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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 12 | Pages 932 - 941
6 Dec 2023
Oe K Iida H Otsuki Y Kobayashi F Sogawa S Nakamura T Saito T


Although there are various pelvic osteotomies for acetabular dysplasia of the hip, shelf operations offer effective and minimally invasive osteotomy. Our study aimed to assess outcomes following modified Spitzy shelf acetabuloplasty.


Between November 2000 and December 2016, we retrospectively evaluated 144 consecutive hip procedures in 122 patients a minimum of five years after undergoing modified Spitzy shelf acetabuloplasty for acetabular dysplasia including osteoarthritis (OA). Our follow-up rate was 92%. The mean age at time of surgery was 37 years (13 to 58), with a mean follow-up of 11 years (5 to 21). Advanced OA (Tönnis grade ≥ 2) was present preoperatively in 16 hips (11%). The preoperative lateral centre-edge angle ranged from -28° to 25°. Survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis, using conversions to total hip arthroplasty as the endpoint. Risk factors for joint space narrowing less than 2 mm were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 10 | Pages 715 - 722
10 Oct 2022
Matsuyama Y Nakamura T Yoshida K Hagi T Iino T Asanuma K Sudo A


Acridine orange (AO) demonstrates several biological activities. When exposed to low doses of X-ray radiation, AO increases the production of reactive radicals (radiodynamic therapy (AO-RDT)). We elucidated the efficacy of AO-RDT in breast and prostate cancer cell lines, which are likely to develop bone metastases.


We used the mouse osteosarcoma cell line LM8, the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, and the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Cultured cells were exposed to AO and radiation at various concentrations followed by various doses of irradiation. The cell viability was then measured. In vivo, each cell was inoculated subcutaneously into the backs of mice. In the AO-RDT group, AO (1.0 μg) was locally administered subcutaneously around the tumour followed by 5 Gy of irradiation. In the radiation group, 5 Gy of irradiation alone was administered after macroscopic tumour formation. The mice were killed on the 14th day after treatment. The change in tumour volume by AO-RDT was primarily evaluated.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1809 - 1814
1 Dec 2021
Nakamura T Kawai A Hagi T Asanuma K Sudo A


Patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) who undergo unplanned excision (UE) are reported to have worse outcomes than those who undergo planned excision (PE). However, others have reported that patients who undergo UE may have similar or improved outcomes. These discrepancies are likely to be due to differences in characteristics between the two groups of patients. The aim of the study is to compare patients who underwent UE and PE using propensity score matching, by analyzing data from the Japanese Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor (BSTT) registry.


Data from 2006 to 2016 was obtained from the BSTT registry. Only patients with STS of the limb were included in the study. Patients with distant metastasis at the initial presentation and patients with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and well-differentiated liposarcoma were excluded from the study.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 11 | Pages 821 - 826
1 Nov 2020
Hagi T Nakamura T Kita K Iino T Asanuma K Sudo A


Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor (IL-6R) targeting antibody, enhances the anti-tumour effect of conventional chemotherapy in preclinical models of cancer. We investigated the anti-tumour effect of tocilizumab in osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines.


We used the 143B, HOS, and Saos-2 human OS cell lines. We first analyzed the IL-6 gene expression and IL-6Rα protein expression in OS cells using reverse transcription real time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis and western blotting, respectively. We also assessed the effect of tocilizumab on OS cells using proliferation and invasion assay.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 7 | Pages 360 - 367
1 Jul 2020
Kawahara S Hara T Sato T Kitade K Shimoto T Nakamura T Mawatari T Higaki H Nakashima Y


Appropriate acetabular component placement has been proposed for prevention of postoperative dislocation in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Manual placements often cause outliers in spite of attempts to insert the component within the intended safe zone; therefore, some surgeons routinely evaluate intraoperative pelvic radiographs to exclude excessive acetabular component malposition. However, their evaluation is often ambiguous in case of the tilted or rotated pelvic position. The purpose of this study was to develop the computational analysis to digitalize the acetabular component orientation regardless of the pelvic tilt or rotation.


