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Volume 80-B, Issue 3 May 1998

T. Ilchmann L. Markovic A. Joshi K. Hardinge J. Murphy H. Wingstrand
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We analysed in-vivo migration and wear over a long period of all-polyethylene acetabular cups which had not been affected by mechanical loosening. The selection criteria of regular radiological follow-up, good clinical outcome (Charnley score of 5 or 6), continued walking without crutches and no radiological signs of loosening of the acetabular cups were fulfilled by 25 Charnley total hip arthroplasties.

Mean migration, measured by the Nunn method, was 0.6 mm in the medial and 0.2 mm in the cranial direction. The mean yearly rate of wear was 0.05 mm and 0.04 mm, with six and two cups having no detectable wear, as measured by the Livermore and Charnley-Cupic methods, respectively. The maximal detected wear was 3.7 mm. There were no changes in the rate of wear with time. Computerised Ein Bild Röntgen Analyse (single-image radiological analysis) measurements of 20 hips indicated plastic deformation of the cups.

We conclude that long-term successful cups do not migrate and have a very low rate of wear which was not affected by ageing of the polyethylene. There was no evidence that polyethylene wear alone caused mechanical loosening of the cup but high rates of wear seem to have an adverse prognostic value in terms of the long-term survival of the prosthesis.


S. Eggli M. Pisan M. E. Müller
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To analyse the value and accuracy of preoperative planning for total hip replacement (THR) we digitised electronically and compared the hand-sketched preoperative plans with the pre- and postoperative radiographs of 100 consecutive primary THRs.

The correct type of prosthesis was planned in 98%; the agreement between planned and actually used components was 92% on the femoral side and 90% on the acetabular side. The mean (± SD) absolute difference between the planned and actual position of the centre of rotation of the hip was 2.5 ± 1.1 mm vertically and 4.4 ± 2.1 mm horizontally. On average, the inclination of the acetabular component differed by 7 ± 2° and anteversion by 9 ± 3° from the preoperative plans. The mean postoperative leg-length difference was 0.3 ± 0.1 cm clinically and 0.2 ± 0.1 cm radiologically. More than 80% of intraoperative difficulties were anticipated.

Preoperative planning is of significant value for the successful performance of THR.


B. W. Schreurs T. J. J. H. Slooff P. Buma J. W. M. Gardeniers R. Huiskes
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We report a long-term review of 60 acetabular components revised using impacted, morsellised bone allografts and a cemented polyethylene cup. The acetabular defects were cavitary (37) or combined (23). Follow-up was for a mean 11.8 years (10 to 15).

Further revision was needed in five hips, two for septic and three for aseptic loosening. The overall survival rate at 11.8 years was 90%; excluding the septic cases it was 94%.

Acetabular reconstruction with impacted morsellised cancellous grafts and cement gives satisfactory long-term results.


P. Böhm R. Bösche
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We reviewed 264 consecutive primary total hip replacements in 244 patients in which the Harris-Galante I porous-coated acetabular component had been used. The mean follow-up was 95 months (69 to 132). In 221 arthroplasties a 32 mm ceramic head had been used, and in the other 43 one of cobalt-chrome alloy. There were 124 women and 120 men with a mean age at operation of 56.8 years (21 to 83).

Survival analysis of the acetabular components was performed using the following definitions of failure: 1) infection; 2) removal because of aseptic loosening; 3) removal for any cause; and 4) a worst-case analysis including removal of the cup or infection or loss to follow-up.

Two well-fixed cups had been removed because of deep infection and three, similarly sound cups had been exchanged at the time of femoral revision. None of the acetabular components had required revision for aseptic loosening. After 11 years survival was 97.7% using the worst-case criterion. Radiological analysis of 187 acetabular components at a mean of 82 months (41 to 132) revealed no case of aseptic loosening. Pelvic osteolysis was seen in only one patient, but was not progressive and showed signs of regression.

The results using these acetabular components are encouraging but the need for regular follow-up remains since complications such as significant wear of the liner, massive osteolysis of the pelvis, aseptic loosening and late infection may increase in the second decade.


