3 mm to the defect.

A similar pattern of electrical impedance over time was observed in the four rabbits. During the very early stages of fracture healing, an initial fluctuation in electrical impedance occurred. However, after 10 days the curves revealed a steady daily increase in electrical impedance. The first radiological signs of bone healing were detected after 14 days and progressed in all four rabbits in accordance with increments in the electrical impedance until termination of the pilot study after 21 days.

Consistent electrical impedance patterns were detected during bone healing in a pilot study of four rabbits. Further research is needed to explore whether the presented method of electrical impedance measurements can be used to monitor bone healing over time.

B Lentine M Vaikus G Shewmaker S Jun Son H Reist N Ruijia E L Smith


Preoperative optimization and protocols for joint replacement care pathways have led to decreased length of stay (LOS), decreased narcotic use and are increasingly important in delivering quality, cost savings and shifting appropriate cases to an outpatient setting. The intraoperative use of vasopressors is independently associated with increased length of stay, risk of adverse postoperative events including death and in total hip arthroplasty there is an increased risk for ICU admission. Our aim is to characterize the patient characteristics associated with vasopressor use specifically in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).


We retrospectively reviewed 748 patients undergoing inpatient primary total knee arthroplasty at a single academic institution by two surgeons from 1/1/17 to 12/21/18. Demographics, comorbidities, perioperative factors and intraoperative medication administration were compared with multivariate regression to identify patients who may require intraoperative vasopressors.

B Lentine M Tarka P Schottel N Nelms S Russell M Blankstein


Femoral periprosthetic fractures above TKA are commonly treated with retrograde intramedullary nailing (IMN). This study determined if TKA design and liner type affect the minimum knee flexion required for retrograde nailing through a TKA.


Twelve cadaveric specimens were prepared for six single radius (SR) TKAs and six asymmetric medial pivot (MP) TKAs. Trials with 9mm polyethylene liners were tested with cruciate retaining (CR), cruciate substituting (CS) and posterior stabilizing (PS) types. The knee was extended to identify the minimum knee flexion required to allow safe passage of the opening reamer while maintaining an optimal fluoroscopic starting point for retrograde nailing. Furthermore, the angle of axis deviation between the reamer and the femoral shaft was calculated from fluoroscopic images.

Manuele Gori Sara Maria Giannitelli Rocco Papalia Gianluca Vadalà Vincenzo Denaro

Invasive intraneural electrodes implanted in peripheral nerves are neural prosthetic devices that are exploied to control advanced neural-interfaced prostheses in human amputees. One of the main issues to be faced in chronic implants is represented by the gradual loss of functionality of such intraneural interfaces due to an electrical impedance increase caused by the progressive formation of a fibrotic capsule around the electrodes, which is originally due to a nonspecific inflammatory response called foreign body reaction (FBR).

In this in vitro work, we tested the biocompatibility and ultra-low fouling features of the synthetic coating - poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) - compared to the organic polymer - zwitterionic sulfated poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (SBMA) hydrogel - to prevent or reduce the first steps of the FBR: plasma protein adsorption and cell adhesion to the interface.

Synthesis and characterization of the SBMA hydrogel was done. Preliminary biocompatibility analysis of the zwitterionic hydrogel, using hydrogel-conditioned medium, showed no cytotoxicity at all vs. control. We seeded GFP-labelled human myofibroblasts on PEG- and SBMA hydrogel-coated polyimide surfaces and evaluated their adhesion and cell viability at different time-points. Because of the high hydration, low stiffness reflecting the one of neural tissue, and ultra-low fouling characteristics of the SBMA hydrogel, this polymer showed lower myofibroblast adhesion and different cell morphology compared to adhesion controls, thereby representing a better coating than PEG for potentially mitigating the FBR.

We conclude that soft SBMA hydrogels could outperform PEG coatings in vitro as more suitable dressings of intraneural electrodes. Furthermore, such SBMA-based antifouling materials can be envisioned as long-term diffusion-based delivery systems for controlled release of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drugs in vivo.

Pelle Hanberg Mats Bue Kristina Öbrink-Hansen Maja Thomassen Kjeld S⊘balle Maiken Stilling

Tourniquet is widely used in extremity surgery. In order to prevent surgical site infection, correct timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis and tourniquet inflation is important. We aimed to evaluate the time for which the free drug concentration of cefuroxime is maintained above the minimal inhibitory concentration (T>MIC) in subcutaneous tissue and calcaneal cancellous bone during three clinically relevant tourniquet application scenarios.

Twenty-four female pigs were included. Microdialysis catheters were placed for sampling of cefuroxime concentrations bilaterally in calcaneal cancellous bone and subcutaneous tissue, and a tourniquet cuff was applied on a randomly picked leg of each pig. Subsequently, the pigs were randomized into three groups to receive 1.5 g of cefuroxime by intravenous injection 15 min prior to tourniquet inflation (Group A), 45 min prior to tourniquet inflation (Group B), and at the tourniquet release (Group C). The tourniquet duration was 90 min in all groups. Dialysates and venous blood samples were collected eight-hours postcefuroxime administration.

Cefuroxime concentrations were maintained above the clinical breakpoint MIC for Staphylococcus aureus (4 μg/mL) in calcaneal cancellous bone and subcutaneous tissue throughout the 90 min tourniquet duration in Group A and B. Cefuroxime administration at tourniquet release (Group C) resulted in concentrations above 4 μg/mL for a minimum of 3.5 hours in the tissues on the tourniquet side. There were no significant differences in the T>MIC (4 μg/mL) in subcutaneous tissue or calcaneal cancellous bone between the three groups. However, Group A tended toward shorter T>MIC in tourniquet calcaneal cancellous bone compared to Group C (p=0.08).

We conclude that administration of cefuroxime (1.5 g) in the 15–45 min window prior to tourniquet inflation resulted in sufficient calcaneal cancellous bone and subcutaneous tissue concentrations throughout the 90 min tourniquet application. If the target is to maintain postoperative cefuroxime concentrations above relevant MIC values, our results suggest that a second dose of cefuroxime should be administered at tourniquet release.

Pelle Hanberg Mats Bue Jesper Kabel Andrea Rene J⊘rgensen Christian Jessen Kjeld S⊘balle Maiken Stilling

Tourniquet is widely used in orthopedic surgery to reduce intraoperative bleeding and improve visualization. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet application on both peri- and postoperative cefuroxime concentrations in subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, calcaneal cancellous bone, and plasma. The primary endpoint was the time for which the free drug concentration of cefuroxime was maintained above the clinical breakpoint minimal inhibitory concentration (T>MIC) forStaphylococcus aureus (4 µg/mL).

Ten patients scheduled for hallux valgus or hallux rigidus surgery were included. Microdialysis catheters were placed for sampling of cefuroxime concentrations bilaterally in subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, and calcaneal cancellous bone. A tourniquet was applied on the thigh of the leg scheduled for surgery. Cefuroxime (1.5 g) was administered intravenously as a bolus 15 minutes prior to tourniquet inflation, followed by a second dose 6 hours later. The mean tourniquet duration (range) was 65 (58; 77) minutes. Dialysates and venous blood samples were collected for 12 hours.

For cefuroxime the T>MIC (4 μg/mL) ranged between 4.8–5.4 hours across compartments, with similar results for the tourniquet and non-tourniquet leg. Comparable T>MIC and penetration ratios were found for the first and second dosing intervals.

We concluded that administration of cefuroxime (1.5 g) 15 minutes prior to tourniquet inflation is safe in order to achieve tissue concentrations above 4 µg/mL throughout surgery. A tourniquet application time of approximately 1 hour did not affect the cefuroxime tissue penetration in the following dosing interval.

Omer Kays Unal Mirza Zafer Dagtas Cihan Demir Turan Najafov Ender Ugutmen



Proximal fibular osteotomy (PFO) was defined to provide a treatment option for knee pain caused by gonarthrosis(1). Minor surgical procedure, low complication rate and dramatic pain relief were the main reasons for popularization of this procedure(2, 3). However, changes at the knee and ankle joint after PFO were not clarified objectively in the literature.


