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Volume 5, Issue 9 September 2016

M. Oba Y. Inaba N. Kobayashi H. Ike T. Tezuka T. Saito

Objectives

In total hip arthroplasty (THA), the cementless, tapered-wedge stem design contributes to achieving initial stability and providing optimal load transfer in the proximal femur. However, loading conditions on the femur following THA are also influenced by femoral structure. Therefore, we determined the effects of tapered-wedge stems on the load distribution of the femur using subject-specific finite element models of femurs with various canal shapes.

Patients and Methods

We studied 20 femurs, including seven champagne flute-type femurs, five stovepipe-type femurs, and eight intermediate-type femurs, in patients who had undergone cementless THA using the Accolade TMZF stem at our institution. Subject–specific finite element (FE) models of pre- and post-operative femurs with stems were constructed and used to perform FE analyses (FEAs) to simulate single-leg stance. FEA predictions were compared with changes in bone mineral density (BMD) measured for each patient during the first post-operative year.


S. Munir R. A. Oliver B. Zicat W. L. Walter W. K. Walter W. R. Walsh

Objectives

This study aimed to characterise and qualitatively grade the severity of the corrosion particles released into the hip joint following taper corrosion.

Methods

The 26 cases examined were CoC/ABG Modular (n = 13) and ASR/SROM (n = 13). Blood serum metal ion levels were collected before and after revision surgery. The haematoxylin and eosin tissue sections were graded on the presence of fibrin exudates, necrosis, inflammatory cells and corrosion products. The corrosion products were identified based on visible observation and graded on abundance. Two independent observers blinded to the clinical patient findings scored all cases. Elemental analysis was performed on corrosion products within tissue sections. X-Ray diffraction was used to identify crystalline structures present in taper debris.


M. Pahuta J. M. Smolders J. L. van Susante J. Peck P. R. Kim P. E. Beaule

Objectives

Alarm over the reported high failure rates for metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants as well as their potential for locally aggressive Adverse Reactions to Metal Debris (ARMDs) has prompted government agencies, internationally, to recommend the monitoring of patients with MoM hip implants. Some have advised that a blood ion level >7 µg/L indicates potential for ARMDs. We report a systematic review and meta-analysis of the performance of metal ion testing for ARMDs.

Methods

We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify articles from which it was possible to reconstruct a 2 × 2 table. Two readers independently reviewed all articles and extracted data using explicit criteria. We computed a summary receiver operating curve using a Bayesian random-effects hierarchical model.


W. Z. Morris C. A. Fowers R. T. Yuh J. J. Gebhart M. J. Salata R. W. Liu

Objectives

The spinopelvic relationship (including pelvic incidence) has been shown to influence pelvic orientation, but its potential association with femoroacetabular impingement has not been thoroughly explored. The purpose of this study was to prove the hypothesis that decreasing pelvic incidence is associated with increased risk of cam morphology.

Methods

Two matching cohorts were created from a collection of cadaveric specimens with known pelvic incidences: 50 subjects with the highest pelvic incidence (all subjects > 60°) and 50 subjects with the lowest pelvic incidence (all subjects < 35°). Femoral version, acetabular version, and alpha angles were directly measured from each specimen bilaterally. Cam morphology was defined as alpha angle > 55°. Differences between the two cohorts were analysed with a Student’s t-test and the difference in incidence of cam morphology was assessed using a chi-squared test. The significance level for all tests was set at p < 0.05.


Z. Yang H. Liu D. Li X. Xie T. Qin J. Ma P. Kang

Objectives

The primary purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine whether statin usage could reduce the risk of glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis in animal models.

Methods

A systematic literature search up to May 2015 was carried out using the PubMed, Ovid, EBM reviews, ISI Web of Science, EBSCO, CBM, CNKI databases with the term and boolean operators: statins and osteonecrosis in all fields. Risk ratio (RR), as the risk estimate of specific outcome, was calculated along with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The methodological quality of individual studies was assessed using a quantitative tool based on the updated Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations.