M. Matsui K. Nakata K. Masuhara K. Ohzono N. Sugano T. Ochi
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We implanted 51 Metal-Cancellous Cementless Lübeck (MCCL) prostheses into 45 patients with dysplastic hips and followed 49 hips (96.1%) for five to nine years. One had needed revision for stem fracture and one for infection; the clinical outcome of the other 47 hips was assessed using the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel hip score.

All hips were either excellent (63%) or good (37%). Three patients (6%) had mild thigh pain at six months, but this had settled within two years. Serial radiographs showed stable fixation with bone ingrowth in all hips, with increased density of the cancellous bone in contact with the implant and some trabecular ingrowth. There was early varus shift of the stem in one hip, but this stabilised in three months. Osteolysis of the femoral cortex was seen in one hip at seven years after surgery, and mild bone resorption due to stress shielding in 31 (63%). Acetabular bone grafting with autogenous bone from the femoral head gave successful support to the socket in 13 hips.

The MCCL prosthesis gave satisfactory mid-term results in patients with osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia.


P. M. Sutton T. Greene F. R. Howell
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We performed a prospective, randomised study comparing the rates of glove perforation using double latex gloving with or without a disposable protective glove liner (Paraderm) on 118 patients undergoing primary or revision arthroplasty of the hip or knee by one surgeon (FRH). The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: in group 1 an inner and outer pair of latex gloves were worn as double gloves and in group 2 the glove liner was worn between the two latex gloves.

There was glove perforation in at least one outer glove in 99 operations (84%). The operating surgeon was aware of the perforation in 21 of these. There were 22 perforations of the inner glove. Group 1 had a significantly higher perforation rate per operation (p < 0.05) than group 2.

Our findings show that protective glove liners significantly reduce the rate of perforation of the inner glove during hip and knee arthroplasty.


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J. D. J. Eldridge K. Avramidis M. Lee I. D. Learmonth
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There are several techniques for the accurate measurement of the migration of components after arthroplasty some of which require the operative placement of tantalum balls. We have reviewed the position and migration of these markers in 64 patients after total hip arthroplasty.

In 40% of cases, one or more balls was seen to be outside the proximal femur on the postoperative radiograph, although all were considered to be within the bone at operation. In two hips, one ball appeared to have migrated towards the joint, although none was seen within the joint. Misplacement was not related to the experience of the surgeon or the operative approach.

Migration analysis which necessitates the insertion of tantalum balls requires careful technique to avoid a potential source of third-body wear. It should probably be used only for research in small series of patients.


I. Önsten A. Nordqvist å. S. Carlsson J. Besjakov S. Shott
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In a single-blind, randomised series of knee replacements in 116 patients, we used radiostereometric analysis (RSA) to measure micromotion in three types of tibial implant fixation for two years after knee replacement. We compared hydroxyapatite-augmented porous coating, porous coating, and cemented fixation of the same design of tibial component.

At one to two years, porous-coated implants migrated at a statistically significantly higher rate than hydroxyapatite-augmented or cemented implants. There was no significant difference between hydroxyapatite-coated and cemented implants.

We conclude that hydroxyapatite augmentation may offer a clinically relevant advantage over a simple porous coating for tibial component fixation, but is no better than cemented fixation.


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D. W. Murray S. J. D. Frost
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The results of total knee replacement (TKR) are commonly assessed by survival analysis using revision as the endpoint. We have used the assessment of pain by a patient-based questionnaire as an alternative.

In one hospital, 1429 TKRs were inserted by 66 surgeons between 1987 and 1993. The survival at seven years, with revision as the endpoint, was 97.5% (CI 94 to 100). There were no significant differences between the three different types of implant used, the AGC, the IB2 and the Nuffield Knee. When the endpoint was the development of moderate pain, the survival at seven years for the AGC knee was 72% and that for the IB2 was similar. Significantly more patients (p = 0.007) with the Nuffield Knee, however, had developed moderate pain.

Using revision as the endpoint, it is difficult to discriminate between the various types of TKR, but this can be achieved using pain. In this investigation 30% of the patients reported moderate pain at some stage by seven years from operation.


