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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 | Pages 1173 - 1173
1 Jun 2021
Alsousou J Oragui E Martin A Strickland L Newman S Kendrick B Taylor A Glyn-Jones S

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 4 | Pages 644 - 649
1 Apr 2021
Alsousou J Oragu E Martin A Strickland L Newman S Kendrick B Taylor A Glyn-Jones S


The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the early migration of the TriFit cementless proximally coated tapered femoral stem using radiostereometric analysis (RSA).


A total of 21 patients (eight men and 13 women) undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) for osteoarthritis of the hip were recruited in this study and followed up for two years. Two patients were lost to follow-up. All patients received a TriFit stem and Trinity Cup with a vitamin E-infused highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene liner. Radiographs for RSA were taken postoperatively and then at three, 12, and 24 months. Oxford Hip Score (OHS), EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D), and adverse events were reported.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1148 - 1156
1 Sep 2018
Ferguson RJ Broomfield JA Malak TT Palmer AJR Whitwell D Kendrick B Taylor A Glyn-Jones S


The aim of this study was to determine the stability of a new short femoral stem compared with a conventional femoral stem in patients undergoing cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA), in a prospective randomized controlled trial using radiostereometric analysis (RSA).

Patients and Methods

A total of 53 patients were randomized to receive cementless THA with either a short femoral stem (MiniHip, 26 patients, mean age: 52 years, nine male) or a conventional length femoral stem (MetaFix, 23 patients, mean age: 53 years, 11 male). All patients received the same cementless acetabular component. Two-year follow-up was available on 38 patients. Stability was assessed through migration and dynamically inducible micromotion. Radiographs for RSA were taken postoperatively and at three, six, 12, 18, and 24 months.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1146 - 1147
1 Sep 2018
Ferguson RJ Broomfield JA Malak TT Palmer AJR Whitwell D Kendrick B Taylor A Glyn-Jones S

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 7 | Pages 440 - 446
1 Jul 2018
Woods AK Broomfield J Monk P Vollrath F Glyn-Jones S


The aim of this study was to investigate the structural integrity of torn and non-torn human acetabular labral tissue.


A total of 47 human labral specimens were obtained from a biobank. These included 22 torn specimens and 25 control specimens from patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty with macroscopically normal labra. The specimens underwent dynamic shear analysis using a rheometer to measure storage modulus, as an indicator of structural integrity.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4_Supple_B | Pages 41 - 48
1 Apr 2017
Fernquest S Arnold C Palmer A Broomfield J Denton J Taylor A Glyn-Jones S


The aim of this study was to examine the real time in vivo kinematics of the hip in patients with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI).

Patients and Methods

A total of 50 patients (83 hips) underwent 4D dynamic CT scanning of the hip, producing real time osseous models of the pelvis and femur being moved through flexion, adduction, and internal rotation. The location and size of the cam deformity and its relationship to the angle of flexion of the hip and pelvic tilt, and the position of impingement were recorded.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 6 | Pages 206 - 214
1 Jun 2016
Malak TT Broomfield JAJ Palmer AJR Hopewell S Carr A Brown C Prieto-Alhambra D Glyn-Jones S


High failure rates of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty implants have highlighted the need for more careful introduction and monitoring of new implants and for the evaluation of the safety of medical devices. The National Joint Registry and other regulatory services are unable to detect failing implants at an early enough stage. We aimed to identify validated surrogate markers of long-term outcome in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).


We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating surrogate markers for predicting long-term outcome in primary THA. Long-term outcome was defined as revision rate of an implant at ten years according to National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guidelines. We conducted a search of Medline and Embase (OVID) databases. Separate search strategies were devised for the Cochrane database and Google Scholar. Each search was performed to include articles from the date of their inception to June 8, 2015.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1031 - 1037
1 Aug 2015
da Assunção RE Pollard TCB Hrycaiczuk A Curry J Glyn-Jones S Taylor A

Periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) is a potentially devastating complication after total hip arthroplasty, with historically high rates of complication and failure because of the technical challenges of surgery, as well as the prevalence of advanced age and comorbidity in the patients at risk.