E. H. Mrosek H-W. Chung J. S. Fitzsimmons S. W. O’Driscoll G. G. Reinholz J. C. Schagemann

Objectives

We sought to determine if a durable bilayer implant composed of trabecular metal with autologous periosteum on top would be suitable to reconstitute large osteochondral defects. This design would allow for secure implant fixation, subsequent integration and remodeling.

Materials and Methods

Adult sheep were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 8/group): 1. trabecular metal/periosteal graft (TMPG), 2. trabecular metal (TM), 3. empty defect (ED). Cartilage and bone healing were assessed macroscopically, biochemically (type II collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) content) and histologically.


S. Ye B. Ju H. Wang K-B. Lee

Objectives

Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a regulatory cytokine that degrades the disc matrix. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) stimulates synthesis of the disc extracellular matrix. However, the combined effects of BMP-2 and IL-18 on human intervertebral disc degeneration have not previously been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the anabolic cytokine BMP-2 and the catabolic cytokine IL-18 on human nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and, therefore, to identify potential therapeutic and clinical benefits of recombinant human (rh)BMP-2 in intervertebral disc degeneration.

Methods

Levels of IL-18 were measured in the blood of patients with intervertebral disc degenerative disease and in control patients. Human NP and AF cells were cultured in a NP cell medium and treated with IL-18 or IL-18 plus BMP-2. mRNA levels of target genes were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein levels of aggrecan, type II collagen, SOX6, and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) were assessed by western blot analysis.


C. I. Leichtle A. Lorenz S. Rothstock J. Happel F. Walter T. Shiozawa U. G. Leichtle

Objectives

Cement augmentation of pedicle screws could be used to improve screw stability, especially in osteoporotic vertebrae. However, little is known concerning the influence of different screw types and amount of cement applied. Therefore, the aim of this biomechanical in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of cement augmentation on the screw pull-out force in osteoporotic vertebrae, comparing different pedicle screws (solid and fenestrated) and cement volumes (0 mL, 1 mL or 3 mL).

Materials and Methods

A total of 54 osteoporotic human cadaver thoracic and lumbar vertebrae were instrumented with pedicle screws (uncemented, solid cemented or fenestrated cemented) and augmented with high-viscosity PMMA cement (0 mL, 1 mL or 3 mL). The insertion torque and bone mineral density were determined. Radiographs and CT scans were undertaken to evaluate cement distribution and cement leakage. Pull-out testing was performed with a material testing machine to measure failure load and stiffness. The paired t-test was used to compare the two screws within each vertebra.


M. Stravinskas P. Horstmann J. Ferguson W. Hettwer M. Nilsson S. Tarasevicius M. M. Petersen M. A. McNally L. Lidgren

Objectives

Deep bone and joint infections (DBJI) are directly intertwined with health, demographic change towards an elderly population, and wellbeing.

The elderly human population is more prone to acquire infections, and the consequences such as pain, reduced quality of life, morbidity, absence from work and premature retirement due to disability place significant burdens on already strained healthcare systems and societal budgets.

DBJIs are less responsive to systemic antibiotics because of poor vascular perfusion in necrotic bone, large bone defects and persistent biofilm-based infection. Emerging bacterial resistance poses a major threat and new innovative treatment modalities are urgently needed to curb its current trajectory.

Materials and Methods

We present a new biphasic ceramic bone substitute consisting of hydroxyapatite and calcium sulphate for local antibiotic delivery in combination with bone regeneration. Gentamicin release was measured in four setups: 1) in vitro elution in Ringer’s solution; 2) local elution in patients treated for trochanteric hip fractures or uncemented hip revisions; 3) local elution in patients treated with a bone tumour resection; and 4) local elution in patients treated surgically for chronic corticomedullary osteomyelitis.


Knee
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P. Pinsornsak K. Naratrikun S. Kanitnate T. Sangkomkamhang

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee.

Methods

Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis was evaluated using the joint space width and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic classification. The t-test was used for statistical analysis.


Editorial
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