M. Terauchi K. Shirakura M. Katayama H. Higuchi K. Takagishi
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We studied 37 patients with varus osteoarthritis of the knee to determine the influence of the bone mineral density (BMD) on the varus deformity. There were 15 men (21 knees) and 22 women (38 knees). The mean age of the men was 69 years and of the women 68 years. BMD was measured in the L1–L4 spinal region using dual X-ray absorptiometry.

In the women a low level of BMD was associated with varus deformity originating at the proximal tibia, but a high level was predominantly linked with deformity originating in the joint space. Similar findings were obtained in the men.

Our results suggest that a low BMD predisposes to trabecular microfractures and consequently increased stress on the articular cartilage. A low BMD does not preclude osteoarthritic change in the knee.


C. M. Douw S. K. Bulstra J. Vandenbroucke R. G. T. Geesink A. Vermeulen
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We describe six knees in five patients, referred to us after accidental irrigation with chlorhexidine 1% in aqueous solution during arthroscopy.

All six knees developed persisting pain, swelling and crepitus with loss of range of movement. Radiographs showed loss of joint space in all three compartments due to extensive chondrolysis, with many loose bodies and synovitis. Histological examination showed partial necrosis of the cartilage, with slight non-specific inflammation and fibrosis of synovial specimens.

Care is needed in checking irrigation fluids, and these should have a distinctive colour.


J. D. Lucas M. J. O’Doherty J. C. H. Wong J. B. Bingham P. H. McKee C. D. M. Fletcher M. A. Smith
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We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the ability of whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) to identify local recurrence and pulmonary metastases in patients with soft-tissue tumours after treatment. We compared the results of FDG PET with those of MRI for the detection of local recurrence, and with CT of the chest for pulmonary metastases.

We assessed 62 patients of mean age 51 years, who had 15 types of soft-tissue sarcoma, after a mean follow-up of 3 years 2 months. For the detection of local disease, 71 comparisons showed that the sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET were 73.7% and 94.3%, respectively; there were 14 true-positive and five false-negative results. MRI had a sensitivity and specificity of 88.2% and 96.0% respectively. For the identification of lung metastases, 70 comparisons showed that the sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET were 86.7% and 100%, with 13 true-positive results and two false-negative results. CT of the chest had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 96.4%. Thirteen other sites of metastases were identified by FDG PET.

FDG PET can identify both local and distant recurrence of tumour as a one-step procedure and will detect other metastases. It seems that all three methods of imaging are needed to define accurately the extent of disease, both at initial staging and during follow-up.


M. Tanaka S. Nakahara M. Tanizaki
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We report a patient who developed an aortic pseudoaneurysm in the L3–L4 disc space after lumbar disc surgery. The diagnosis was made by MRI and aortography, and repair using a prosthetic graft and anterior fusion was successful.

We discuss the predisposing factors, the clinical picture and management of vascular injuries during disc excision.


J. Stoney J. O’Brien P. Wilde
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We treated 22 patients with type-two odontoid fractures in halothoracic vests for six to eight weeks followed by a Philadelphia collar for four weeks. Eighteen patients were reviewed by questionnaire and radiography at a mean of 40 months after injury. We assessed union, fracture position, the degree of permanent pain and stiffness, satisfaction with the treatment and the outcome.

The overall union rate was 82%. Posterior malunion with residual posterior displacement or angulation was associated with a higher incidence of persisting pain. The position at union did not correlate with the residual cervical stiffness. Fractures failed to unite in four patients (18%) none of whom had late neurological sequelae, although they had more late pain. There were associations between the development of nonunion and an extension-type injury, age over 65 years and delay in diagnosis.


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The final results up to 15 years are reported of clinical trials of the management of tuberculosis of the spine in Korea and Hong Kong. In Korea, 350 patients with active spinal tuberculosis were randomised to ambulatory chemotherapy or bed rest in hospital (in Masan) or a plaster-of-Paris jacket for nine months (in Pusan). Patients in both centres were also randomised to either PAS plus isoniazid for 18 months or to the same drugs plus streptomycin for the first three months. In Hong Kong, all 150 patients were treated with the three-drug regime and randomised to either radical excision of the spinal lesion with bone graft or open debridement.