This study describes the short-term outcome after revision arthroplasty using a modular, titanium, tapered, conical stem for PFF in a series of 38 fractures in 37 patients.

The mean age of the cohort was 77 years (47 to 96). A total of 27 patients had an American Society of Anesthesiologists grade of at least 3. At a mean follow-up of 35 months (4 to 66) the mean Oxford Hip Score (OHS) was 35 (15 to 48) and comorbidity was significantly associated with a poorer OHS. All fractures united and no stem needed to be revised. Three hips in three patients required further surgery for infection, recurrent PFF and recurrent dislocation and three other patients required closed manipulation for a single dislocation. One stem subsided more than 5 mm but then stabilised and required no further intervention.

In this series, a modular, tapered, conical stem provided a versatile reconstruction solution with a low rate of complications.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1031–7.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 3, Issue 11 | Pages 321 - 327
1 Nov 2014
Palmer AJR Ayyar-Gupta V Dutton SJ Rombach I Cooper CD Pollard TC Hollinghurst D Taylor A Barker KL McNally EG Beard DJ Andrade AJ Carr AJ Glyn-Jones S


Femoroacetabular Junction Impingement (FAI) describes abnormalities in the shape of the femoral head–neck junction, or abnormalities in the orientation of the acetabulum. In the short term, FAI can give rise to pain and disability, and in the long-term it significantly increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis. The Femoroacetabular Impingement Trial (FAIT) aims to determine whether operative or non-operative intervention is more effective at improving symptoms and preventing the development and progression of osteoarthritis.


FAIT is a multicentre superiority parallel two-arm randomised controlled trial comparing physiotherapy and activity modification with arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of symptomatic FAI. Patients aged 18 to 60 with clinical and radiological evidence of FAI are eligible. Principal exclusion criteria include previous surgery to the index hip, established osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence ≥ 2), hip dysplasia (centre-edge angle < 20°), and completion of a physiotherapy programme targeting FAI within the previous 12 months. Recruitment will take place over 24 months and 120 patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio and followed up for three years. The two primary outcome measures are change in hip outcome score eight months post-randomisation (approximately six-months post-intervention initiation) and change in radiographic minimum joint space width 38 months post-randomisation. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01893034.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:321–7.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 6 | Pages 738 - 746
1 Jun 2013
Palmer AJR Brown CP McNally EG Price AJ Tracey I Jezzard P Carr AJ Glyn-Jones S

Treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) has traditionally focused on joint replacement for end-stage disease. An increasing number of surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for disease prevention have now been proposed. However, these require the ability to identify OA at a stage when it is potentially reversible, and detect small changes in cartilage structure and function to enable treatment efficacy to be evaluated within an acceptable timeframe. This has not been possible using conventional imaging techniques but recent advances in musculoskeletal imaging have been significant. In this review we discuss the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnosis of the earliest changes of OA. The increasing number of MRI sequences that are able to non-invasively detect biochemical changes in cartilage that precede structural damage may offer a great advance in the diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating condition.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:738–46.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 2, Issue 2 | Pages 33 - 40
1 Feb 2013
Palmer AJR Thomas GER Pollard TCB Rombach I Taylor A Arden N Beard DJ Andrade AJ Carr AJ Glyn-Jones S


The number of surgical procedures performed each year to treat femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) continues to rise. Although there is evidence that surgery can improve symptoms in the short-term, there is no evidence that it slows the development of osteoarthritis (OA). We performed a feasibility study to determine whether patient and surgeon opinion was permissive for a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) comparing operative with non-operative treatment for FAI.