We asked: 1) Does PFO change the maximum and average pressures at the medial and lateral chondral surface of the tibia plateau? 2) Are chondral surface stresses redistributed at the knee and ankle joint after PFO? 3)Does PFO change the distribution of total load on the knee joint? 4) Can PFO lead to change in alignment of lower limb?

Luca Ambrosio Gianluca Vadalà Caterina Cattani Roberta Bernardini Antonino Giacalone Rocco Papalia Vincenzo Denaro

Cartilage neoangiogenesis holds a key role in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) by promoting cartilage degradation with proteoglycan loss, subchondral bone sclerosis, osteophyte formation and synovial hyperplasia. This study aimed to assess the in vivo efficacy of bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in an OA animal model.

24 New Zealand white rabbits underwent anterior cruciate ligament transection in order to spontaneously develop knee OA. Animals were divided into four groups: one receiving a sham intraarticular knee injection (saline) and three groups treated with 5, 10, and 20 mg intraarticular bevacizumab injections. The biological effect of the antibody on cartilage and synovium was evaluated through histology and quantified with the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scores. Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to investigate type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) expression in both cartilage and synovium.

Intraarticular bevacizumab led to a significant reduction of cartilage degeneration and synovial OA alterations. Immunohistochemistry showed a significantly reduced MMP-13 expression in all experimental groups, with the one receiving 20 mg bevacizumab showing the lowest. Furthermore, the antibody showed to increment the production of aggrecan and type 2 collagen after administration of 5, 10, and 20 mg. The group treated with 20 mg showed the highest levels of type 2 collagen expression, while aggrecan content was even higher than in the healthy cartilage.

Intraarticular bevacizumab has demonstrated to effectively arrest OA progression in our model, with 20 mg being the most efficacious dose. By inhibiting cartilage and synovial neoangiogenesis, bevacizumab may serve as a possible disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) in the next future.

Fabrizio Russo Luca Ambrosio Marianna Peroglio Sebastian Wangler Wei Guo Sybille Grad Mauro Alini Gianluca Vadalà Rocco Papalia Vincenzo Denaro

The use of stem cells transplanted into the intervertebral disc (IVD) is a promising regenerative approach to treat intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a hydrogel composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) loaded with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), on IVD extracellular matrix synthesis and nucleus pulposus (NP) marker expression in a whole IVD culture model.

HA was blended with batroxobin (BTX), a gelling agent activated in presence of PRP to construct a hydrogel. Bovine IVDs (n=25) were nucleotomised and filled with 1×106 or 2×106 hMSCs suspended in ∼150 mL of the PRP/HA/BTX hydrogel. IVDs harvested at day 0 and nucleotomised IVDs with no hMSCs and/or hydrogel were used as controls. hMSCs alone or encapsulated in the hydrogel were also cultured in well plates to examine the effect of the IVD microenvironment on hMSCs. After 1 week, tissue structure, scaffold integration and gene expression of anabolic (collagen type I, collagen type II and aggrecan), catabolic (matrix metalloproteinase 3 – MMP-3 –, MMP-13 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4) and NP cell (cytokeratin 19, carbonic anhydrase 12, cluster of differentiation 24) markers were assessed.

Histological analysis showed a good integration of the scaffold within the NP area with cell repopulation. At the gene expression level, the hMSC-loaded hydrogels demonstrated to increase disc cell anabolic and catabolic marker expression and promoted hMSC differentiation towards a NP cell phenotype.

This study demonstrated that the HA/PRP/BTX may represent a valid carrier for hMSCs being capable of stimulating cell activity and NP marker expression as well as achieving a good integration with the surrounding tissues.

Ertuğrul Şahin Haluk Berk Sermin Özkal Pınar Balcı Ali Balcı

The use of antifibrinolytic drugs and many other agents have a critical importance in bleeding control. Tranexamic acid [4- (aminomethyl) cyclohexanecarboxylic acid] is a synthetic amino acid lysine derivative with antifibrinolytic activity in humans. There are many studies in the literature that show that it is effective and effective both systemically and locally in spinal surgery. However, all of these studies have investigated the effects of topical tranexamic acid on bleeding and its effect on fusion has not been investigated yet. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of topical tranexamic acid on fusion using macroscopic, radiologic and microscopic techniques.

After approve of ethics committee with the protocol number 19/2019 for 28 Wistar Albino rats underwent intertransvers fusion. All rats were randomized into four (4) groups, using sealed envelopes. Local tranexamic acid (Transamin® 100 mg/ml, Teva İlaç, İstanbul) doses was determined based on previously conducted studies; 1mg/kg (D1 group), 10mg/kg (D10 group), 100 mg/kg (D100 group) and no tranexamic acid (D0 group). At the end of 8th weeks all rats were evaluated with manuel palpation, mammography and histopathologic analysis. Radiographic examination was performed two times to evaluate the intra and inter observer differences. 2 rats in-group D0 died after the radiographic examination.

Assessment of fusion with manual palpation revealed that use of local 1mg / kg tranexamic acid had no effect on fusion (p=0.32), however with increasing doses of tranexamic acid had negative effect on fusion (p=0.002). On radiologic examination, spearman's rho correlation coefficient was found to be moderate in the first evaluation (r=0.46) and high in second evaluation (r=0.61). Radiological examination revealed that the control group was the best in fusion (p=0.007), and that tranexamic acid affected fusion adversely, independent of dosage (p=0.27). Among the groups in histopathologic examination, no statistical difference was found (p=0.134).

Local administration of tranexamic acid affects the intertransverse fusion adversely depending on the dosage macroscopically and it also affects fusion adversely independent of the dosage radiologically and histopathologically.

JMR French P Bramley S Scattergood NA Sandiford


Modular dual-mobility (MDM) constructs are used to reduce dislocation rates after total hip replacement (THR). They combine the advantages of dual mobility with the option of supplementary acetabular screw fixation in complex revision surgery. However, there are concerns about adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) as a result of fretting corrosion between the metal liner and shell. Methods: The aim of this systematic review was to find and review all relevant studies to establish the outcomes and risks associated with MDM hip replacement. All articles on MDM THRs in the Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Prospero databases were searched. A total of 14 articles were included. A random intercept logistic regression model was used for meta-analysis, giving estimated average values. Results: There were 6 cases of ARMD out of 1312 total. Estimated median incidence of ARMD from meta-analysis was 0.3% (95% CI 0.1 – 1.4%). Mean postoperative serum Cobalt was 0.81 μg/L (95% CI 0.33 – 1.29 μg/L), and Chromium was 0.77 μg/L (95% 0.35 – 1.19 μg/L), from 279 cases in 7 studies. Estimated median incidence of a serum cobalt or chromium ion measurement ≥1 μg/L was 7.9% (95% CI 3.5 – 16.8%), and ≥7 μg/L was 1.8% (95% CI 0.7 – 4.2%). Conclusions: ARMD is a rare but significant complication following total hip replacement using a MDM construct. Its incidence appears higher than that reported in non-metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements but lower than that of MoM hip replacements. MDM hip replacements are associated with raised serum metal ion levels postoperatively, but there was no correlation with worse clinical hip function within studies. Studies were poor quality and at high risk of confounding. Pending further work, MDM constructs should be used with caution, reserved for select cases at particularly high risk of dislocation.

Ceyhun Çağlar

The laterjet procedure is an important option in both primary and revision surgeries, especially in anterior shoulder instabilities that progress with glenoid bone loss. 12 patients who had a history of unsuccessful arthroscopic bankart repair and who underwent laterjet procedure in Ankara Atatürk Research and Training Hospital between 2013 and 2017 were included in the study and the patients were evaluated retrospectively. The mean age of the patients was calculated as 27.7 (range 21 to 38 years). Rowe and Walch-Duplay scores and operated shoulder (OS)-healthy shoulder (HS) range of motion (ROM) measurements were used to evaluate patients clinically and functionally. The mean follow-up time of the patients was calculated as 5.5±1.8 years.