Intraoperative pelvic radiographs of 50 patients who underwent THA were collected retrospectively. The 3D pelvic bone model and the acetabular component were image-matched to the intraoperative pelvic radiograph. The radiological anteversion (RA) and radiological inclination (RI) of the acetabular component were calculated and those measurement errors from the postoperative CT data were compared relative to those of the 2D measurements. In addition, the intra- and interobserver differences of the image-matching analysis were evaluated.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 2 | Pages 189 - 197
1 Feb 2019
Yoshitani J Kabata T Kajino Y Ueno T Ueoka K Nakamura T Tsuchiya H


We analyzed the acetabular morphology of Crowe type IV hips using CT data to identify a landmark for the ideal placement of the centre of the acetabular component, as assessed by morphometric geometrical analysis, and its reliability.

Patients and Methods

A total of 52 Crowe IV hips (42 patients; seven male, 35 female; mean age 68.5 years (32 to 82)) and 50 normal hips (50 patients; eight male, 42 female; mean age 60.7 years (34 to 86)) undergoing total hip arthroplasty were retrospectively identified. In this CT-based simulation study, the acetabular component was positioned at the true acetabulum with a radiological inclination of 40° and anteversion of 20°. Acetabular shape and the position of the centre of the acetabular component were analyzed by morphometric geometrical analysis using the generalized Procrustes analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1582 - 1587
1 Nov 2015
Suzuki T Seki A Nakamura T Ikegami H Takayama S Nakamura M Matsumoto M Sato K

This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of re-dislocation of the radial head after corrective osteotomy for chronic dislocation. A total of 12 children with a mean age of 11 years (5 to 16), with further dislocation of the radial head after corrective osteotomy of the forearm, were followed for a mean of five years (2 to 10). Re-operations were performed for radial head re-dislocation in six children, while the other six did not undergo re-operation (‘non-re-operation group’). The active range of movement (ROM) of their elbows was evaluated before and after the first operation, and at the most recent follow-up.

In the re-operation group, there were significant decreases in extension, pronation, and supination when comparing the ROM following the corrective osteotomy and following re-operation (p < 0.05).

The children who had not undergone re-operation achieved a better ROM than those who had undergone re-operation.

There was a significant difference in mean pronation (76° vs 0°) between the non- re-operation and the re-operation group (p = 0.002), and a trend towards increases in mean flexion (133° vs 111°), extension (0° vs 23°), and supination (62° vs 29°). We did not find a clear benefit for re-operation in children with a re-dislocation following corrective osteotomy for chronic dislocation of the radial head.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1582–7.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 6 | Pages 847 - 852
1 Jun 2015
Nakamura T Matsumine A Asanuma K Matsubara T Sudo A

The aim of this study was to determine whether the high-sensitivity modified Glasgow prognostic score (Hs-mGPS) could predict the disease-specific survival and oncological outcome in adult patients with non-metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma before treatment. A total of 139 patients treated between 2001 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The Hs-mGPS varied between 0 and 2. Patients with a score of 2 had a poorer disease-specific survival than patients with a score of 0 (p < 0.001). The estimated five-year rate of disease-specific survival for those with a score of 2 was 0%, compared with 85.4% (95% CI 77.3 to 93.5) for those with a score of 0. Those with a score of 2 also had a poorer disease-specific survival than those with a score of 1 (75.3%, 95% CI 55.8 to 94.8; p < 0.001). Patients with a score of 2 also had a poorer event-free rate than those with a score of 0 (p < 0.001). Those with a score of 2 also had a poorer event-free survival than did those with a score of 1 (p = 0.03). A multivariate analysis showed that the Hs-mGPS remained an independent predictor of survival and recurrence. The Hs-mGPS could be a useful prognostic marker in patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:847–52.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 5 | Pages 665 - 672
1 May 2014
Gaston CL Nakamura T Reddy K Abudu A Carter S Jeys L Tillman R Grimer R

