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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1115 - 1121
1 Sep 2019
Takenaka S Makino T Sakai Y Kashii M Iwasaki M Yoshikawa H Kaito T


The aim of this study was to explore risk factors for complications associated with dural tear (DT), including the types of DT, and the intra- and postoperative management of DT.

Patients and Methods

Between 2012 and 2017, 12 171 patients with degenerative lumbar diseases underwent primary lumbar spine surgery. We investigated five categories of potential predictors: patient factors (sex, age, body mass index, and primary disease), surgical factors (surgical procedures, operative time, and estimated blood loss), types of DT (inaccessible for suturing/clipping and the presence of cauda equina/nerve root herniation), repair techniques (suturing, clipping, fibrin glue, polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel, and polyglycolic acid sheet), and postoperative management (drainage duration). Postoperative complications were evaluated in terms of dural leak, prolonged bed rest, headache, nausea/vomiting, delayed wound healing, postoperative neurological deficit, surgical site infection (SSI), and reoperation for DT. We performed multivariable regression analyses to evaluate the predictors of postoperative complications associated with DT.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 1 | Pages 50 - 55
1 Jan 2018
Kono K Tomita T Futai K Yamazaki T Tanaka S Yoshikawa H Sugamoto K


In Asia and the Middle-East, people often flex their knees deeply in order to perform activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to investigate the 3D kinematics of normal knees during high-flexion activities. Our hypothesis was that the femorotibial rotation, varus-valgus angle, translations, and kinematic pathway of normal knees during high-flexion activities, varied according to activity.

Materials and Methods

We investigated the in vivo kinematics of eight normal knees in four male volunteers (mean age 41.8 years; 37 to 53) using 2D and 3D registration technique, and modelled the knees with a computer aided design program. Each subject squatted, kneeled, and sat cross-legged. We evaluated the femoral rotation and varus-valgus angle relative to the tibia and anteroposterior translation of the medial and lateral side, using the transepicodylar axis as our femoral reference relative to the perpendicular projection on to the tibial plateau. This method evaluates the femur medially from what has elsewhere been described as the extension facet centre, and differs from the method classically applied.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 5 | Pages 666 - 671
1 May 2016
Makino T Kaito T Sakai Y Kashii M Yoshikawa H


To clarify the asymmetrical ossification of the epiphyseal ring between the convex and concave sides in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Patients and Methods

A total of 29 female patients (mean age, 14.4 years; 11 to 18) who underwent corrective surgery for AIS (Lenke type 1 or 2) were included in our study. In all, 349 vertebrae including 68 apical vertebrae and 87 end vertebrae in the main thoracic (MT) curve and thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve were analysed. Coronal sections (anterior, middle and posterior) of the vertebral bodies were reconstructed from pre-operative CT scans (320-row detector; slice thickness, 0.5 mm) and the appearances of the ossification centre in the epiphyseal ring at four corners were evaluated in three groups; all vertebrae excluding end vertebrae, apical vertebrae and end vertebrae. The appearance rates of the ossification centre at the concave and convex sides were calculated and compared.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 3, Issue 9 | Pages 280 - 288
1 Sep 2014
Shimomura K Kanamoto T Kita K Akamine Y Nakamura N Mae T Yoshikawa H Nakata K


Excessive mechanical stress on synovial joints causes osteoarthritis (OA) and results in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a key molecule in arthritis, by synovial fibroblasts. However, the relationship between arthritis-related molecules and mechanical stress is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the synovial fibroblast response to cyclic mechanical stress using an in vitro osteoarthritis model.