Firstly, no dislocation history was recorded in any patient afer the laterjet procedure. The mean Rowe score was calculated as 82.5 (range 60–100). Accordingly, 8 patients had excellent result, 3 patients had good result and 1 patient had fair result. The mean Walch-Duplay score was 81.4 (range 55–100). It was determined as excellent result in 6 patients, good result in 4 patients and fair result in 2 patients. Another data, joint ROM of the OS-HS of patients are shown in the table. There was some limitation in OS compared to the HS. p<0.05 value was accepted as statistically significant. While there was a statistically significant difference in external rotation (OS:35.2º, HS:56.4º)(p=0.003), internal rotation (OS:65.7º, HS:68.1º)(p=0.008) and flexion (OS:171.2º, HS:175.9º)(p=0.012) degrees but there was no statistically significant difference in abduction degrees (OS:164.3º, HS:170.4º) (p=0.089). In radiological evaluation, partial graft resorption was detected in 1 patient, but it was asymptomatic. The osteoarthritis which is one of the complications of laterjet procedure, was not detected radiologically. There are some limitations of the study. Firstly, it is a retrospective study. Secondly, the demographic features of the patients such as age, gender, profession and dominant hand are excluded. Thirdly, the mean follow-up time is not too long. Finally, some of the scales filled in are based on the patient's declaration, which may not yield sufficient objective results.

In conclusion, the laterjet procedure is a suitable and reliable technique even for revision surgery in the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. It gives positive results in terms of shoulder stability and function. The major disadvantage was found to be the limitation of external rotation. Longer follow-up is needed for another outcomes and late complications, such as osteoarthritis.

For any figures or tables, please contact the authors directly.

Conor Gouk Casey Steele Nicky Hackett Francois Tudor


The transition from resident to registrar constitutes a steep learning curve in most medical practitioners’ careers, regardless of speciality. We aimed to determine whether a six-week orthopaedic surgical skills course could increase resident skills and confidence prior to transitioning to orthopaedic registrar within the Gold Coast University Hospital, Queensland, Australia.


Unaccredited registrars, orthopaedic trainees, and orthopaedic consultants, through a departmental peer reviewed process and survey, developed a six-session course (“Registrar Academy”) that included basic knowledge and essential practical skills training for residents with an interest in becoming orthopaedic registrars. This course was implemented over a 3-month period and assessed. Mixed method quantitative and qualitative evidence was sought via a 14-item and 18-item Likert scale questionnaire coupled with open-ended questions. Ethical approval was granted by our institutions Human Research and Ethics Comittee, reference no.: HREC/16/QGC336.

Sujeesh Sebastian Yang Liu Erdem Aras Sezgin Šarūnas Tarasevičius Deepak Bhushan Raina


With promising antibiofilm properties, rifampicin is considered as a cornerstone in the complementary treatment of bone and joint infections. But, achieving an adequate concentration of rifampicin long-term in bone tissue is a challenge. Long-term systemic administration also comes with concomitant side effects. Thus, local delivery of rifampicin in a carrier to ensure the high local concentration of antibiotic in surgical site after intervention due to infection could be a valuable alternative. However, an ideal platform for local delivery of rifampicin is still lacking. A calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite (CaS/HA) (Cerament, Bonesupport AB, Sweden) biomaterial was used as a local delivery platform. Here we aimed 1) to evaluate the injectability of CaS/HA hand-mixed with rifampicin at various concentrations up to maximum one daily dose used systemically in clinical practice 2) to test a clinically used and commercially available mixing device containing the biphasic ceramic with rifampicin.

Materials & Methods

Three different concentrations (100 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg) of rifampicin powder (Rifampicin Ebb, Sanofi S.P.A, Italy) diluted in 5 mL of mixing solution (C-TRU, Bonesupport AB, Sweden) were used. Rifampicin solution was mixed to the CaS/HA powder and the injectability of the CaS/HA plus rifampicin composite was evaluated by extruding 250 µL of paste manually through a graduated 1 mL syringe connected to an 18G needle (Ø=1.2 mm, L=4 cm). Mixing was done with a spatula for 30 s at 22°C ±1°C. Total weight of the paste before and after extrusion were measured. To normalize the amount of composite that remained in the needle and syringe tip after injection, the mean of the paste extruded from the syringe at 3 min was calculated for the tested concentrations (normalized value). Injectability (%) was calculated by dividing the weight of the paste extruded from the syringe with normalized value. Each test was repeated for three times at various time points (3, 5, 7 and 9 min). Additionally, 300 mg rifampicin was chosen to mix with the CaS/HA in a commercially available mixing system, which is used clinically.

Ali Assaf Shady Hermena Eleni Hadjikyriacou Oliver Donaldson


Postoperative total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) blood tests cost the National Health Service in the UK more than £72000 annually without definite evidence of their impact on outcomes. This study aimed to ascertain if these blood tests can be implemented on a per-patient basis.


A retrospective review of one centre TSA patients over 6 years. Primary outcomes were interventions to abnormal postoperative blood tests. Secondary outcomes were the length of stay (LOS), and readmission within 30 and 90 days.

Junyu Chen Aisha Ahmed Paul Ackermann

Growth factors are reported to play an important role in healing after acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). However, the association between growth factors and patient outcome has not been investigated previously. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify growth factors and related proteins which can be used as predictors of healing after ATR, ethical approval was obtained from the Regional Ethical Review Committees in Sweden and followed the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study included 28 surgically treated patients (mean age 39.11 ± 8.38 yrs) with acute ATR. Healing was assessed by microdialysate two weeks after the surgery and performed on both injured and contralateral un-injured leg. The microdialysates were analyzed by proteomics based on mass spectrometry (MS) to detect growth factor expressions in ATR patients. One year after the surgery, healing outcomes were evaluated by patient-reported Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), and functional outcomes by heel-rise test.

A total of 1549 proteins were detected in the microdialysates of which 20 growth factor/ related proteins were identified. 7 of these were significantly up-regulated (IGFBP2, Fold change (FC) = 4.07, P = 0.0036; IGFBP4, FC = 3.06, P = 0.009; CTGF, FC = 15.83, P = 0.003; HDGF, FC = 4.58, P = 0.003; GRB2, FC = 14.8, P = 0.0004; LTBP1, FC = 12.08, P = 0.0008; TGFBI, FC = 5.54, P = 0.001) and 1 down-regulated (IGFBP6) in the injured compared to the contralateral healthy side. Linear regression analysis revealed that TGFB1 was positively associated with improved ATRS (r = 0.585, P = 0.04) as well to ATRS subscales: less limitation in running (r = 0.72, P = 0.004), less jumping limitation (r = 0.764, P = 0.001) and less limitation caused by decreased tendon strength (r = 0.665, P = 0.012). Interestingly, all 7 up-regulated proteins were positively associated with less jumping limitations (IGFBP2, r = 0.667, P = 0.015; IGFBP4, r = 0.675, P = 0.013; CTGF, r = 0.668, P = 0.015; HDGF, r = 0.672, P = 0.014; GRB2, r = 0.665, P = 0.016; LTBP1, r = 0.663, P = 0,016). No associations were observed among any of the growth factor and FAOS or patient's functional outcomes.

We conclude that growth factors and related proteins play a crucial role in ATR healing. More specifically, TGFB1 may be used as prognostic biomarker of the patient-reported outcome 1-year post-surgery. These results may be used to develop more specific treatments to improve ATR healing.

