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Volume 76-B, Issue 3 May 1994

R Smith
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DF Williams
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RJ Michaud KJ Drabu
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AS Lee JC MacLean DA Newton
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There is still some controversy about the reduction of unilateral and bilateral facet dislocations in the cervical spine. We have reviewed the notes and radiographs of 210 such patients; reduction was attempted by manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) in 91, and by rapid traction under sedation in 119, using weights up to 150 lb (68 kg). Our results suggest that early reduction in patients with neurological deficit gives the best chance of neurological recovery, that rapid traction is more often successful than MUA, and that traction is safer than MUA. We found that the use of heavy weights with close monitoring was safe and brought about reduction in an average time of 21 minutes. We recommend this technique for the reduction of all cervical facet dislocations.


GP Malcolm AO Ransford HA Crockard
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We performed posterior fixation with a Hartshill-Ransford contoured loop in 43 patients with instability at the craniocervical junction. No external bracing was used. Fifteen patients had congenital malformations, ten had tumours, seven had 'bone-softening' conditions (such as osteogenesis imperfecta), five had suffered complicated fractures, three had occipito-C1-C2 hypermobility due to lax ligaments and three had severe degenerative spondylosis with pseudotumours of the transverse ligament. Twenty-nine patients had transoral decompression of the cord before fixation. In most cases, cancellous bone grafts taken from the iliac crest were used to induce fusion; in nine very ill patients, no bone graft was used. In the whole series there was no instance of construct failure, broken wire or laminar fracture. The best results were achieved in patients with tumours or bone-softening conditions. No patient with normal neurology deteriorated after surgery but seven had worse neurological deficits after operation than before. Neck stiffness caused half the patients to change their lifestyle.


R Scapinelli
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Three-dimensional CT was used to examine the atlantoaxial joint of a nine-year-old girl who presented with fixed rotation of the head 3.5 months after an apparently spontaneous acute torticollis. The method provided clear, anatomical images to show the site, extent and direction of the type-I rotatory fixation (Fielding and Hawkins 1977). The 3-D reconstructions helped to guide manipulation which was successful in this late case.


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C Gerber AG Schneeberger M Beck U Schlegel
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We have studied the mechanical properties of several current techniques of tendon-to-bone suture employed in rotator-cuff repair. Non-absorbable braided polyester and absorbable polyglactin and polyglycolic acid sutures best combined ultimate tensile strength and stiffness. Polyglyconate and polydioxanone sutures failed only at high loads, but elongated considerably under moderate loads. We then compared the mechanical properties of nine different techniques of tendon grasping, using 159 normal infraspinatus tendons from sheep. The most commonly used simple stitch was mechanically poor: repairs with two or four such stitches failed at 184 N and 208 N respectively. A new modification of the Mason-Allen suture technique improved the ultimate tensile strength to 359 N for two stitches. Finally, we studied the mechanical properties of several methods of anchorage to bone using typically osteoporotic specimens. Single and even double transosseous sutures and suture anchor fixation both failed at low tensile loads (about 140 N). The use of a 2 mm thick, plate-like augmentation device improved the failure strength to 329 N. The mechanical properties of many current repair techniques are poor and can be greatly improved by using good materials, an improved tendon-grasping suture, and augmentation at the bone attachment.


EA de Laat CP Visser LN Coene PV Pahlplatz DL Tavy
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The incidence of nerve injuries in primary shoulder dislocation and humeral neck fracture is uncertain. We made a prospective study of 101 patients, using clinical examination and extensive electrophysiological assessment when there was suspicion of nerve damage. We found electrophysiological evidence of nerve injury in 45%, most involving the axillary, suprascapular, radial and musculocutaneous nerves. There were significantly more nerve injuries in older patients and those with a haematoma. Most patients recovered partially or completely in less than four months, and only eight had persistent motor loss. Early diagnosis and physiotherapy are recommended.