Bone sarcomas are rare cancers and orthopaedic surgeons come across them infrequently, sometimes unexpectedly during surgical procedures. We investigated the outcomes of patients who underwent a surgical procedure where sarcomas were found unexpectedly and were subsequently referred to our unit for treatment. We identified 95 patients (44 intra-lesional excisions, 35 fracture fixations, 16 joint replacements) with mean age of 48 years (11 to 83); 60% were males (n = 57). Local recurrence arose in 40% who underwent limb salvage surgery versus 12% who had an amputation. Despite achieving local control, overall survival was worse for patients treated with amputation rather than limb salvage (54% vs 75% five-year survival). Factors that negatively influenced survival were invasive primary surgery (fracture fixation, joint replacement), a delay of greater than two months until referral to our oncology service, and high-grade tumours. Survival in these circumstances depends mostly on factors that are determined prior to definitive treatment by a tertiary orthopaedic oncology unit. Limb salvage in this group of patients is associated with a higher rate of inadequate marginal surgery and, consequently, higher local recurrence rates than amputation, but should still be attempted whenever possible, as local control is not the primary determinant of survival.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:665–72.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1280 - 1284
1 Sep 2013
Yamaguchi T Matsumine A Niimi R Nakamura T Matsubara T Asanuma K Hasegawa M Sudo A

The aim of this study was to define the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and risk factors for the development of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) after the resection of a musculoskeletal tumour. A total of 94 patients who underwent resection of a musculoskeletal tumour between January 2003 and December 2005 were prospectively studied. There were 42 men and 52 women with a mean age of 54.4 years (18 to 86). All patients wore intermittent pneumatic compression devices and graduated compression stockings. Ultrasound examination of the lower limbs was conducted to screen for DVT between the fifth and ninth post-operative days.

DVT was detected in 21 patients (22%). Of these, two were symptomatic (2%). One patient (1%) had a fatal pulmonary embolism. Patients aged ≥ 70 years had an increased risk of DVT (p = 0.004).

The overall incidence of DVT (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) after resection of a musculoskeletal tumour with mechanical prophylaxis was high. It seems that both mechanical and anticoagulant prophylaxis is needed to prevent VTE in patients who have undergone the resection of a musculoskeletal tumour.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1280–4.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1139 - 1143
1 Aug 2013
Nakamura T Grimer RJ Carter SR Tillman RM Abudu A Jeys L Sudo A

We evaluated the risk of late relapse and further outcome in patients with soft-tissue sarcomas who were alive and event-free more than five years after initial treatment. From our database we identified 1912 patients with these pathologies treated between 1980 and 2006. Of these 1912 patients, 603 were alive and event-free more than five years after initial treatment and we retrospectively reviewed them. The mean age of this group was 48 years (4 to 94) and 340 were men. The mean follow-up was 106 months (60 to 336). Of the original cohort, 582 (97%) were alive at final follow-up. The disease-specific survival was 96.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 94.4 to 98.3) at ten years and 92.9% (95% CI 89 to 96.8) at 15 years. The rate of late relapse was 6.3% (38 of 603). The ten- and 15-year event-free rates were 93.2% (95% CI 90.8 to 95.7) and 86.1% (95% CI 80.2 to 92.1), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that tumour size and tumour grade remained independent predictors of events. In spite of further treatment, 19 of the 38 patients died of sarcoma. The three- and five-year survival rates after the late relapse were 56.2% (95% CI 39.5 to 73.3) and 43.2% (95% CI 24.7 to 61.7), respectively, with a median survival time of 46 months. Patients with soft-tissue sarcoma, especially if large, require long-term follow-up, especially as they have moderate potential to have their disease controlled.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1139–43.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 3 | Pages 411 - 418
1 Mar 2013
Nakamura T Grimer RJ Gaston CL Watanuki M Sudo A Jeys L

The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) before treatment predicted overall disease-specific survival and local tumour control in patients with a sarcoma of bone.

We retrospectively reviewed 318 patients who presented with a primary sarcoma of bone between 2003 and 2010. Those who presented with metastases and/or local recurrence were excluded.

Elevated CRP levels were seen in 84 patients before treatment; these patients had a poorer disease-specific survival (57% at five years) than patients with a normal CRP (79% at five years) (p < 0.0001). They were also less likely to be free of recurrence (71% at five years) than patients with a normal CRP (79% at five years) (p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis showed the pre-operative CRP level to be an independent predictor of survival and local control. Patients with a Ewing’s sarcoma or chondrosarcoma who had an elevated CRP before their treatment started had a significantly poorer disease-specific survival than patients with a normal CRP (p = 0.02 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Patients with a conventional osteosarcoma and a raised CRP were at an increased risk of poorer local control.