Yener İnce

The aim of this study was to evaluate the time of return to play of elite basketball and voleyball players (both grouped together as jumper) with Haglund deformity after surgical resection of the prominence in the postero-superolateral aspect of the calcaneum. Haglund deformity is a prominence in the postero superolateral aspect of the calcaneum, causing a painful bursitis, which may be difficult to treat by non-operative techniques. In this study, we evaluated the duration that is needed to reach a level that a player perform regularly in a competition. This study consists of players operated by the same surgeon with same technique from 2011 to 2019. Twenty eight feet of 22 patients underwent resection of Haglund deformity with lateral approach and the outcome was analysed using AOFAS Ankle-Hind Foot Scale for hindfoot and time to restart a full range regular training was reported. All players received one dose (5–6 cc) platelet rich fibrin to attachement site of Achilles tendon peroperatively just after decompression of prominence. The mean AOFAS score at the follow up was 90/100, at the end of first year and the majority of players returned to play at 4th to 8th month of follow-up. Only two players with deformity of three feet could start to perform after one year. We conclude that minimal invasive approach ostectomy is an effective treatment for players suffering from Haglund deformity and the results were from good to excellent. However, the player should be well informed that the recovery and returning to play can take a longer time than they expect.

Christopher C.H. Mak Kendrick To Karim Fekir Roger A. Brooks Wasim S. Khan

SOX genes comprise a family of transcription factors characterised by a conserved HMG-box domain that confer pleiotropic effects on cell fate and differentiation through binding to the minor groove of DNA. Paracrine regulation and contact-dependant Notch signalling has been suggested to modulate the induction of SOX gene expression. The objective of this study is to investigate the crosstalk between and preconditioning of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with chondrocytes through comparing SOX gene expression in their co-culture and respective monocultures.

Our study adopted an in vitro autologous co-culture of p0 adipose-derived MSCs (AMSCs) and articular chondrocytes derived from Kellgren-Lawrence Grade III/IV osteoarthritic knee joints (n=7). Samples were handled according to the 2004 UK Human Tissue Act. Cells were purified and co-cultured with one AMSC for every chondrocyte at 5000 cells/cm2. The AMSCs were characterised by a panel of MSC surface markers in flow cytometry and were allowed to undergo trilineage differentiation for subsequent histological investigation. SOX5, SOX6, and SOX9 expression of co-cultures and monoculture controls were quantified by TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR. Experiments were performed in triplicate.

AMSC phenotype was evidenced by the expression of CD105, CD73, CD90 & heterogenous CD34 but not CD45, CD14, CD19 & HLA-DR in flow cytometry, and also differentiation into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages with positive Alcian blue, Alizarin Red and Oil Red O staining. The expression of SOX5, SOX6, and SOX9 were greater in observed co-cultures than would be expected from an expression profile modelled from monocultures.

The findings provides evidence for the upregulation of SOX family transcription factors expression during the co-culture of MSCs and chondrocytes, suggesting an active induction of chondrogenic differentiation and change of cell fate amidst a microenvironment that facilitates cell-contact and paracrine secretion. This provides insight into the chondrogenic potential and therapeutic effects of MSCs preconditioned by the chondrocyte secretome (or potentially chondrocytes reinvigorated by the MSC secretome), and ultimately, cartilage repair.

Gregorio Marchiori Matteo Berni Francesca Veronesi Giorgio Cassiolas Aurelio Muttini Barbara Barboni Lucia Martini Milena Fini Nicola Francesco Lopomo Maurilio Marcacci Elizaveta Kon

No therapeutic strategy, administered in the early stage of osteoarthritis (OA), is fully able to block the degenerative and inflammatory progress of the pathology, whose only solution remains surgery. Aiming to identify minimally invasive therapies able to act on both degenerative and inflammatory processes, infiltrative treatments based on mesenchymal stem cells represent a promising solution due to their proliferative, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and paracrine ability. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate the performance of different cell therapies (stem cells from adipose tissue, ADSCs, stromal vascular fraction, SVF, and culture expanded, AECs vs negative control NaCl) in the treatment of OA. An in vivo model of early OA was developed in sheep knee (research protocol N.62/2018-PR date 29/01/2018 approved by the local Ethical Committee). Three and six months after the treatments injections, gross evaluation of articular surfaces (damage score, DS), histological (cartilage thickness, Th; fibrillation index, FI; collagen II content, C2) and mechanical assessment (elastic modulus, E; stress-relaxation time, τ) of cartilage were carried out. Due to the importance of the relationship between structure/composition (histology) and function (mechanics), this study investigated which of the revealed parameters were involved in such relation and how they were influenced by the level of degeneration and by the specific cell treatment, thus to better understand cell-tissue interaction.

A statistically significant multi-variable linear regression model was found between τ and Th, FI, C2 (R2 0.7, p-value 8.39E-5). The relation was particularly strong between τ and C2 (p-value 7E-4), with a positive coefficient of 0.92. This is in agreement with literature, where a higher cartilage viscosity was related to a major content of collagen. By dividing the samples in two groups depending on cartilage damage, the more degenerated group (DS > 5) showed statistically significant lower C2 (p-value 0.0124) and τ (p-value 0.05), confirming that collagen content and viscosity decrease with OA grade increasing. Averaging the entire group of samples, the OA degeneration progressed between 3 and 6 months after, and despite, the treatment. But focusing on specific treatments, SVF and AECs differed from the general trend, inducing a higher amount of collagen at 6 months respect to 3 months. Moreover, articular cartilage treated by AECs and, overall, SVF showed a higher content of collagen and a major viscosity respect to the other treatments.

We conclude that an injection of mesenchymal stem cells from stromal vascular fraction in early OA articulations could hinder the degenerative process, preserving or even restoring collagen content and viscosity of the articular cartilage.

Ravi Thimmaiah Omar Ali Keshav Mathur

The Hospital (Trust) guidelines generally recommend 40mg of Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) twice daily (BD) for all patients over 100kg for those undergoing total hip (THR) and knee replacements (TKR) respectively. British National Formulary (BNF) recommends 40mg of LMWH once daily (OD) for all patients regardless of their overall weight or body mass index (BMI).

We evaluated the outcome of prophylactic LMWH dosage for patients undergoing THR and TKR by monitoring surgery related venous-thromboembolic events up to a minimum of three months after surgery.

A retrospective audit was carried out after obtaining institutional approval and all consecutive elective patients weighing over 100kg and undergoing THR and TKR were included. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 3 months after their operation to investigate the dose of prophylactic LMWH received, and whether they had developed any venous thromboembolic events (VTE) post operatively. This was done using a combination of electronic notes, drug charts and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) reports on the hospital/trust database.

A total of 53 patients underwent elective THR (18) and TKR (35) between the period of March 2017 and September 2017. Forty-four patients received 40 mg OD and 9 patients had 40 mg BD. None of the patients developed a confirmed DVT or pulmonary embolism in the 3 months following surgery regardless of the dose received.

We demonstrate that there is no clinical benefit in having patients over 100kg on twice daily LMWH with the aim of preventing post-op thromboembolic complications. This conclusion is in line with the BNF recommendations for VTE prophylaxis.

Farzad Omidi-Kashani Reza Binava Zohreh Mohammadi Arki Farideh Golhasani Keshtan Daniel Madarshahian


Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common spinal disorder mostly caused by the arthritic process. In cases with refractory complaints or significant neurologic deficit, decompressive surgery with or without instrumented fusion may be indicated. We aimed to investigate the surgical outcome of multi-level LSS in the patient with stable spine treated by simple decompression versus decompression and instrumented fusion. Methods: We retrospectively studied 51 patients (25 male, 26 female) with stable multi-level (>2 levels) LSS who were treated by decompressive surgery alone (group A, 31 cases) and decompression and instrumented fusion (group B, 20 cases) and followed them for more than two years. The patients’ disability and pain were assessed with Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), respectively. At the last follow-up visit, patient satisfaction with surgery was also scored. Results: The two groups were homogeneous in terms of age, sex, severity of disability and pain. Surgery could significantly improve pain and disability in both groups. Preoperative ODI in group A and B were 51.0±23.7 and 54.5±22.9, respectively, however at the last follow-up visit these parameters improved to 23.1±21.1 and 36.6±21.4 showing a statistical significance. Mean patient satisfaction with surgical intervention was also higher in the simple decompression group, but this difference was not significant. Conclusion: In surgical treatment of the patients with multi-level but stable LSS, simple decompression versus decompression and instrumented fusion could achieve more disability improvement for more than two years of follow-up.