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AB Mullaji FH Beddow GH Lamb
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We studied serial CT scans of 45 arthritic shoulders (34 rheumatoid, 11 osteoarthritic) and 19 normal shoulders, making measurements at three levels on axial images. The maximum anteroposterior diameter of the glenoid was increased in rheumatoid glenoids at the upper and middle levels by 6 mm and in osteoarthritic glenoids at all levels by 5 to 8 mm as compared with normal. In rheumatoid cases, nearly half the available surface of the glenoid was of unsupported bone, mainly posteriorly at the upper and middle levels. In osteoarthritic glenoids, the best supported bone was anterior at the upper level and central at the middle and lower levels. The depth of the rheumatoid glenoid was reduced by a mean of 6 mm at the upper and middle levels and by 3 mm at the lower level. This inclined the surface of the glenoid superiorly. The depth at the middle level in osteoarthritis was reduced by a mean of 5 mm, suggesting central protrusion. Osteoarthritic glenoids were retroverted by a mean of 12.5 degrees, but of rheumatoid glenoids two-thirds were retroverted (mean 15.1 degrees) and one-third anteverted (mean 8.2 degrees). Our findings have important implications for the planning and placement of the glenoid component of total shoulder replacements; CT can provide useful information.


JB Richardson JL Cunningham AE Goodship BT O'Connor J Kenwright
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We measured fracture stiffness in 212 patients with tibial fractures treated by external fixation. In the first 117 patients (group 1) the decision to remove the fixator and allow independent weight-bearing was made on clinical grounds. In the other 95 patients (group 2) the frames were removed when the fracture stiffness had reached 15 Nm/degree. In group 1 there were eight refractures and in group 2 there was none (p = 0.02, Fisher's exact test). The time to independent weight-bearing was longer in group 1 (median 24 weeks) than in group 2 (21.7 weeks, p = 0.02). The greater precision of our objective measurement was associated with a reduction in refracture rate and in the time taken to achieve independent weight-bearing. We consider that a stiffness of 15 Nm/degree in the sagittal plane provides a useful definition of union of tibial fractures.


JF Keating RS Kuo CM Court-Brown
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We report the results of a three-year study of bifocal fractures of the tibia and fibula, excluding segmental shaft fractures. In our whole series, these formed 4.7% of all tibial diaphyseal fractures. We describe three groups: bifocal fractures of both the proximal and the distal joint surfaces, fractures of the shaft and tibial plateau, and fractures of the shaft and ankle. These groups of fractures had different characteristics and prognoses. We discuss treatment protocols for each of these three groups.


JF Keating CM Court-Brown MM McQueen
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We reviewed a series of 79 distal radial fractures with volar displacement which had been fixed internally using a buttress plate. The fractures were classified using the Frykman and AO systems; 59% were intraarticular. Complications occurred in 40.5% of cases; malunion was most frequent (28%). Functional recovery in patients with malunion was significantly worse than in those with good anatomical restoration (p < 0.001). The AO and Frykman classifications and the degree of restoration of volar tilt were predictive of outcome.


HW Keller KE Rehm J Helling
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We report the treatment of six adult patients with displaced fractures of the radial neck by intramedullary reduction and stabilisation. Nine months after operation all the patients had good joint function, little or no pain, complete healing and no significant periarticular calcification. This simple semi-closed procedure may help to avoid resection of the radial head in some cases.


J Christie R Burnett HR Potts AC Pell
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We performed transoesophageal echocardiography on 20 patients with femoral neck fractures randomly treated with an uncemented Austin-Moore or cemented Hastings hemiarthroplasty. Cemented arthroplasty caused greater and more prolonged embolic cascades than did uncemented arthroplasty. Some emboli were more than 3 cm in length. In some patients the cascades were associated with pulmonary hypertension, diminished oxygen tension and saturation, and the presence of fat and marrow in aspirates from the right atrium.


T Niinimaki J Puranen P Jalovaara
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From 1983 to 1985 we performed 114 primary hip replacements in 108 consecutive osteoarthritic patients using a non-cemented RM isoelastic femoral stem. After a mean follow-up of 8.2 years, ten patients had died, 11 hips had been revised, six patients had been lost to follow-up and two had been excluded due to severe general illnesses. Of 85 arthroplasties (in 79 patients) 14 could not be assessed because of other illness or disability. The 71 remaining were reviewed by questionnaire and radiography; an excellent or good overall functional result was found in 31, 16 were fair and 24 were poor. Radiographically, 21 of 71 stems were judged to be loose and ten showed osteolytic foci, six of these without obvious loosening. We conclude that the isoelastic RM stem shows a high rate of loosening, but that this is not always associated with a poor subjective result. Regular radiographic review is necessary. The results are worse than those reported for other uncemented stems and for cemented stems.