Human synovial fibroblasts were cultured on collagen scaffolds to produce three-dimensional constructs. A cyclic compressive loading of 40 kPa at 0.5 Hz was applied to the constructs, with or without the administration of a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitor or dexamethasone, and then the concentrations of PGE2, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8 and COX-2 were measured.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 2 | Pages 237 - 241
1 Feb 2014
Miyake J Shimada K Oka K Tanaka H Sugamoto K Yoshikawa H Murase T

We retrospectively assessed the value of identifying impinging osteophytes using dynamic computer simulation of CT scans of the elbow in assisting their arthroscopic removal in patients with osteoarthritis of the elbow. A total of 20 patients were treated (19 men and one woman, mean age 38 years (19 to 55)) and followed for a mean of 25 months (24 to 29). We located the impinging osteophytes dynamically using computerised three-dimensional models of the elbow based on CT data in three positions of flexion of the elbow. These were then removed arthroscopically and a capsular release was performed.

The mean loss of extension improved from 23° (10° to 45°) pre-operatively to 9° (0° to 25°) post-operatively, and the mean flexion improved from 121° (80° to 140°) pre-operatively to 130° (110° to 145°) post-operatively. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score improved from 62 (30 to 85) to 95 (70 to 100) post-operatively. All patients had pain in the elbow pre-operatively which disappeared or decreased post-operatively. According to their Mayo scores, 14 patients had an excellent clinical outcome and six a good outcome; 15 were very satisfied and five were satisfied with their post-operative outcome.

We recommend this technique in the surgical management of patients with osteoarthritis of the elbow.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:237–41.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1320 - 1325
1 Oct 2013
Tamura S Nishii T Takao M Sakai T Yoshikawa H Sugano N

We investigated differences in the location and mode of labral tears between dysplastic hips and hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). We also investigated the relationship between labral tear and adjacent cartilage damage. We retrospectively studied 72 symptomatic hips (in 68 patients: 19 men and 49 women) with radiological evidence of dysplasia or FAI on high-resolution CT arthrography. The incidence and location of labral tears and modes of tear associated with the base of the labrum (Mode 1) or body of the labrum (Mode 2) were compared among FAI, mildly dysplastic and severely dysplastic hips. The locations predominantly involved with labral tears were different in FAI and mild dysplastic hips (anterior and anterosuperior zones) and in severely dysplastic hips (anterosuperior and superior zones) around the acetabulum. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence of Mode 1 versus Mode 2 tears in FAI hips (72% (n = 13) vs 28% (n = 5)) and severe dysplastic hips (25% (n = 2) vs 75% (n = 6)). The frequency of cartilage damage adjacent to Mode 1 tears was significantly higher (42% (n = 14)) than that adjacent to Mode 2 tears (14% (n = 3)).

Hip pathology is significantly related to the locations and modes of labral tears. Mode 1 tears may be a risk factor for the development of adjacent acetabular cartilage damage.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1320–5.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1210 - 1213
1 Sep 2008
Hosono N Sakaura H Mukai Y Kaito T Makino T Yoshikawa H

We evaluated 30 patients with cervical myelopathy before and after decompressive surgery and compared them with 42 healthy controls. All were asked to grip and release their fingers as rapidly as possible for 15 seconds. Films recorded with a digital camera were divided into three files of five seconds each. Three doctors independently counted the number of grip and release cycles in a blinded manner (N1 represents the number of cycles for the first five-second segment, N2 for the second and N3 for the third). N2 and N3 of the pre-operative group were significantly fewer than those of the control group, and the postoperative group’s results were significantly greater than those of the pre-operative group. In the control group, the numbers decreased significantly with each succeeding five-second interval (fatigue phenomenon). In the pre-operative myelopathy group there was no significant difference between N1 and N2 (freezing phenomenon).

The 15-second test is shown to be reliable in the quantitative evaluation of cervical myelopathy. Although it requires a camera and animation files, it can detect small changes in neurological status because of its precise and objective nature.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 6 | Pages 752 - 760
1 Jun 2007
Yamada Y Toritsuka Y Horibe S Sugamoto K Yoshikawa H Shino K

We used three-dimensional movement analysis by computer modelling of knee flexion from 0° to 50° in 14 knees in 12 patients with recurrent patellar dislocation and in 15 knees in ten normal control subjects to compare the in vivo three-dimensional movement of the patella. Flexion, tilt and spin of the patella were described in terms of rotation angles from 0°. The location of the patella and the tibial tubercle were evaluated using parameters expressed as percentage patellar shift and percentage tubercle shift. Patellar inclination to the femur was also measured and patellofemoral contact was qualitatively and quantitatively analysed.