Alkan Bayrak Malik Çelik Altuğ Duramaz Serdar Hakan Başaran Cemal Kural Cemal Kızılkaya Alev Kural Mehmet Şar

The aim of the study is to determine the histological, biochemical, and biomechanical efficacy of fibrin clot and vitamin C in the healing of Achilles tendon ruptures (ATR) in a rat model.52 adult Wistar Albino rats (300–450 g) were used in the study. 12 groups were divided into four groups as Monitor (Group I), Control (Group II), Fibrin Clot (Group III), Fibrin Clot with vitamin C (Group IV). Four rats were used to obtain fibrin clots. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were measured in the blood of tail vein (1 cc) on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st day. Four rats were sacrificed on the 21st day from each group for histological evaluation. The rest of the rats were sacrificed at 42nd day, half for biomechanical and a half for histological evaluation.

The 42nd-day HSS scores in group III and group IV were significantly lower than those of group I and group II (p =0.036 and 0.019; respectively). The 42nd-day HSS score of group IV was significantly lower than group III (p =0.036). The Maximum force N value of group III and group IV was significantly higher than those of group I and group II (p <0.05). Group IV showed a significantly higher Maximum force N value than group III (p =0.025). The blood FGF and VEGF levels of group III and group IV on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days were higher than those of group I and group II (p <0.05).

In the experimentally formed ATR model, fibrin clot and vitamin C produced a stronger tendon structure in terms of biomechanics while providing histological and biochemically better quality tendon healing in the surgical treatment of ATR. We believe that this model can be used to accelerate high-quality tendon healing after ATR.


Although multifunctional delivery systems can potentially improve safety and efficacy of therapeutic protein delivery in the biological treatment of injured tissues, ability to track and manipulate protein delivery systems in vivo to ensure localization at the treatment site is still a concern.

We hypothesized that incorporating superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) into calcium phosphate (CaP) coated β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) microparticles would allow for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) based tracking in vivo and SPIO incorporation would not impact the biological activity of proteins delivered with these microparticles.

To address the efficacy and limitations in therapeutic protein delivery, a CaP coated microparticle which incorporates superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO-CaP-MP) was created and used in a rat knee medial collateral ligament. The system has trifunctional properties: (1) it is trackable using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (2) it can be manipulated with a magnetic field, (3) it can release active proteins in the injury site. SPIO-Ca-MPs were formed on β-tricalcium phosphate cores. Using MRI, SPIO-CaP-MPs were visible in T2 weighted sequences as an area of hypointesive signal. SPIO-CaP-MPs could be visualized and remained localized for at least 15 days after injection into the medial collateral ligament. Recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor delivered with SPIO-CaP-MPs stimulated the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts. Finally, SPIO-CaP-MPs could be localized to a bar magnet when suspended in solution. Taken together, these results suggest that SPIO-CaPMPs could be useful for protein delivery applications in the treatment of ligament injury that may benefit from externally controlled localization and MRI-based tracking.

Rakan Kabariti Richard Roach


The current average tariff of a total knee replacement (TKR) is £5500. The approximate cost of each knee prosthesis is £2500. Therefore, length of patient stay (LOS) and the cost of patient rehabilitation influence the total costs significantly. Previous studies have shown a mean LOS of between 5 and 9.4 days for patients undergoing primary unilateral TKR but none looked at the factors influencing length of stay following bilateral primary total knee replacements (BTKR) at the same sitting.


To identify significant factors that influence the LOS following BTKR at the same sitting in a single centre in the UK.

Jiang An Lim Azeem Thahir Matija Krkovic


The BOAST (British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma) guidelines do advise that open pilon fractures amongst other open lower limb fractures need to be treated at a specialist centre with Orthoplastic care. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical outcomes in patients with open pilon fractures treated as per BOAST guidelines including relatively aggressive bone debridement.


A retrospective analysis of a single surgeon series of open pilon fractures treated between 2014 and 2019 was conducted. Injuries were graded according to the Gustillo-Anderson classification and all patients were included for the assessment of the rate of infection and fracture healing. Functional outcome assessment was performed in all patients according to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) at 6 months after definitive surgery. Initial wound with bone debridement and application of a spanning external fixator was performed within an average of 13.5 (Range: 3–24) hours. Fixation with FWF (Fine Wire Frame) was performed when the wound was healed, with the mean time from primary surgery to application of FWF being 24.5 (Range: 7–60) days.

Alexander Meynen Filip Verhaegen Michiel Mulier Philippe Debeer Lennart Scheys

Pre-operative 3D glenoid planning improves component placement in terms of version, inclination, offset and orientation. Version and inclination measurements require the position of the inferior angle. As a consequence, current planning tools require a 3D model of the full scapula to accurately determine the glenoid parameters. Statistical shape models (SSMs) can be used to reconstruct the missing anatomy of bones. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop and validate an SSM for the reconstruction of the inferior scapula, hereby reducing the irradiation exposure for patients.

The training dataset for the statistical shape consisted of 110 CT images from patients without observable scapulae pathologies as judged by an experienced shoulder surgeon. 3D scapulae models were constructed from the segmented images. An open-source non-rigid B-spline-based registration algorithm was used to obtain point-to-point correspondences between the models. A statistical shape model was then constructed from the dataset using principal component analysis. Leave-one-out cross-validation was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the predicted glenoid parameters from virtual partial scans. Five types of virtual partial scans were created on each of the training set models, where an increasing amount of scapular body was removed to mimic a partial CT scan. The statistical shape model was reconstructed using the leave-one-out method, so the corresponding training set model is no longer incorporated in the shape model. Reconstruction was performed using a Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithm, random walk proposals included both shape and pose parameters, the closest fitting proposal was selected for the virtual reconstruction. Automatic 3D measurements were performed on both the training and reconstructed 3D models, including glenoid version, inclination, glenoid centre point position and glenoid offset.

In terms of inclination and version we found a mean absolute difference between the complete model and the different virtual partial scan models of 0.5° (SD 0.4°). The maximum difference between models was 3° for inclination and 2° for version. For offset and centre point position the mean absolute difference was 0 mm with an absolute maximum of 1 mm.

The magnitude of the mean and maximum differences for all anatomic measurements between the partial scan and complete models is smaller than the current surgical accuracy. Considering these findings, we believe a SSM based reconstruction technique can be used to accurately reconstruct the glenoid parameters from partial CT scans.

Merle Kempfert Michael Schwarze Nina Angrisani Bastian Welke Elmar Willbold Janin Reifenrath

Chronic rotator cuff tears are a major problem especially in the elderly population. Refixation is associated with high re-rupture rates. Therefore new implants or healing methods are needed. For a control of success biomechanical characteristics of native as well as treated tendons are of particular importance.

Currently, tensile tests with static material testing machines are the most common technique for the biomechanical characterization of tendons. Resulting values are the maximum force (Fmax), stiffness and the Young´s modulus. However, no information is given about the allocation of strains over the tendon area. In addition, the determination of Fmax results in tissue destruction thus foreclosing further evaluation like histology.

The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a contact-free non-destructive optical measuring method which gives information about distribution of strains by tracking the areal shift of an applied speckle pattern. The needed speckle pattern has to have a high contrast, a homogeneous distribution and a good adhesion to the surface. The method is established for the characterization of construction materials [1] to detect e.g. weak points. The present study examined if DIC is applicable for the complementary biomechanical evaluation of the sheep infraspinatus tendon.

Fine ground powder extracted from a printer cartridge was chosen as a starting point. Preliminary to the in vitro experiments, the powder was applied on sheets with different methods: brushing, blowing, sieving and stamping. Stamping showed best results and was used for further in vitro tests on cadaveric native tendons (n=5). First, the toner powder was transferred to coarse-grained abrasive paper using a brush and stamped on the tendon surface. Afterwards DIC analysis was performed. For the in vivo tests, the left infraspinatus tendon of two German black-headed Mutton Sheep was detached and then refixed with bone anchors, the right tendon was used as native control (authorization: AZ 33.19-42502-04-17/2739). 12 weeks after surgery the animals were euthanized, the shoulders were explanted and DIC measurement performed.