We recommend that CRP levels are measured routinely in patients with a suspected sarcoma of bone as a further prognostic indicator of survival.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:411–18.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 3 | Pages 308 - 314
1 Mar 2012
Ito H Tanino H Yamanaka Y Nakamura T Takahashi D Minami A Matsuno T

We have previously described the mid- to long-term results of conventional simple varus intertrochanteric osteotomy for osteonecrosis of the femoral head, showing that 19 of the 26 hips had good or excellent results. We extended the follow-up to a mean of 18.1 years (10.5 to 26) including a total of 34 hips in 28 patients, with a mean age at surgery of 33 years (19 to 53). There were 18 men and ten women and 25 hips (74%) had a satisfactory result with a Harris hip score ≥ 80. In all, six hips needed total hip replacement (THR) or hemiarthroplasty. The collapse of the femoral head or narrowing of the joint space was found to have progressed in nine hips (26%). Leg shortening after osteotomy was a mean of 19 mm (8 to 36). With conversion to THR or hemiarthroplasty as the endpoint, the ten-year survival rate was 88.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82.7 to 93.7) and the 20-year survival rate was 79.7% (95% CI 72.1 to 87.3); four hips were converted at ten years and other two hips were converted at 20 years.

Shortening of the leg after osteotomy remains a concern; however, the conventional varus half-wedge osteotomy provides favourable long-term results in hips with less than two-thirds of the medial part of the femoral head affected by necrotic bone and with normal bone superolaterally.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1194 - 1200
1 Sep 2011
Akiyama H Yamamoto K Tsukanaka M Kawanabe K Otsuka H So K Goto K Nakamura T

We retrospectively reviewed 40 hips in 36 patients who had undergone acetabular reconstruction using a titanium Kerboull-type acetabular reinforcement device with bone allografts between May 2001 and April 2006. Impacted bone allografts were used for the management of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Type II defects in 17 hips, and bulk bone allografts together with impacted allografts were used for the management of Type III defects in 23 hips. A total of five hips showed radiological failure at a mean follow-up of 6.7 years (4.5 to 9.3), two of which were infected. The mean pre-operative Merle d’Aubigné score was 10 (5 to 15) vs 13.6 (9 to 18) at the latest follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at ten years, calculated using radiological failure or revision of the acetabular component for any reason as the endpoint, was 87% (95% confidence interval 76.3 to 97.7). A separate experimental analysis of the mechanical properties of the device and the load-displacement properties of bone grafts showed that a structurally hard allograft resected from femoral heads of patients with osteoarthritis should be preferentially used in any type of defect. If impacted bone allografts were used, a bone graft thickness of < 25 mm was acceptable in Type II defects.

This clinical study indicates that revision total hip replacement using the Kerboull-type acetabular reinforcement device with bone allografts yielded satisfactory mid-term results.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 6 | Pages 726 - 731
1 Jun 2011
Ito H Tanino H Yamanaka Y Nakamura T Minami A Matsuno T

We report the mid- to long-term (mean 20.3 years, 10 to 32.5) results of the Chiari pelvic osteotomy in patients with pre- to advanced stage osteoarthritis in dysplastic hips. We followed 163 Japanese patients (173 hips) with a mean age at surgery of 20 years (9 to 54). Overall, 124 hips (72%) had satisfactory results, with Harris hip scores ≥ 80. Satisfactory results were seen in 105 of 134 hips with pre- or early osteoarthritis (78%) and 19 of 39 hips with advanced osteoarthritis (49%). A total of 15 hips (9%) underwent a total hip replacement (THR) with a mean interval between osteotomy and THR of 16.4 years. With conversion to THR as the endpoint, the 30-year survival rate was 85.9% (95% confidence interval 82.3 to 89.5). It was 91.8% for patients with pre- or early osteoarthritis and 43.6% for those with advanced osteoarthritis (p < 0.001).

We now perform the Chiari osteotomy for patients with dysplastic hips showing poor joint congruency and who prefer a joint-conserving procedure to THR.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 217 - 222
1 Feb 2011
Ochi K Horiuchi Y Tazaki K Takayama S Nakamura T Ikegami H Matsumura T Toyama Y

We have reviewed 38 surgically treated cases of spontaneous posterior interosseous nerve palsy in 38 patients with a mean age of 43 years (13 to 68) in order to identify clinical factors associated with its prognosis. Interfascicular neurolysis was performed at a mean of 13 months (1 to 187) after the onset of symptoms. The mean follow-up was 21 months (5.5 to 221). Medical Research Council muscle power of more than grade 4 was considered to be a good result. A further 12 cases in ten patients were treated conservatively and assessed similarly.