On average, the disease was more extensive in Korea, but at 15 years (or 13 or 14 years in a proportion of the patients in Korea) the great majority of patients in both countries achieved a favourable status, no evidence of CNS involvement, no radiological evidence of disease, no sinus or clinically evident abscess, and no restriction of normal physical activity. Most patients had already achieved a favourable status much earlier.

The earlier results of these trials are confirmed by the long-term follow-up with no late relapse or late-onset paraplegia. The results of chemotherapy on an outpatient basis were not improved by bed rest or a plaster jacket and the only advantage of the radical operation was less late deformity compared with debridement.

A second series of studies has shown that short-course regimes based on isoniazid and rifampicin are as effective as the 18-month regimes: ambulatory chemotherapy with these regimes should now be the main management of uncomplicated spinal tuberculosis.


Children's Orthopaedics
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Y. Takeda T. Ikata S. Yoshida H. Takai S. Kashiwaguchi
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We reviewed retrospectively the MRI examinations of 108 knees of 80 children to identify the prevalence of a high signal in the menisci of those without symptoms. There were 51 boys and 29 girls with a mean age of 12.2 years (8 to 15).

The prevalence of a high signal within the menisci was 66%, significantly higher than that in an adult group (29%). The prevalence decreased with age: grade-2 and grade-3 changes were observed in 80% of menisci at ten years of age, in 65% at 13 years and in 35% at 15 years. The prevalence of high signals also decreased with increased skeletal maturity at the knee.

We emphasise the importance of awareness of the high prevalence of a high signal intensity in the menisci of children, especially in early adolescence.


F. Lokiec R. Arbel J. Isakov S. Wientroub
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We describe a five-year-old child with neurofibromatosis type I who developed a Charcot knee. Infiltration of the joint by tissue associated with the disease caused damage to the proprioceptive mechanism and resulted in severe joint instability, accelerated destruction and development of neuropathic arthropathy.


H. Peltola M. J. T. Kallio L. Unkila-Kallio
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In many countries Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the second most common cause of septic arthritis in children. In Finland large-scale immunisation against Hib using conjugate vaccines began in 1986, four years after a multicentre prospective study of orthopaedic infections in children had started.

Since 1982, including six years before and ten after starting routine Hib vaccination, there has been a major change in the pattern of septic arthritis. From 1982 to 1988, 32 of 61 cases (53%) were caused by staphylococci, 22 (36%) by Hib and 7 (11%) by other bacteria. Since 1988, Hib infection has disappeared, and one-third of cases of childhood septic arthritis has been eliminated. This change has allowed us to reduce initial antimicrobial therapy for such children to cover only Gram-positive cocci. The more limited treatment is safer, reduces cost, and simplifies treatment.


V. K. Gautam S. Anand
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Contracture of the iliotibial band leading to flexion and abduction deformity at the hip is common in residual paralysis after polio. Ober’s test has been used to detect this, but it is unreliable and cannot determine the degree of contracture.

We describe a new test which quantifies this contracture and can be used for comparative purposes.


Trauma
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C. M. Robinson
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From 1988 to 1994 a consecutive series of 1000 fractures of the adult clavicle was treated in the Orthopaedic Trauma Clinic of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. In males, the annual incidence was highest under 20 years of age, decreasing in each subsequent cohort until the seventh decade. In females, the incidence was more constant, but relatively frequent in teenagers and the elderly. In young patients, fractures usually resulted from road-traffic accidents or sport and most were diaphyseal. Fractures in the outer fifth were produced by simple domestic falls and were more common in the elderly.

A new classification was developed based on radiological review of the anatomical site and the extent of displacement, comminution and articular extension. There were satisfactory levels of inter- and intraobserver variation for reliability and reproducibility. Fractures of the medial fifth (type 1), undisplaced diaphyseal fractures (type 2A) and fractures of the outer fifth (type 3A) usually had a benign prognosis. The incidence of complications of union was higher in displaced diaphyseal (type 2B) and displaced outer-fifth (type 3B) fractures. In addition to displacement, the extent of comminution in type-2B fractures was a risk factor for delayed and nonunion.