The speckle pattern could be applied adequately on the smooth tendon surfaces of native tendons. All specimens could be analyzed by DIC with sufficient correlation coefficients. The highest displacements were measured in the peripheral areas, whereas the central part of the tendon showed a low displacement. Repaired left tendons showed obvious differences already macroscopically. The tendons were thicker and showed inhomogeneous surfaces. Application of the toner powder by stamping was distinctly more complicated, DIC analysis could not produce sufficient correlation coefficients.

In summary, transfer of DIC to native infraspinatus tendons of sheep was successful and can be further transferred to other animal and human tendons. However, irregular surfaces in tendon scar tissues affect the application of an adequate speckle pattern with a stamp technique. Therefore, further modifications are necessary.

This research project has been supported by the German Research Foundation “Graded Implants FOR 2180 – tendon- and bone junctions” WE 4262/6-1.

Emre Cullu Hüseyin Olgun Canten Tataroğlu Ferit Tufan Ozgezmez Murat Sarıerler

Thermal osteonecrosis is a side effect when used Kirschner (K) wires and drills in orthopaedic surgeries. This osteonecrosis may endanger the fixation. Orthopaedic surgeons sometimes have to use unsharpened K-wires in emergent surgery. The thermal effect of used and unsharpened K wire is ambiguous to the bone. This experimental study aims to assess the thermal osteonecrosis while drilling bone with three different types of K-wires especially a previously used unsharpened wire and its thermographic measurements correlation. Two different speeds of rotation were chosen to investigate the effect of speed on thermal necrosis to the bone.

A total of 16 New Zealand white rabbits weighing a mean of 2.90 kg (2.70 – 3.30 kg) were used. All rabbits were operated under general anaesthesia in a sterile operating room. Firstly, 4 cm longitudinal lateral approach was used to the right femur and then the femur was drilled with 1.0 mm trochar tip, spade tip and previously used unsharpened K-wires and 1.0 mm drill bit at 1450 rpm speed. Left femur was drilled with same three type K-wires and drill bit at 330 rpm speed. One cm distance was left among four penetrations on the femur. The thermal changes were recorded by Flir® E6 Thermal Camera from 50 cm distance and 30-degree angle. Thermographic measurements saved for every drilling process and recorded for the highest temperature (°C) during the drilling. All subjects were sacrificed post-operatively on the eighth day and specimens were prepared for the histological examination. The results of osteonecrosis assessment score and thermographic correlation were evaluated statistically.

Histological specimens were evaluated by the scoring of osteonecrosis, osteoblastic activity, haemorrhage, microfracture and inflammation. Results were graded semi-quantitatively as none, moderate or severe for osteonecrosis, haemorrhage and inflammation. The microfracture and osteoblastic activity were evaluated as present or absent. There was no meaningful correlation between osteonecrosis and the drilling speed (p=0.108). There was less microfracture zone which was drilled with trochar tip K-wires at 1450 rpm speed (p=0.017). And the drilling temperature of trochar tip K-wires was higher than the others(p=0.001). Despite this evaluation, osteonecrosis zone of spade and unsharpened tip K-wires were more than trochar tip K-wires (p=0.039). The drill bit at 330 rpm caused the least osteonecrosis and haemorrhage and respectfully the lowest drilling temperature (p=0,001). The osteoblastic activity shows no difference between the groups. (p=0,122; 0,636;0.289)

On the contrary to the literature, our experiment showed that there is no meaningful correlation between osteonecrosis score and temperature produced by drilling. The histological assessment showed the osteonecrosis during short drilling time but, not clarify the relation with drilling temperature. Eventually, the osteonecrosis showed a positive correlation with drilling time independently of drilling temperature at 330 rpm. (p=0,042) These results show that we need more studies to understand about osteonecrosis and its relationship with drilling heat temperature. Trochar tip K-wires creates higher drilling temperature but less osteonecrosis than a spade and unsharpened cut tip K-wires. Using unsharpened tip K-wire causes more osteonecrosis. Previously used and, unsharpened K-wires should be discarded

Rakan Kabariti Richard Roach


Post-operative acute kidney injury is significant complication following surgery. Patients who develop AKI have an increased risk for progression into chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal failure and increased mortality risk. The patient outcomes following total knee replacement (TKR), who develop AKI has been a topic of interest in recent years as it may have patient and medicolegal implications. Nevertheless, there are no studies looking at the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of AKI following bilateral TKRs at the same sitting.


To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of post-operative AKI following bilateral TKRs surgery at the same sitting.

Veronica Tilotta Claudia Cicione Giuseppina Di Giacomo Luca Ambrosio Fabrizio Russo Rocco Papalia Gianluca Vadalà Vincenzo Denaro

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) affects more than 80% of the population and is often linked to a reduction of the proteoglycan content within the nucleus pulposus (NP). The nutritional decline and accumulation of degraded matrix products promote the inflammatory process favoring the onset of disease. Several regenerative approaches based on cell therapy have been explored. Recently, paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes have been described to play a fundamental role in the cross-talk between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and NP in the microenvironment. EVs vehicule different molecules: proteins, nucleic acids and lipids involved in intercellular communication regulating the homeostasis of recipient cells. Therefore, MSCs-derived exosomes are an interesting emerging tool for cell-free therapies in IDD.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of MSCs derived exosomes on human NP cells (hNPCs).

Exosomes were isolated through a multistep ultracentrifugation of bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) conditioned media (CM), obtained by culturing BM-MSCs without fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 48 hours. Exosomal morphology was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The exosomes were quantified by bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) and cryopreserved at –80 °C. hNPCs derived from surgical speciments digested with type II collagenase. After culture expansion in vitro, hNPCs in alginate beads (three-dimensional culture system) were treated with growth medium (controls), exosomes, CM, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1b), IL-1b plus exosomes, IL-1b plus CM. After 24 hours, total RNA was extracted and reverse-transcribed. Gene expression levels of catabolic and anabolic genes were analyzed through real time-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).

TEM analysis confirmed the cup-shaped vescicles in our preparations. Gene expression levels resulted to be modulated by both exosomes and CM compared to controls. In addition, both treatments were capable to alter the inflammatory stimuli of IL-1b. Interestingly, exosomes were able to change anabolic and catabolic gene expression levels differently from CM.

In our experimental conditions, both exosomes and CM from BM-MSCs could be an interesting alternative strategy in intervertebral disc regeneration, overcoming the costs and translational limits of cell therapy to the clinical practice.

Sara Ahmed Hassouna Elsayed Matthew James Allen

Millions of patients each year suffer from challenging non-healing bone defects secondary to trauma or disease (e.g. cancer, osteoporosis or osteomyelitis). Tissue engineering approach to non-healing bone defects has been investigated over the past few decades in a search for a novel solution for critical size bone defects. The success of the tissue engineering approach relies on three main pillars, the right type of cells; and appropriate scaffold; and a biologically relevant biochemical/ biophysical stimuli. When it comes to cells the mesodermal origin of mesenchymal stem cells and its well demonstrated multipotentiality makes it an ideal option to be used in musculoskeletal regeneration.

For the presented set of experimental assays, fully characterised (passage 3 to 5)ovine adipose-derived mesenchymal stems cells (Ad-MSC) were cultured either in growth medium (GM) consisting of Dulbecco's Modification of Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% (v/v) foetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin-streptomycin as a control or in osteogenic differentiation medium (DM), consisting of GM further supplemented with L- ascorbic acid (50 μg/ml), β-glycerophosphate (10 mM) and dexamethasone (100nM). Osteogenic differentiation was assessed biochemically by quantifying alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity and alizarin red staining after 3, 7, 14 and 21 days in culture (where 1×105 cells/well were seeded in 24 well-plate, n=6/media type/ time point). Temporal patterns in osteogenic gene expression were quantified using real-time PCR for Runx-2, osteocalcin (OC), osteonectin (ON) and type 1 collagen (Col 1) at days 7, 15 and 21 (where 1×105 cells were seeded in T25 cell culture flasks for RNA extraction, n= 4 / gene/ media type/time point). The morphology of osteogenic cells was additionally evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of cells seeded at low-density (1×102 cells) on glass coverslips for 2 weeks in GM or DM.