JP Hooten CA Engh CA Engh
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We investigated the radiographic and clinical course of 31 patients in whom a bulk acetabular allograft had been used during the cementless revision of a total hip replacement. Two patients died and two were lost to follow-up within 24 months, but of the remaining 27 acetabular components, 12 (44%) showed radiographic evidence of instability at a mean of 46 months. Five of these have been revised. In the 12 failures, signs of instability had been noted at an average of 29 months (1 to 60). Failures during the first 24 months were usually due to technical errors, later failures to gradual migration of the cup into the graft. The cups with the greatest amount of their surface supported by grafts were most likely to migrate, but this migration was usually asymptomatic. Screw fixation of the cup, used in 24 cases, appeared to control the mechanism of failure. Femoral head allografts and distal femoral allografts had been used, with failure in 6 of 16, and 6 of 11 respectively; distal femoral allografts were used only for large defects. The insidious course of late cup migration and graft failure necessitates close radiographic follow-up of patients treated with bulk allografts.


HC Amstutz P Grigoris MR Safran MJ Grecula PA Campbell TP Schmalzried
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Cemented Ti-6Al-4V components were used to resurface ten femoral heads in nine young adult patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (average age 32 years; range 20 to 51). There were eight hips at Ficat stage III and two at stage IV. Five hips have maintained satisfactory function for an average period of 11.2 years (10 to 12.2) with no radiographic evidence of component loosening or osteolysis; five have been revised after an average period of 7.8 years (3.3 to 10.3) for pain caused by deterioration of the acetabular cartilage. No component required revision for loosening and the specimens retrieved at revision showed no evidence of osteolysis despite burnishing of the titanium bearing surface and the presence of particulate titanium debris in the tissues.


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M Naito K Ogata E Shiota M Nakamoto T Goya
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We retrospectively reviewed 17 hip arthroplasties in 15 patients having haemodialysis for chronic renal failure. The duration of haemodialysis before the operation averaged 8.6 years and the average age of the patients was 61 years. All patients were followed for more than two years (mean 4.6 years). Six arthroplasties in four patients had failed due to loosening, and one of these patients died from undiagnosed infection of both hips at 7.6 years after the operation. General skeletal abnormalities caused by maintenance haemodialysis may explain the high incidence of loosening and it is important to be aware of the danger of postoperative infection. The risk-to-benefit ratio of hip arthroplasty is high in patients on haemodialysis.


MA Freeman P Plante-Bordeneuve
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The vertical migration of four configurations of a proximal femoral prosthesis, followed for up to nine years, was measured on standard radiographs. The same implant was used without cement (group 1) and with cement (group 2). The migration of both groups was linear from six months onwards. The mean migration rate and the incidence of late aseptic loosening were both greater in group 1. Survival analysis of the two groups, however, showed no statistically significant difference. In both groups, hips later destined for revision migrated more rapidly from the initial postoperative period onwards, than did the remainder. A threshold migration of 1.2 mm/year during the first two years after implantation detected hips likely to fail with a specificity of 86% and a sensitivity of 78%. This 'migration test' was applied to the results in two further groups of patients in which a modified femoral prosthesis had been implanted without hydroxyapatite coating (group 3) and with hydroxyapatite coating (group 4). The test distinguished between the four groups and suggested that at least two fixation procedures should be abandoned. We conclude that vertical migration measured on standard radiographs in the first two years after implantation can be used to predict late aseptic loosening. New prosthetic configurations should be evaluated by migration measurements before their general release. Our observations support the view that one cause of late aseptic loosening is imperfect initial fixation.


R Johnsson H Franzen LT Nilsson
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From 1970 to 1980 cemented metal-on-plastic total hip replacement was performed on 799 hips with primary osteoarthritis using one surgical technique. At the 10- to 20-year follow-up there had been 97 revisions for mechanical loosening. Univariate survivorship analysis showed that an increased risk of revision was associated with male gender, young age at primary THR, the Brunswik and Lubinus snap-fit prostheses with large femoral heads (as compared with the Charnley prosthesis), and varying experience of the surgeon. Multivariate statistical analysis showed a three-fold increased risk of revision for men (p < 0.0001), an increase in relative risk of 1.8 per 10 years younger at surgery (p < 0.0001), a fivefold increase in risk for the Brunswik prosthesis (p < 0.0001) and a twofold increase for the Lubinus prosthesis (p = 0.0067). Inexperience of the surgeon, however, was not validated as a risk factor. The study shows that the true risk factors for revision can be identified accurately by combining univariate survivorship and multivariate statistical analyses.