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M. G. Clatworthy D. I. Clark D. H. Gray A. E. Hardy
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We performed a randomised, prospective trial to evaluate the use of unreamed titanium nails for femoral fractures. Of 48 patients with 50 femoral fractures 45 were followed to union; 23 with an unreamed and 22 with a reamed nail. The study was stopped early because of a high rate of implant failure.

The fractures in the unreamed group were slower to unite (39.4 weeks) than those in the reamed group (28.5 weeks; p = 0.007). The time to union was over nine months in 57% of the unreamed group and in 18% of the reamed group.

In the unreamed group 14 secondary procedures were required in ten patients to enhance healing compared with three in three patients in the reamed group. Six implants (13%) failed, three in each group. Four of these six fractures showed evidence of delayed union.

To achieve quicker union and fewer implant failures we recommend the use of reamed nails of at least 12 mm in diameter for female patients and 13 mm in males.


H. Moritomo K. Tada T. Yoshida N. Kawatsu
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Persistent dislocation of the elbow after a fracture of the coronoid process is a difficult problem. We have performed an open reduction with reconstruction of the coronoid by an osteocartilaginous graft from the ipsilateral olecranon for two patients.

Both achieved a painless, stable joint with a functional range of movement. The joint surface of the graft has a similar curve to that of the coronoid giving good congruency and stability. The technique is simple and the graft is obtained through the same incision.


Hand
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A. M. Tetro B. A. Evanoff S. B. Hollstien R. H. Gelberman
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To establish the value of median nerve compression with wrist flexion as a provocative test for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), we performed a prospective study of 64 patients (95 hands) with CTS confirmed by electrodiagnostic studies and 50 normal subjects (96 hands). We recorded results for the common provocative tests (Tinel’s percussion test, Phalen’s wrist flexion test and the carpal compression test) and the new test which combines wrist flexion with median nerve compression.

Using a receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) technique, we found that the optimal cut-off time for the wrist-flexion and median-nerve compression test was 20 s, giving a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 99%. These results were significantly better than for Phalen’s wrist flexion test (61% and 83%, respectively) and for the sensitivity of Tinel’s test (74%). The positive predictive values of the wrist flexion and median-nerve compression test, which is more important clinically, were 99%, 95% and 81% at population prevalences of 50%, 20% and 5%, respectively. These were significantly better than those of the three other provocative tests at each prevalence.

Electrodiagnostic studies have significant false-positive and false-negative rates in CTS, and therefore provocative tests remain important in its diagnosis. We have shown that wrist flexion combined with the median-nerve compression test at 20 s, is significantly better than the other methods, and may thus be clinically useful.


T. Yamashita S. Ishii M. Usui
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We performed resection of part of an injured peripheral nerve in 20 patients with post-traumatic neuralgia, after conservative treatment had failed. All had burning pain, paraesthesia and dysaesthesia in the area innervated by the injured nerve. We resected the nerve in the area in which the patient felt pain, and a further 3 cm proximal to the site of injury.

In all cases, the local pain disappeared or markedly decreased. The areas of pain relief and of nerve resection coincided completely in 17 patients and partially in three. The results were assessed as excellent by five patients, good by 11, and fair by four. There were no poor results.

Histological examination of the resected nerves showed Wallerian degeneration and immunohistochemical tests indicated that substance P, a polypeptide which may contribute to nociceptive transmission, was present in the tissue around the degenerated nerves.


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W. Grechenig M. Mähring H. G. Clement
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Denervation surgery has been a mainstay of our management of chronic pain in the wrist. If there is useful movement at the wrist we prefer denervation to arthrodesis.

We have reviewed 22 patients at a mean of 50 months after such denervation surgery at the wrist. This was the only treatment in 16 patients; the other six also had other treatments. Pain was reduced in 16 patients, and 17 were satisfied or improved. None of the patients wished to have a supplementary arthrodesis.