The level of ALP activity of cells grown in osteogenic DM was significantly higher than the control growing in the standard growth medium (p ≤ 0.05) at days 3, 7 and 14. At 21 days there was a sharp drop in ALP values in the differentiating cells. Mineralisation, as evidenced by alizarin red staining, increased significantly by day 14 and then peaked at day 21. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed early increases in Runx-2, Col 1 and osteonectin, peaking in the second week of culture, while osteocalcin peaked at 21 days of culture. Taken as a whole, these data indicate that ovine-MSCs exhibit a tightly defined pathway of initial proliferation and matrix maturation (up to 14 days), followed by terminal differentiation and mineralisation (days 14 to 21). SEM analysis confirmed the flattened, roughened appearance of these cells and abandoned extracellular matrix which resembled mature osteoblasts.

Given the ready availability of adipose tissues, the use of Ad-MSCs as progenitors for bone tissue engineering applications is both feasible and reasonable. The data from this study indicate that Ad-MSCs follow a predictable pathway of differentiation that can be tracked using validated molecular and biochemical assays. Additional work is needed to confirm that these cells are osteogenic in vivo, and to identifying the best combination of scaffold materials and cell culture techniques (e.g. static versus dynamic) to accelerate or stimulate osteogenic differentiation for bone tissue engineering applications.

Raúl Vallejos José Contreras Ameet Aiyangar Humberto Palza Juan Francisco Vivanco

Bioactive glasses, such as 45S5 Bioglass (BG), have been shown to promote bone ingrowth both in vitro and in vivo. The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of a high dose of BG (20%) in Direct Ink Writing (DIW)-produced controlled-geometry PCL-BG composite scaffolds in both their mechanical and biological performance.

Porous cubes of 5 × 5 × 5 mm, 50% porosity and pore size and strut diameter of 400 µm were fabricated in a 3D-Bioplotter (EnvisionTec) to investigate their biological performance (n = 3). Additionally, cylindrical specimens (10 mm diameter; 15 mm height) with same internal structure were fabricated for mechanical testing (n = 6). The cylindrical specimens were tested by compression in a universal testing machine (ZwickRoell) with a 10 kN load cell. The tests were performed at 1.00 mm/min with extensometers in both sides. For biological characterization, scaffolds were sterilized in 70% ethanol overnight and pre-incubated with DMEM for 1 hour at room temperature. 1×105 human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) in 50 µl DMEM were seeded on the scaffolds using agarose molds to improve cell adhesion, and cultured in standard cell-culture conditions for 3, 7 and 14 days. To measure cell proliferation, the reagent CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS, Promega) was added to the cell-seeded scaffolds at each time point, using non-seeded scaffolds as blank controls. The OD (490 nm) was measured in a BioTek 800 TS plate reader.

Both the apparent elastic modulus and yield stress were significantly lower in the scaffolds with 20% BG than their PCL control counterparts (p < 0.0001 for elastic modulus and p < 0.005 for yield stress, t-test). Cell proliferation in the scaffolds by MTS was variable, with the 20% BG scaffolds showing a significantly higher signal after seven days in culture (p < 0.05 by t-test), but a significantly lower signal after 14 days in culture (p < 0.05 by t-test).

In conclusion, scaffolds with 20% BG showed a lower mechanical performance than their PCL counterparts in terms of both their apparent elastic modulus and yield stress. Additionally, scaffolds with 20% BG showed variable cell proliferation rates in terms of their metabolic activity over a two-week period. The decrease in proliferation rate after week 2 after an initial increase at the end of week 1 could be due to cytotoxic effects of the BG at this high dose (20%) after long term exposure. These results suggest that a dosage of 20% BG may not necessarily improve the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds, so future experiments are required in order to characterize the optimum BG dosage in PCL scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

Giuseppina Di Giacomo Luca Ambrosio Claudia Cicione Veronica Tilotta Rocco Papalia Gianluca Vadalà Vincenzo Denaro

In the last decade, skeletal muscle has been recognized as an endocrine organ able to release molecules that may act as paracrine or endocrine factors, namely myokines. Among these, irisin is secreted upon muscle contraction after physical exercise (PE) and has been demonstrated to yield anabolic effects on different cell types. Recently, irisin has been shown to improve cortical bone mass, geometry and strength, hence resembling the effect of PE. It has also been reported that irisin levels in the serum and synovial fluid of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) were negatively correlated with OA severity. Therefore, we hypothesized that irisin may improve cartilage metabolism and blunt the osteoarthritic process.

Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes (hOAC) were isolated from osteochondral specimens of patients undergoing total knee joint replacement. After in vitro expansion, hOAC were put in a three-dimensional culture system (alginate beads) and treated with either phosphate-buffered saline (control) or irisin (25 ng/mL). After 1 week, the amount of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) was evaluated using dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) and PicoGreen assays. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect interleukin (IL)-1 and -6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and -3 gene expression levels.

hOAC treated with irisin showed a significant higher GAG content compared to the control group (p < 0.01). Moreover, irisin was able to reduce the expression of catabolic (MMP-1, -13, iNOS) and pro-inflammatory (IL-1, IL-6) markers, while incrementing the expression of TIMP-1 and -3 (p < 0.001).

Our results showed that irisin was able to stimulate GAG synthesis and diminish extracellular matrix catabolism in hOAC, demonstrating the existence of a cross-talk between cartilage and muscle possibly supporting the beneficial role of PE on cartilage homeostasis.

Amr Elbahi Daniel Mccormack Karim Bastouros

Osteoporosis is a disease when bone mass and tissue is lost, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and increase susceptibility to develop fracture. The osteoporosis prevalence increases markedly with age, from 2% at 50 years to more than 25% at 80 years1 in women. The vast majority of distal radius fractures (DRFs) can be considered fragility fractures. The DRF is usually the first medical presentation of these fractures. With an aging population, all fracture clinics should have embedded screening for bone health and falls risk. DRF is the commonest type of fracture in perimenopausal women and is associated with an increased risk of later non-wrist fracture of up to one in five in the subsequent decade2.

According to the national guidelines in managing the fragility fractures of distal radius with regards the bone health review, we, as orthopedic surgeons, are responsible to detect the risky patients, refer them to the responsible team to perform the required investigations and offer the treatment.

We reviewed our local database (E-trauma) all cases of fracture distal radius retrospectively during the period from 01/08/2019 to 29/09/2019. We included total of 45 patients who have been managed conservatively and followed up in fracture clinic. Our inclusion criteria was: women aged 65 years and over, men aged 75 years and over with risk factors, patients who are more than 50 years old and sustained low energy trauma whatever the sex is or any patient who has major risk factor (current or frequent recent use of oral or systemic glucocorticoids, untreated premature menopause or previous fragility fracture).

We found that 96% of patients were 50 years old or more and 84% of the patients were females. 71% of patients were not referred to Osteoporosis clinic and 11% were already under the orthogeriatric care and 18% only were referred. Out of the 8 referred patients, 3 were referred on 1st appointment, 1 on the 3rd appointment, 1 on discharge from fracture clinic to GP again and 3 were without clear documentation of the time of referral.

We concluded that we as trust are not compliant to the national guidelines with regards the osteoporosis review for the DRF as one of the first common presentations of fragility fractures. We also found that the reason for that is that there is no definitive clear pathway for the referral in our local guidelines.

We recommended that the Osteoporosis clinic referral form needs to be available in the fracture clinic in an accessible place and needs to be filled by the doctor reviewing the patient in the fracture clinic in the 1st appointment. A liaison nurse also needs to ensure these forms have been filled and sent to the orthogeriatric team. Alternatively, we added a portal on our online database (e-trauma), therefore the patient who fulfils the criteria for bone health review should be referred to the orthogeriatric team to review.