E Masterson S Jagannathan D Borton MM Stephens
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Flat foot due to rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon has not previously been described in children. We present three young patients who developed unilateral pes planus after old undiagnosed lacerations of the tendon. Transfer of the flexor hallucis longus to the distal stump of the tibialis posterior tendon achieved good results in all three cases.


S Morita H Yamamoto K Furuya
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We report the results of transfer of the long toe flexors and lengthening of the calcaneal tendon in 33 patients with equinovarus deformity requiring orthoses after a stroke. Review of 29 patients more than two years after surgery showed that 21 were able to walk without an orthosis. Equinovarus deformity had recurred in six patients and hammer toe in 11, but walking ability without bracing was still better in seven of these. Results are improved by the release of the short toe flexors.


K Fukuhara G Schollmeier HK Uhthoff
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We studied 16 club feet and 27 normal feet from spontaneously aborted human fetuses in the second trimester of gestation and measured the length of the spring ligament, and the declination angle and size of the talus. We also studied the cellular characteristics of the spring ligament and the immunohistochemical features of the medial ankle ligaments using monoclonal antibodies against type-III collagen, desmin, vimentin, and smooth muscle actin. Histomorphometric results indicated that the talar deformity was not the primary lesion. Histological and immunohistochemical findings showed that the cells and collagen fibres of the medial ankle ligaments of club feet appeared to be the site of the earliest changes, in that they had lost their spatial orientation and had contracted. In severe club feet before the third trimester of gestation, myofibroblast-like cells seemed to create a disorder of the ligaments resembling fibromatosis. This led to contraction and resulted in typical club-foot deformity.


NJ Fiddian JC Gardiner
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We report a prospective study of the feasibility of employing specially trained physiotherapists to screen neonates for congenital dislocation of the hip. During ten years 42,241 babies were screened, using clinical tests; 255 were diagnosed and treated by a Pavlik harness. In the same period 13 children presented late with congenital dislocation of the hip which had not been detected by the screening programme.


S Suzuki
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Ultrasound was used to observe the entire course of spontaneous reduction of CDH in the Pavlik harness in nine infants. In six infants with Suzuki type-A dislocations, the femoral head settled slowly into the bottom of the acetabulum by gliding on its posterior wall. In type-B dislocations, passive abduction of the legs during sleep caused it to approach the entrance to the socket and then suddenly to slip in. Reduction with the Pavlik harness is due to passive mechanical factors, and occurs only during muscle relaxation in deep sleep: no active movement is involved.


S Porat GC Robin CB Howard
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Fifteen patients who limped and had early fatigue on walking caused by ischaemic necrosis after treatment for congenital dislocation of the hip had distal and lateral transfer of the greater trochanter. Nine of them in whom the predicted leg-length discrepancy was more than 3 cm also had epiphysiodesis of the contralateral leg. At skeletal maturity the limp was eliminated and walking distance was significantly improved in them all. In those who had epiphysiodesis the average leg-length discrepancy was 0.7 cm at maturity. Two of those not treated by epiphysiodesis used a heel raise of 1.5 cm. In seven cases the two operations were performed simultaneously without serious complications. This procedure is recommended at about the age of 12 years.


SK Bulstra R Kuijer P Eerdmans AJ van der Linden
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Rat patellae were preincubated with culture medium M199 for one hour and then with either fresh culture medium or Ringer's solution, Ringer lactate, Ringer glucose, normal saline or Betadine for another hour. The rate of proteoglycan synthesis in the articular cartilage was then measured by uptake of 35SO4 for the next 16 hours. Cartilage metabolism was inhibited by all of the solutions even after a recovery time of 16 hours. The inhibition was by 5% for Ringer's solution, 10% for Ringer glucose (p < 0.01), 20% for saline and Ringer lactate (p < 0.001) and 55% for Betadine (p < 0.001). Ringer's solution is therefore the best choice for joint irrigation during arthroscopy or other procedures.