Surgeon opinion was obtained using validated questionnaires at a Specialist Hip Meeting (n = 61, 30 of whom stated that they routinely performed FAI surgery) and patient opinion was obtained from clinical patients with a new diagnosis of FAI (n = 31).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1660 - 1664
1 Dec 2011
Judge A Arden NK Price A Glyn-Jones S Beard D Carr AJ Dawson J Fitzpatrick R Field RE

We obtained pre-operative and six-month post-operative Oxford hip (OHS) and knee scores (OKS) for 1523 patients who underwent total hip replacement and 1784 patients who underwent total knee replacement. They all also completed a six-month satisfaction question.

Scatter plots showed no relationship between pre-operative Oxford scores and six-month satisfaction scores. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were -0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.09 to 0.01) between OHS and satisfaction and 0.04 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.08) between OKS and satisfaction. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify a cut-off point for the pre-operative OHS/OKS that identifies whether or not a patient is satisfied with surgery. We obtained an area under the ROC curve of 0.51 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.56) for hip replacement and 0.56 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.60) for knee replacement, indicating that pre-operative Oxford scores have no predictive accuracy in distinguishing satisfied from dissatisfied patients.

In the NHS widespread attempts are being made to use patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) data for the purpose of prioritising patients for surgery. Oxford hip and knee scores have no predictive accuracy in relation to post-operative patient satisfaction. This evidence does not support their current use in prioritising access to care.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1356 - 1362
1 Oct 2010
Simpson DJ Kendrick BJL Hughes M Glyn-Jones S Gill HS Rushforth GF Murray DW

We have evaluated the difference in the migration patterns over two years of two cementless stems in a randomised, controlled trial using radiostereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). The implants studied were the Furlong HAC stem, which has good long-term results and the Furlong Active stem, which is a modified version of the former designed to minimise stress concentrations between the implant and bone, and thus to improve fixation.

A total of 23 Furlong HAC and 20 Furlong Active stems were implanted in 43 patients. RSA examinations were carried out immediately post-operatively and at six, 12 and 24 months post-operatively.

The subsidence during the first year in the Furlong HAC stem, was approximately one-third that of the Furlong Active stem, the measured mean subsidence of the femoral head at six months being 0.27 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.51) and 0.99 mm (95% CI 0.38 to 1.60), respectively (p = 0.03). One Active stem continued to subside during the second year. All hips, regardless of the type of stem were clinically successful as judged by the Oxford hip score and a derived pain score without any distinction between the two types of stem.

The initial stability of the Furlong Active stem was not as good as the established stem which might compromise osseo-integration to the detriment of long-term success. The changes in the geometry of the stem, to minimise stress have affected the attainment of initial stability.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1072 - 1078
1 Aug 2010
Grammatopoulos G Pandit H Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Whitwell D Gill HS Murray DW

Pseudotumours are a rare complication of hip resurfacing. They are thought to be a response to metal debris which may be caused by edge loading due to poor orientation of the acetabular component. Our aim was to determine the optimal acetabular orientation to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation.

We matched 31 hip resurfacings revised for pseudotumour formation with 58 controls who had a satisfactory outcome from this procedure. The radiographic inclination and anteversion angles of the acetabular component were measured on anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis using Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse software. The mean inclination angle (47°, 10° to 81°) and anteversion angle (14°, 4° to 34°) of the pseudotumour cases were the same (p = 0.8, p = 0.2) as the controls, 46° (29° to 60°) and 16° (4° to 30°) respectively, but the variation was greater. Assuming an accuracy of implantation of ± 10° about a target position, the optimal radiographic position was found to be approximately 45° of inclination and 20° of anteversion. The incidence of pseudotumours inside the zone was four times lower (p = 0.007) than outside the zone.