We stress the importance of preoperative blockade tests and of a very detailed knowledge of the local anatomy.


J. L. Hobby H. A. Lyall B. F. Meggitt
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We report a long-term follow-up of abduction-extension osteotomy of the first metacarpal, performed for painful trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis. Of a consecutive series of 50 operations, 41 thumbs (82%) were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 6.8 years. Good or excellent pain relief was achieved in 80%, and 93% considered that surgery had improved hand function, while 82% had normal grip and pinch strength, with restoration of thumb abduction. Metacarpal osteotomy was equally successful in relieving symptoms of those with early (grade 2) and moderate (grade 3) degenerative changes. This simple procedure provides lasting pain relief, corrects adduction contracture and restores grip and pinch strength, giving good results with few complications.


V. Alanen S. Taimela J. Kinnunen S. K. Koskinen E. Karaharju
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We used MRI to study a prospective series of 95 patients with inversion injuries of the ankle and no fracture on plain radiographs. We found an incidence of bone bruises of 27%, but these made no difference to the time of return to work, limitation of walking or physical activity, or the clinical outcome scores at three months.

We conclude that bone bruises have very little clinical significance after inversion injuries of the ankle.


H. B. Kitaoka G. L. Patzer
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We performed distal chevron osteotomy of the second, third, or fourth metatarsal for painful plantar callosities in 19 non-rheumatoid patients (16 women, 3 men; 21 feet); their mean age was 59 years (32 to 85). The mean follow-up was four years (2 to 7).

The overall results were good in 16 feet, fair in two, and poor in three, with four patients still having painful plantar callosities. There was union in all feet, but transfer metatarsalgia developed in three and three required an orthosis.

Distal chevron osteotomy for intractable plantar callosities was successful both clinically and radiologically in most patients.


Research
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J. J. Quist W. J. A. Dhert B. P. Meij W. J. Visser F. C. Oner H. A. W. Hazewinkel A. J. Verbout
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We studied peridural fibrosis in 16 dogs after laminectomies at the L2, L4 and L6 levels. They received either a free fat graft, a biodegradable mechanical barrier (polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) copolymer), or no treatment. The animals were killed after 4, 12, 26 and 52 weeks.

Histomorphometry showed extensive and consistent peridural fibrosis in control and PEO/PBT groups. Fat grafts produced significantly less fibrous tissue, but the presence of the fat graft in the bony defect prevented closure. Degradation of the PEO/PBT barrier resulted in the formation of more fibrous tissue.

We conclude that up to one year a free fat graft is effective in reducing the amount of peridural scarring.


K. Kawanabe Y. Okada Y. Matsusue H. Iida T. Nakamura
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We have developed a new drug delivery system using porous apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (A-W GC) to treat osteomyelitis. A-W GC (porosity, 70% and 20% to 30%), or porous hydroxyapatite (HA) blocks (porosity 35% to 48%) used as controls, were soaked in mixtures of two antibiotics, isepamicin sulphate (ISP) and cefmetazole (CMZ) under high vacuum.

We evaluated the release concentrations of the antibiotics from the blocks. The bactericidal concentration of ISP from A-W GC was maintained for more than 42 days, but that from HA decreased to below the detection limit after 28 days. The concentrations of CMZ from both materials were lower than those of ISP. An in vivo study using rabbit femora showed that an osseous concentration of ISP was maintained at eight weeks after implantation. Osteoconduction of the A-W GC block was good.

Four patients with infected hip arthroplasties and one with osteomyelitis of the tibia have been treated with the new delivery system with excellent results.


S. B. Goodman P. Huie Y. Song D. Schurman W. Maloney S. Woolson R. Sibley
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The tissues surrounding 65 cemented and 36 cementless total joint replacements undergoing revision were characterised for cell types by immunohistochemistry and for cytokine expression by in situ hybridisation.