RM Aspden RW Porter
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We report the case of a child with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia treated for bilateral fixed flexion of the knee by bilateral hamstring lengthening. An attempt to straighten the legs from 90 degrees to 20 degrees flexion damaged the sciatic nerve. There are no objective means of estimating how much deformity can be reduced safely. We present a method of calculating the extra strain in the sciatic nerve produced by reducing a flexion deformity. The result, combined with clinical judgement, provides guidelines for safe corrective surgery.


M Thomas A Stirrat R Birch M Glasby
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We used freeze-thawed muscle grafts to restore continuity to the affected nerve in 22 painful cutaneous neuromas. In 11 of the 15 neuromas in the upper limb, pain was partially or completely relieved; in six of these there was some recovery of distal sensation. Partial pain relief was achieved in only two of the seven neuromas in the lower limb. The difference is attributed to the longer grafts required in the lower limb.


B Cohen F Piscioneri FJ Candido KC Rankin
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The prevalence of HIV infection in East Africa has increased rapidly in recent years. We made a prospective study of the incidence of HIV-seropositivity in patients undergoing orthopaedic procedures in a large district hospital in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. One of our aims was to determine whether a clinically-based screening programme, derived from the Centre for Disease Control classification of HIV infection, could identify high-risk individuals before surgery. During a 3-month period, 76 patients were tested, and 12 were HIV-positive (16%). Only two of these patients (17%) had clinical features associated with HIV infection; ten (83%) were entirely asymptomatic. Our results indicate that preoperative clinical screening is unlikely to be successful in identifying seropositive patients before routine surgery.


WJ Radford AA Amis FW Heatley
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In an animal model we determined the strength of anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) after section and repair by four different methods and compared it with that of the intact ligament. The standard suturing technique of multiple loops through the ligament stumps was used. Stronger suture material did not give a stronger repair. Wrapping a fine polyester mesh around the ligament or placing it between the bundles before suture increased the strength of the repair. This modification, allied to protective rehabilitation, may reduce the failure rate of acute ACL repairs.


IA Lennox AG Cobb J Knowles G Bentley
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We describe 83 knees (69 patients) which had had patellectomy for anterior knee pain (52), patellofemoral osteoarthritis (25) or comminuted fractures (6) between 1942 and 1978. The patients were questioned about their symptoms and the function of the operated knee 14 to 50 years after operation. In the group with anterior knee pain, 76% achieved good results and were satisfied with the operation. Only 54% of the osteoarthritis group had satisfactory relief of pain and most had progressive deterioration of function. Sixteen patients who had had unilateral patellectomy were assessed by dynamometry, ultrasound and radiography. The average quadriceps muscle power was 60% of that on the normal side although two patients had stronger muscles in their operated than in their unoperated legs.


CT Vangsness B Ghaderi M Hohl TM Moore
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We examined 36 consecutive patients with closed tibial plateau fractures under anaesthesia and by diagnostic and operative arthroscopy before treating them by closed or open reduction and internal fixation. Following the principle of Hohl (1967) (Fig. 1) there were 9 minimally displaced fractures (type I), 6 with local depression (type II), 13 with split depression (type III), 7 with total condylar depression (type IV), and one bicondylar comminuted upper tibial fracture (type V). Seventeen (47%) of knees were found to have associated meniscal injuries which required surgical treatment; five repairs and 12 partial meniscectomies. Neither the type of plateau fracture nor the presence or absence of ligament injury correlated with meniscal tear. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications from arthroscopy.


AG Jennings BB Seedhom
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There are various methods of measuring proprioception at the knee. Beard et al (1993) have described a delay in reflex hamstring contraction in anterior cruciate deficient knees. We have repeated their experiment and were unable to detect any significant difference in reflex hamstring contraction between the injured and uninjured legs. We discuss possible neurophysiological and biomechanical causes for the conflicting results and conclude that this method may not be a valid measure of proprioception.


WN Keenan J Clegg
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PA Gregson PB Thomas
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McLaughlin M Tierney WH Harris
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H Akiyama K Tamura
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N Hyder
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O Levy Y Amit S Velkes H Horoszowski
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RA Wilkes WG Thomas
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JW Gardeniers
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AL Macafee
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GA Gie RS Ling
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G Charnley NP Coleman A Hashemi-Nejad
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Survival analysis Pages 507 - 508
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GR Scuderi JN Insall
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A Hashemi-Nejad A Manktelow D Eastwood
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MRI of avascular necrosis Pages 507 - 507
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A Hashemi-Nejad
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