In order to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation we recommend that surgeons implant the acetabular component at an inclination of 45° (± 10) and anteversion of 20° (± 10) on post-operative radiographs. Because of differences between the radiographic and the operative angles, this may be best achieved by aiming for an inclination of 40° and an anteversion of 25°.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 3 | Pages 356 - 361
1 Mar 2010
Kwon Y- Glyn-Jones S Simpson DJ Kamali A McLardy-Smith P Gill HS Murray DW

The presence of pseudotumours, which are soft-tissue masses relating to the hip, after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty has been associated with elevated levels of metal ions in serum, suggesting that pseudotumours occur when there is increased wear. We aimed to quantify the wear in vivo of implants revised for pseudotumours (eight) and of a control group of implants (22) revised for other reasons of failure.

We found that the implant group with pseudotumours had a significantly higher rate of median linear wear of the femoral component at 8.1 μm/year (2.75 to 25.4) than the 1.79 μm/year (0.82 to 4.15; p = 0.002) of the non-pseudotumour group. For the acetabular component a significantly higher rate of median linear wear of 7.36 μm/year (1.61 to 24.9) was observed in the pseudotumour group compared with 1.28 μm/year (0.81 to 3.33, p = 0.001) in the other group. Wear of the acetabular component in the pseudotumour group always involved the edge of the implant, indicating that edge-loading had occurred.

Our findings are the first direct evidence that pseudotumour is associated with increased wear at the metal-on-metal articulation. Furthermore, edge-loading with the loss of fluid-film lubrication may be an important mechanism of generation of wear in patients with a pseudotumour.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1566 - 1574
1 Dec 2009
Glyn-Jones S Pandit H Kwon Y Doll H Gill HS Murray DW

Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is commonly performed for osteoarthritis in young active patients. We have observed cystic or solid masses, which we have called inflammatory pseudotumours, arising around these devices. They may cause soft-tissue destruction with severe symptoms and a poor outcome after revision surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for pseudotumours that are serious enough to require revision surgery.

Since 1999, 1419 metal-on-metal hip resurfacings have been implanted by our group in 1224 patients; 1.8% of the patients had a revision for pseudotumour. In this series the Kaplan-Meier cumulative revision rate for pseudotumour increased progressively with time. At eight years, in all patients, it was 4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2 to 5.8). Factors significantly associated with an increase in revision rate were female gender (p < 0.001), age under 40 (p = 0.003), small components (p = 0.003), and dysplasia (p = 0.019), whereas implant type was not (p = 0.156). These factors were inter-related, however, and on fitting a Cox proportional hazard model only gender (p = 0.002) and age (p = 0.024) had a significant independent influence on revision rate; size nearly reached significance (p = 0.08). Subdividing the cohort according to significant factors, we found that the revision rate for pseudotumours in men was 0.5% (95% CI 0 to 1.1) at eight years wheras in women over 40 years old it was 6% (95% CI 2.3 to 10.1) at eight years and in women under 40 years it was 13.1% at six years (95% CI 0 to 27) (p < 0.001).

We recommend that resurfacings are undertaken with caution in women, particularly those under 40 years of age but they remain a good option in young men. Further work is required to understand the aetiology of pseudotumours so that this complication can be avoided.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 7 | Pages 847 - 851
1 Jul 2008
Pandit H Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Whitwell D Gibbons CLM Ostlere S Athanasou N Gill HS Murray DW

We report 17 patients (20 hips) in whom metal-on-metal resurfacing had been performed and who presented with various symptoms and a soft-tissue mass which we termed a pseudotumour. Each patient underwent plain radiography and in some, CT, MRI and ultrasonography were also performed. In addition, histological examination of available samples was undertaken.

All the patients were women and their presentation was variable. The most common symptom was discomfort in the region of the hip. Other symptoms included spontaneous dislocation, nerve palsy, a noticeable mass or a rash. The common histological features were extensive necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration. To date, 13 of the 20 hips have required revision to a conventional hip replacement. Two are awaiting revision.