We identified three distinct groups of revised implants: loose implants with ballooning radiological osteolysis, loose implants without osteolysis, and well-fixed implants. In the cemented series, osteolysis was associated with increased numbers of macrophages (p = 0.0006), T-lymphocyte subgroups (p = 0.03) and IL-1 (p = 0.02) and IL-6 (p = 0.0001) expression, and in the cementless series with increased numbers of T-lymphocyte subgroups (p = 0.005) and increased TNFα expression (p = 0.04). For cemented implants, the histological, histochemical and cytokine profiles of the interface correlated with the clinical and radiological grade of loosening and osteolysis.

Our findings suggest that there are different biological mechanisms of loosening and osteolysis for cemented and cementless implants. T-lymphocyte modulation of macrophage function may be an important interaction at prosthetic interfaces.


G. Roosendaal M. E. Vianen M. J. G. Wenting A. C. van Rinsum H. M. van den Berg F. P. J. G. Lafeber J. W. J. Bijlsma
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Haemophilic arthropathy is characterised by iron deposits in synovial tissues. We investigated the suggestion that iron plays an important role in synovial changes.

We obtained synovial tissue from six patients with haemophilia during arthroplasty, finding that brown haemosideritic tissue was often adjacent to tissue with a macroscopically normal appearance in the same joint. Samples from both types of synovial tissue were analysed histologically and biochemically to determine catabolic activity. Macroscopically haemosideritic synovium showed a significantly higher inflammatory activity than that with a normal appearance. Cultures of abnormal synovial tissue gave a significantly enhanced production of IL-1, IL-6 and TNFα compared with cultures of synovial tissue with a normal appearance. In addition, the supernatant fluids from the cultures showed greater catabolic activity from haemosideritic tissue, as determined by the inhibition of the synthesis of articular cartilage matrix.

We conclude that in patients with haemophilic arthropathy, local synovial iron deposits are associated with increased catabolic activity.


J. D. Rompe C. J. Kirkpatrick K. Küllmer M. Schwitalle O. Krischek
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We aimed to determine whether extracorporeal shock waves of varying intensity would damage the intact tendo Achillis and paratenon in a rabbit model. We used 42 female New Zealand white rabbits randomly divided into four groups as follows: group a received 1000 shock-wave impulses of an energy flux density of 0.08 mJ/mm2, group b 1000 impulses of 0.28 mJ/mm2, group c 1000 impulses of 0.60 mJ/mm2, and group d was a control group.

Sonographic and histological evaluation showed no changes in group a, and transient swelling of the tendon with a minor inflammatory reaction in group b. Group c had formation of paratendinous fluid with a significant increase in the anteroposterior diameter of the tendon. In this group there were marked histological changes with increased eosin staining, fibrinoid necrosis, fibrosis in the paratenon and infiltration of inflammatory cells.

We conclude that there are dose-dependent changes in the tendon and paratenon after extracorporeal shock-wave therapy and that energy flux densities of over 0.28 mJ/mm2 should not be used clinically in the treatment of tendon disorders.


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Obituary
JEAN BARNES 1925 – 1997 Pages 554 - 554
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Adams John Crawford
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J. DOVE
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G. GIDDINS
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Authors’ reply Pages 555 - 555
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G. BANNISTER C. MAIN
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M. J. K. BANKES L. M. NOBLE
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H. ÖMEROĞLU
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Author’s reply Pages 556 - 556
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H. HASHIZUME
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Authors’ reply Pages 556 - 556
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E. G. MCNALLY FRCR M. K. BENSON
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H. HABERNEK
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Author’s reply Pages 557 - 558
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C. COURT-BROWN
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C. G. MORAN P. BROWNSON
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G. LOB H.-J. ANDRESS G. GRADL
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Author’s reply Pages 557 - 557
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M. TAKAKUWA
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J. M. GOSSARD
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Author’s reply Pages 558 - 558
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J. M. HILL
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Robin Johnson
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Leslie Klenerman
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Trevor Stamp
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Derek McMinn
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Michael Craigen
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The cervical spine. Pages 560 - 561
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Andrew Ransford
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Jill Guymer
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R. M. Atkins
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Correction Pages 562 - 562
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Announcements Pages 562 - 562
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