Melanie Haffner-Luntzer Verena Fischer Anita Ignatius

Mice are increasingly used for fracture healing research because of the possibility to use transgenic animals to conduct research on the molecular level. Mice from both sexes can be used, however, there is no consensus in the literature if fracture healing differs between female and male mice. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the similarities and differences in endochondral fracture healing between female and male C57BL/6J mice, since this mouse strain is mainly used in bone research. For that purpose, 12-weeks-old female and male mice received a standardized femur midshaft osteotomy stabilized by an external fixator. Mice were euthanized 10 and 21 days after fracture and bone regeneration was analyzed by biomechanical testing, µCT analysis, histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis. At day 21, male mice displayed a significantly larger fracture callus than female mice accompanied by higher number of osteoclasts, higher tissue mineral density and absolute values of bone volume, whereas relative bone volume to tissue volume ratio did not differ between the groups. Biomechanical testing revealed significantly increased bending stiffness in both fractured and intact femurs from male vs. female mice, whereas relative bending stiffness of fractured femurs related to the intact femurs did not differ. 10 days after fracture, male mice display significantly more cartilage and less fibrous tissue area in the fracture callus than female mice, whereas bone area did not differ. On the molecular level, male mice displayed increased active β-catenin expression in the fracture callus, whereas estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression was reduced. In conclusion, male mice showed more prominent cartilaginous callus formation, increased mineralization and whole callus tissue formation, whereas functional outcome after fracture did not differ from female mice. This might be due either to the heavier weight of male mice or because of differences in molecular signaling pathways.

Pinar Yilgor Huri Ebru Talak Burak Kaya Gazi Huri

Articular cartilage is often damaged, and its treatment is usually performed by surgical operation. Today, tissue engineering offers an alternative treatment option for injuries or diseases with increasing importance. Infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) is a densely vascularized and innervated extra synovial tissue that fills the anterior knee compartment. Adipose-derived stem cells from infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP-ASCs) have multipotency means that they can differentiate into connective tissue cells and have age-independent differentiation capacity as compared to other stem cells.

In this study, the osteochondral tissue construct was designed with different inner pattern due to original osteochondral tissue structure and fabrication of it was carried out by 3D printing. For this purpose, alginate (3% w/v) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (9%w /v) were used as bioink. Also, IPFP-ASCs were isolated with enzymatic degradation. Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of IPFP-ASCs were investigated with Alizarin Red and Alcian Blue staining, respectively. IPFP-ASCs-laden osteochondral graft differentiation will be induced by controlled release of growth factor BMP-2 and TGF-β. Before this step, nanocapsules formation with double emission technique with model protein BSA was carried out with different concentration of PCL (5%,10% and 20%).

The morphology and structure of the nanocapsules were determined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, we successfully designed and printed alginate and CMC based scaffold with 20 layers. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of IPFP-ASCs with suitable culture conditions was obtained.

The isolation of IPFP-ASCs, formation of the nanocapsules, and 3D printing of osteochondral graft were carried out successfully.

En Lei Samuel Fong Ethiraj Lalith Prabha Tom James Carney

Osteoporosis is a mineral bone disease arising from the predominance of osteoclastic bone resorption. Bisphosphonates which inhibit osteoclasts are commonly used in osteoporosis treatment, but are not without severe adverse effects like osteonecrosis of the jaw. The mechanisms behind the development of such phenomena is not well understood. Bone homeostasis is achieved through an intimate cross-talk between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Thus, it is important to visualise activities of these cells simultaneously in situ. Currently, there are means to visualise osteoclast shape and numbers with tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase (TRAP) staining but no practical and accurate methods to quantify osteoclast activity in situ.

This investigation aims to establish the use of ELF97, a substrate of TRAP, to visualise and quantify osteoclast activity. This provides vital clues to mechanisms of various bone disorders. TRAP dephosphorylation of ELF97 results in a detectable fluorescent product at areas of osteoclast activity.

Osteoclastic activity was initiated in zebrafish by inducing crush injuries in tail fin rays. Colocalisation of ELF97 fluorescence with osteoclast-specific DsRed in transgenic zebrafish, visualised under confocal microscopy, is used to further establish the specificity of ELF97 to sites of osteoclastic activity. Quantification is established by comparing fluorescence between wild type, osteoclast-deficient mutants and bisphosphonate-treated zebrafish. The utility of ELF97 will also be investigated in terms of the stability of the florescent product.

The investigation revealed that ELF97 and DsRed fluorescence were found commonly at crush sites with osteoclastic activity. Wild type zebrafish had greater fluorescence compared to osteoclast-deficient (p<0.0001) and bisphosphonate-treated zebrafish (p<0.0001) after 7 and 14 days post-crush, revealing that fluorescence from ELF97 corresponds to expected osteoclastic activity. Fluorescence of tail fins treated with ELF97 did not diminish over a period of 21 days of storage, demonstrating its stability. ELF97 is thus a useful means to visualise osteoclast activity, potentially crucial in more advanced investigations to understand bone disorders. It could be used in combination with other cellular markers in whole biological samples to study and experimentally manipulate bone remodelling.


Bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts, hamstring autografts or allografts are widely used grafts for ACL revision surgeries. Also use of quadriceps autograft for both primary and revision ACL surgeries is in an increasing popularity due to its biomechanical superior properties and less donor site morbidity. However, although several fixation techniques and devices for quadriceps tendon graft fixation on femoral side have been reported, literature lacks about biomechanical studies comparing properties of these different fixation techniques and devices. We aimed to investigate whether there is a difference between the fixation techniques of quadriceps tendon graft by using different fixation techniques and devices on the femoral side in terms of stiffness and amount of slippage in the tunnel.

Full-thickness central parts of quadriceps tendons from paired knees of twenty five calf knees were fixed through a 10mm x 25mm tunnel in twenty five paired sheep femurs. Quadriceps tendon patellar side with soft tissue ending fixed with four different fixation devices (adjustable suspensory system (group 1), absorbable interference screw (group 2), titanium interference screw (group 3) and adjustable suspensory system + absorbable interference screw (group 4)) and quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone plug fixed with a titanium interference screw (group 5) were tested in a servohydraulic materials testing machine. 10 samples were included in each group. After applying a preload of 10 N, a cyclic force was applied for 20 cycles from 10N to 110N at a 1 hertz frequency. Amount of slippage in the tunnel was calculated as the difference measured in millimeters between length at 10 N after 20 cycles and starting length at 10 N (Graph 1). To determine the stiffness, a single load-to-failure cycle was performed at a strain rate of 20 mm/min as the last step (Figure 1).

Rupture of the graft was not seen in any of the samples. Median values of amount of slippage in the tunnel were 6,41mm, 5,99mm, 3,01mm, 4,83mm, and 3,94mm respectively. Median values of maximum load at failure were 464N, 160N, 350N, 350N and 389N respectively. Amount of slippage in the tunnel was highest in the group 1 and was lowest in the group 3 (p<0.001). Group 1 was found to be most resistant group against load-to-failure test and group 2 was the weakest (p<0.001). However inter-group analyses between group 3 and 5 revealed that, although group 3 had the least slippage in the tunnel, group 5 was better in terms of stiffness, but there was no statistically significant difference (p=0,124 and 0,119 respectively). There was a significant difference between group 2 and 3 in both amount of slippage in the tunnel and stiffness (p=0,001 and 0.028 respectively)(Table 1).

Our study revealed that, although quadriceps graft with a bone plug fixed with metal interference screws is widely presumed to be a stable fixation technique, there was no significant difference in terms of stiffness when compared with quadriceps graft with soft tissue ending fixed with a metal interference screw. Although adjustable suspensory device group was the best in the terms of resistance against load-to-failure, it was the worst in terms of amount of slippage from the tunnel. Thus, if a suspensory device is to be used, it must be kept in mind that a strong 20 cycles of intra-operative tension force must be applied to prevent further slippage of the graft in the tunnel which can result in failure of reconstruction.

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