We estimate that approximately 1% of patients who have a metal-on-metal resurfacing develop a pseudotumour within five years. The cause is unknown and is probably multifactorial. There may be a toxic reaction to an excess of particulate metal wear debris or a hypersensitivity reaction to a normal amount of metal debris. We are concerned that with time the incidence of these pseudotumours may increase. Further investigation is required to define their cause.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 5 | Pages 556 - 561
1 May 2008
Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gill HS Murray DW

The creep and wear behaviour of highly cross-linked polyethylene and standard polyethylene liners were examined in a prospective, double-blind randomised, controlled trial using radiostereometric analysis.

We randomised 54 patients to receive hip replacements with either highly cross-linked polyethylene or standard liners and determined the three-dimensional penetration of the liners over three years.

After three years the mean total penetration was 0.35 mm (SD 0.14) for the highly cross-linked polyethylene group and 0.45 mm (SD 0.19) for the standard group. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0184). From the pattern of penetration it was possible to discriminate creep from wear. Most (95%) of the creep occurred within six months of implantation and nearly all within the first year. There was no difference in the mean degree of creep between the two types of polyethylene (highly cross-linked polyethylene 0.26 mm, SD 0.17; standard 0.27 mm, SD 0.2; p = 0.83). There was, however, a significant difference (p = 0.012) in the mean wear rate (highly cross-linked polyethylene 0.03 mm/yr, SD 0.06; standard 0.07 mm/yr, SD 0.05). Creep and wear occurred in significantly different directions (p = 0.01); creep was predominantly proximal whereas wear was anterior, proximal and medial.

We conclude that penetration in the first six months is creep-dominated, but after one year virtually all penetration is due to wear. Highly cross-linked polyethylene has a 60% lower rate of wear than standard polyethylene and therefore will probably perform better in the long term.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 2 | Pages 179 - 183
1 Feb 2006
Hauptfleisch J Glyn-Jones S Beard DJ Gill HS Murray DW

We performed a clinical and radiological study to determine the rate of failure of the Charnley Elite-Plus femoral component. Our aim was to confirm or refute the predictions of a previous roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis study in which 20% of the Charnley Elite-Plus stems had shown rapid posterior head migration. It was predicted that this device would have a high early rate of failure.

We examined 118 patients at a mean of nine years after hip replacement, including the 19 patients from the original roentgen stereophotogrammetric study. The number of revision procedures was recorded and clinical and radiological examinations were performed.

The rate of survival of the femoral stems at ten years was 83% when revision alone was considered to be a failure. It decreased to 59% when a radiologically loose stem was also considered to be a failure. All the patients previously shown in the roentgen stereophotogrammetric study to have high posterior head migration went on to failure. There was a highly significant difference (p = 0.002) in posterior head migration measured at two years after operation between failed and non-failed femoral stems, but there was no significant difference in subsidence between these two groups.

Our study has shown that the Charnley Elite-Plus femoral component has an unacceptably high rate of failure. It confirms that early evaluation of new components is important and that roentgen stereophotogrammetric is a good tool for this. Our findings have also shown that rapid posterior head migration is predictive of premature loosening and a better predictor than subsidence.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 7 | Pages 921 - 927
1 Jul 2005
Glyn-Jones S Gill HS Beard DJ McLardy-Smith P Murray DW

Polished, tapered stems are now widely used for cemented total hip replacement and many such designs have been introduced. However, a change in stem geometry may have a profound influence on stability. Stems with a wide, rectangular proximal section may be more stable than those which are narrower proximally. We examined the influence of proximal geometry on stability by comparing the two-year migration of the Exeter stem with a more recent design, the CPS-Plus, which has a wider shoulder and a more rectangular cross-section. The hypothesis was that these design features would increase rotational stability.

Both stems subsided approximately 1 mm relative to the femur during the first two years after implantation. The Exeter stem was found to rotate into valgus (mean 0.2°, sd 0.42°) and internally rotate (mean 1.28°, sd 0.99°). The CPS-Plus showed no significant valgus rotation (mean 0.2°, sd 0.42°) or internal rotation (mean −0.03°, sd 0.75°). A wider, more rectangular cross-section improves rotational stability and may have a better long-term outcome.