The patients had greater values of spin from 20° to 50°, while there were no statistically significant differences in flexion and tilt. The patients also had greater percentage patellar shift from 0° to 50°, percentage tubercle shift at 0° and 10° and patellar inclination from 0° to 50° with a smaller oval-shaped contact area from 20° to 50° moving downwards on the lateral facet.

Patellar movement analysis using a three-dimensional computer model is useful to clearly demonstrate differences between patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella and normal control subjects.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 6 | Pages 746 - 751
1 Jun 2007
Yamada Y Toritsuka Y Yoshikawa H Sugamoto K Horibe S Shino K

We investigated the three-dimensional morphological differences of the articular surface of the femoral trochlea in patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella and a normal control group using three-dimensional computer models.

There were 12 patients (12 knees) and ten control subjects (ten knees). Three-dimensional computer models of the femur, including the articular cartilage, were created. Evaluation was performed on the shape of the articular surface, focused on its convexity, and the proximal and mediolateral distribution of the articular cartilage of the femoral trochlea. The extent of any convexity, and the proximal distribution of the articular cartilage, expressed as the height, were shown by the angles about the transepicondylar axis. The mediolateral distribution of the articular cartilage was assessed by the location of the medial and lateral borders of the articular cartilage.

The mean extent of convexity was 24.9° sd 6.7° for patients and 11.9° sd 3.6° for the control group (p < 0.001). The mean height of the articular cartilage was 91.3° sd 8.3° for the patients and 83.3° sd 7.7° for the control group (p = 0.03), suggesting a wider convex trochlea in the patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella caused by the proximally-extended convex area. The lateral border of the articular cartilage of the trochlea in the patients was more laterally located than in the control group.

Our findings therefore quantitatively demonstrated differences in the shape and distribution of the articular cartilage on the femoral trochlea between patients with dislocation of the patella and normal subjects.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 4 | Pages 490 - 494
1 Apr 2007
Arimitsu S Murase T Hashimoto J Oka K Sugamoto K Yoshikawa H Moritomo H

We have measured the three-dimensional patterns of carpal deformity in 20 wrists in 20 rheumatoid patients in which the carpal bones were shifted ulnarwards on plain radiography. Three-dimensional bone models of the carpus and radius were created by computerised tomography with the wrist in the neutral position. The location of the centroids and rotational angle of each carpal bone relative to the radius were calculated and compared with those of ten normal wrists.

In the radiocarpal joint, the proximal row was flexed and the centroids of all carpal bones translocated in an ulnar, proximal and volar direction with loss of congruity. In the midcarpal joint, the distal row was extended and congruity generally well preserved. These findings may facilitate more positive use of radiocarpal fusion alone for the deformed rheumatoid wrist.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 4 | Pages 455 - 460
1 Apr 2007
Sugano N Nishii T Miki H Yoshikawa H Sato Y Tamura S

We have developed a CT-based navigation system using infrared light-emitting diode markers and an optical camera. We used this system to perform cementless total hip replacement using a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couple in 53 patients (60 hips) between 1998 and 2001. We reviewed 52 patients (59 hips) at a mean of six years (5 to 8) postoperatively. The mid-term results of total hip replacement using navigation were compared with those of 91 patients (111 hips) who underwent this procedure using the same implants, during the same period, without navigation. There were no significant differences in age, gender, diagnosis, height, weight, body mass index, or pre-operative clinical score between the two groups. The operation time was significantly longer where navigation was used, but there was no significant difference in blood loss or navigation-related complications. With navigation, the acetabular components were placed within the safe zone defined by Lewinnek, while without, 31 of the 111 components were placed outside this zone. There was no significant difference in the Merle d’Aubigne and Postel hip score at the final follow-up. However, hips treated without navigation had a higher rate of dislocation. Revision was performed in two cases undertaken without navigation, one for aseptic acetabular loosening and one for fracture of a ceramic liner, both of which showed evidence of neck impingement on the liner. A further five cases undertaken without navigation showed erosion of the posterior aspect of the neck of the femoral component on the lateral radiographs. These seven impingement-related mechanical problems correlated with malorientation of the acetabular component. There were no such mechanical problems in the navigated group.