Of the 30 cases treated surgically with available outcome data, the result of interfascicular neurolysis was significantly better in patients < 50 years old (younger group (18 nerves); good: 13 nerves (72%), poor: five nerves (28%)) than in cases > 50 years old (older group (12 nerves); good: one nerve (8%), poor: 11 nerves (92%)) (p < 0.001). A pre-operative period of less than seven months was also associated with a good result in the younger group (p = 0.01). The older group had a poor result regardless of the pre-operative delay.

Our recommended therapeutic approach therefore is to perform interfascicular neurolysis if the patient is < 50 years of age, and the pre-operative delay is < seven months. If the patient is > 50 years of age with no sign of recovery for seven months, or in the younger group with a pre-operative delay of more than a year, we advise interfascicular neurolysis together with tendon transfer as the primary surgical procedure.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 1 | Pages 111 - 114
1 Jan 2011
Iwai S Sato K Nakamura T Okazaki M Itoh Y Toyama Y Ikegami H

We present a case of post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the radial head in a 13-year-old boy which was treated with costo-osteochondral grafts. A satisfactory outcome was seen at a follow-up of two years and ten months.

Although costo-osteochondral grafting has been used in the treatment of defects in articular cartilage, especially in the hand and the elbow, the extension of the technique to manage post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the radial head in a child has not previously been reported in the English language literature. Complete relief of pain was obtained and an improvement in the range of movement was observed. The long-term results remain uncertain.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 1 | Pages 102 - 107
1 Jan 2009
Zenke Y Sakai A Oshige T Moritani S Nakamura T

A total of 118 consecutive patients with a fracture of the distal radius were treated with a volar locking plate; 50 patients had no ulnar styloid fracture, 41 had a basal ulnar styloid fracture, and 27 had a fracture of the tip of the ulnar styloid. There were no significant differences in radiological and clinical results among the three groups. The outcome was good and was independent of the presence of a fracture of the ulnar styloid. A total of five patients (4.2%) had persistent ulnar-sided wrist pain at final follow-up. Nonunion of the ulnar styloid fracture did not necessarily lead to ulnar wrist pain. Patients with persistent ulnar pain had a higher mean initial ulnar variance and increased post-operative loss of ulnar variance.

The presence of an associated ulnar styloid fracture of the ulnar styloid does not adversely affect the outcome in patients with a fracture of the distal radius treated by volar plating.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1013 - 1018
1 Aug 2008
Goto K Kawanabe K Akiyama H Morimoto T Nakamura T

We reviewed 44 consecutive revision hip replacements in 38 patients performed using the cement-in-cement technique. All were performed for acetabular loosening in the presence of a well-fixed femoral component. The mean follow-up was 5.1 years (2 to 10.1). Radiological analysis at final follow-up indicated no loosening of the femoral component, except for one case with a continuous radiolucent line in all zones and peri-prosthetic fracture which required further revision. Peri-operative complications included nine proximal femoral fractures (20.4%) and perforation of the proximal femur in one hip. In five hips wiring or fixation with a braided suture was undertaken but no additional augmentation was required. There was an improvement in the mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association score from 55.5 (28 to 81) pre-operatively to 77.8 (40 to 95) at final follow-up (p < 0.001). Revision using a cement-in-cement technique allows increased exposure for acetabular revision and is effective in the medium term. Further follow-up is required to assess the long-term results in the light of in vitro studies which have questioned the quality of the cement-in-cement bond.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 5 | Pages 677 - 679
1 May 2008
Pan H Kawanabe K Akiyama H Goto K Onishi E Nakamura T

A 30-year-old man presented with pain and limitation of movement of the right hip. The symptoms had failed to respond to conservative treatment. Radiographs and CT scans revealed evidence of impingement between the femoral head-neck junction and an abnormally large anterior inferior iliac spine. Resection of the hypertrophic anterior inferior iliac spine was performed which produced full painless restoration of function of the hip.

Hypertrophy of the anterior inferior iliac spine as a cause of femoro-acetabular impingement has not previously been described.