We conclude that CT-based navigation increased the precision of orientation of the acetabular component and control of limb length in total hip replacement, without navigation-related complications. It also reduced the rate of dislocation and mechanical problems related to impingement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 5 | Pages 719 - 725
1 Jul 2004
Matsumine A Myoui A Kusuzaki K Araki N Seto M Yoshikawa H Uchida A

We reviewed the results of 51 patients with benign bone tumours treated by curettage and implantation of calcium hydroxyapatite ceramic (CHA). The mean follow-up was 11.4 years (10 to 15.5). Post-operative fractures occurred in two patients and three had local recurrences; three had slightly limited movement of the adjacent joint and one had mild osteoarthritis. There were no allergic or neoplastic complications. In all cases, radiographs showed that the CHA was well incorporated into the host bone.

Statistical analysis showed that absorption of the implanted CHA was greater in males (odds ratio, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.6 to 23.7) and younger patients (odds ratio, 0.6 for increase in age of 10 years; 95% CI, 0.91 to 0.99). However, the implanted CHA was not completely absorbed in any patient.

We conclude that CHA is a useful and safe bone substitute for the treatment of benign bone tumours.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 4 | Pages 607 - 612
1 May 2004
Asano N Yamakazi T Seto M Matsumine A Yoshikawa H Uchida A

We investigated the rates of expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in 29 adult patients with high-grade malignant fibrous histiocytoma of soft tissue, using the BMP-2-specific monoclonal antibody, AbH3b2/17, and found that they ranged from 1.9% to 78.9%. The survival at five years of the groups expressing high (≥30%) and low (< 30%) levels of BMP-2 was 85.7% and 36.3%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that only BMP-2 had prognostic significance for continuous disease-free survival and for overall survival (p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that over-expression of BMP-2 in malignant fibrous histiocytoma of soft tissue is the most reliable prognostic indicator of the parameters assessed.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 2 | Pages 185 - 189
1 Mar 2004
Kishida Y Sugano N Nishii T Miki H Yamaguchi K Yoshikawa H

We investigated the effect of the Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) arthroplasty on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur. A comparative study was carried out on 26 hips in 25 patients. Group A consisted of 13 patients (13 hips) who had undergone resurfacing hip arthroplasty with the BHR system and group B of 12 patients (13 hips) who had had cementless total hip arthroplasty with a proximal circumferential plasma-spray titanium-coated anatomic Ti6A14V stem. Patients were matched for gender, state of disease and age at the time of surgery. The periprosthetic BMD of the femur was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiomentry of the Gruen zones at two years in patients in groups A and B.

The median values of the BMD in zones 1 and 7 were 99% and 111%, respectively. The post-operative loss of the BMD in the proximal femur was significantly greater in group B than in group A. These findings show that the BHR system preserves the bone stock of the proximal femur after surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 7 | Pages 996 - 1000
1 Sep 2001
Haraguchi K Sugano N Nishii T Miki H Oka K Yoshikawa H

We report two cases of surface deterioration of a zirconia ceramic femoral head associated with phase transformation after total hip arthroplasty. One head was retrieved at revision due to recurrent dislocation after six years and the other because of failure of the locking mechanism of the polyethylene liner after three years. The monoclinic content of the zirconia ceramics rose from 1% to about 30% on the surface of the heads. SEM revealed numerous craters indicating extraction of the zirconia ceramics at the surface. Surface roughness increased from an initial value of 0.006 3m up to 0.12 3m. This is the first report to show that phase transformation of zirconia ceramics causes deterioration of the surface roughness of the head in vivo after total hip arthroplasty.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 5 | Pages 659 - 662
1 Jul 2001
Kudawara I Yoshikawa H Araki N Ueda T

We present three cases of intramuscular haemangioma adjacent to bone in the lower limb. All patients had local pain during the third decade. Plain radiographs showed an irregular or hypertrophic periosteal reaction on the shaft of the fibula and an intramuscular mass adjacent to the bone with inhomogenous high signal intensity on MRI. These lesions mimic periosteal or parosteal tumours.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 4 | Pages 548 - 552
1 Jul 1997
Yoshikawa H Ueda T Mori S Araki N Kuratsu S Uchida A Ochi T

We reviewed 277 patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) treated between 1975 and 1995 to study the incidence, distribution, time of appearance, and radiological findings of skeletal metastases. Of these, 28 (10.1%) had metastases within a mean period of 18.6 months after admission.

The incidence of skeletal metastases differed among the histological subtypes of sarcoma; alveolar soft-part sarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, angiosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma tended to show higher incidences. The regional bones close to the primary tumour were affected in 13 (46.4%) of the 28 patients, and the axial bones in 18 (64.3%). Radiologically, the metastatic bony lesions predominantly showed osteolytic changes, and there were pathological fractures in 21 of 44 lesions.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 4 | Pages 553 - 557
1 Jul 1997
Ueda T Yoshikawa H Mori S Araki N Myoui A Kuratsu S Uchida A

We have investigated the significance of local recurrence on survival in 173 patients with localised soft-tissue sarcomas of the limbs and of the trunk.

The overall survival rates at five and ten years were 75.2% and 68.0%, respectively. After definitive surgery at our hospitals, there was local recurrence in 25 patients (14.5%). After inadequate operations elsewhere, there was a higher incidence of late local recurrence (28.3%), in comparison with those with primary tumours treated by us (9.0%), or patients referred to us immediately after inadequate surgery elsewhere (10.2%). Because of small numbers these differences in the survival rates were not statistically significantly different.

Univariate survival analysis showed that local recurrence after definitive surgery (p = 0.006) together with the histological grade (p = 0.0002), the size of the tumour (p = 0.002), its depth in relation to deep fascia (p = 0.003), and the surgical margin (p = 0.0001) were the significant prognostic factors. Local recurrence at the initial presentation did not affect survival. Multivariate analysis showed that local recurrence after definitive surgery also lost its apparent prognostic significance.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 75-B, Issue 2 | Pages 266 - 269
1 Mar 1993
Shinto Y Uchida A Yoshikawa H Araki N Kato T Ono K

We report the case of a 19-year-old man with inguinal lymphadenopathy caused by metallic debris from the loosening of a prosthesis inserted after tumour resection. Large amounts of wear debris may be released from such massive replacements, and surgeons should be aware of the range of possible adverse effects.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 2 | Pages 298 - 302
1 Mar 1990
Uchida A Araki N Shinto Y Yoshikawa H Kurisaki E Ono K

We report 60 benign bone tumours treated by resection and curettage followed by the implantation of calcium hydroxyapatite ceramic (CHA). After follow-up of six to 60 months (average 36), no patient had local recurrence of the tumour or any adverse effects from the implants. In almost all cases radiography showed that the CHA was well-incorporated into the host bone, with new bone formation in and around the CHA. Corrective remodelling of deformed bone and normal fracture healing suggested that there was normal bone turnover in the presence of the CHA. Histology of biopsies from seven patients showed bone ingrowth into the pore structure of CHA in the central zone of some defects by one year after implantation. CHA appears to be a useful substitute for bone graft in the treatment of some benign tumours.