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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 8 | Pages 493 - 500
1 Aug 2020
Fletcher JWA Zderic I Gueorguiev B Richards RG Gill HS Whitehouse MR Preatoni E


To devise a method to quantify and optimize tightness when inserting cortical screws, based on bone characterization and screw geometry.


Cortical human cadaveric diaphyseal tibiae screw holes (n = 20) underwent destructive testing to firstly establish the relationship between cortical thickness and experimental stripping torque (Tstr), and secondly to calibrate an equation to predict Tstr. Using the equation’s predictions, 3.5 mm screws were inserted (n = 66) to targeted torques representing 40% to 100% of Tstr, with recording of compression generated during tightening. Once the target torque had been achieved, immediate pullout testing was performed.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 12 | Pages 639 - 649
1 Dec 2018
MacLeod AR Serrancoli G Fregly BJ Toms AD Gill HS


Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an established surgical procedure for the treatment of early-stage knee arthritis. Other than infection, the majority of complications are related to mechanical factors – in particular, stimulation of healing at the osteotomy site. This study used finite element (FE) analysis to investigate the effect of plate design and bridging span on interfragmentary movement (IFM) and the influence of fracture healing on plate stress and potential failure.

Materials and Methods

A 10° opening wedge HTO was created in a composite tibia. Imaging and strain gauge data were used to create and validate FE models. Models of an intact tibia and a tibia implanted with a custom HTO plate using two different bridging spans were validated against experimental data. Physiological muscle forces and different stages of osteotomy gap healing simulating up to six weeks postoperatively were then incorporated. Predictions of plate stress and IFM for the custom plate were compared against predictions for an industry standard plate (TomoFix).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1280 - 1288
1 Oct 2018
Grammatopoulos G Gofton W Cochran M Dobransky J Carli A Abdelbary H Gill HS Beaulé PE


This study aims to: determine the difference in pelvic position that occurs between surgery and radiographic, supine, postoperative assessment; examine how the difference in pelvic position influences subsequent component orientation; and establish whether differences in pelvic position, and thereafter component orientation, exist between total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed in the supine versus the lateral decubitus positions.

Patients and Methods

The intra- and postoperative anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 321 THAs were included; 167 were performed with the patient supine using the anterior approach and 154 were performed with the patient in the lateral decubitus using the posterior approach. The inclination and anteversion of the acetabular component was measured and the difference (Δ) between the intra- and postoperative radiographs was determined. The target zone was inclination/anteversion of 40°/20° (± 10°). Changes in the tilt, rotation, and obliquity of the pelvis on the intra- and postoperative radiographs were calculated from Δinclination/anteversion using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 5 | Pages 270 - 276
1 May 2017
Gosiewski JD Holsgrove TP Gill HS


Fractures of the proximal femur are a common clinical problem, and a number of orthopaedic devices are available for the treatment of such fractures. The objective of this study was to assess the rotational stability, a common failure predictor, of three different rotational control design philosophies: a screw, a helical blade and a deployable crucifix.


Devices were compared in terms of the mechanical work (W) required to rotate the implant by 6° in a bone substitute material. The substitute material used was Sawbones polyurethane foam of three different densities (0.08 g/cm3, 0.16 g/cm3 and 0.24 g/cm3). Each torsion test comprised a steady ramp of 1°/minute up to an angular displacement of 10°.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 8 | Pages 338 - 346
1 Aug 2016
MacLeod AR Sullivan NPT Whitehouse MR Gill HS


Modular junctions are ubiquitous in contemporary hip arthroplasty. The head-trunnion junction is implicated in the failure of large diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) hips which are the currently the topic of one the largest legal actions in the history of orthopaedics (estimated costs are stated to exceed $4 billion). Several factors are known to influence the strength of these press-fit modular connections. However, the influence of different head sizes has not previously been investigated. The aim of the study was to establish whether the choice of head size influences the initial strength of the trunnion-head connection.

Materials and Methods

Ti-6Al-4V trunnions (n = 60) and two different sizes of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) heads (28 mm and 36 mm; 30 of each size) were used in the study. Three different levels of assembly force were considered: 4 kN; 5 kN; and 6 kN (n = 10 each). The strength of the press-fit connection was subsequently evaluated by measuring the pull-off force required to break the connection. The statistical differences in pull-off force were examined using a Kruskal–Wallis test and two-sample Mann–Whitney U test. Finite element and analytical models were developed to understand the reasons for the experimentally observed differences.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 164 - 172
1 Feb 2015
Grammatopoulos G Thomas GER Pandit H Beard DJ Gill HS Murray DW

We assessed the orientation of the acetabular component in 1070 primary total hip arthroplasties with hard-on-soft, small diameter bearings, aiming to determine the size and site of the target zone that optimises outcome. Outcome measures included complications, dislocations, revisions and ΔOHS (the difference between the Oxford Hip Scores pre-operatively and five years post-operatively). A wide scatter of orientation was observed (2sd 15°). Placing the component within Lewinnek’s zone was not associated withimproved outcome. Of the different zone sizes tested (± 5°, ± 10° and ± 15°), only ± 15° was associated with a decreased rate of dislocation. The dislocation rate with acetabular components inside an inclination/anteversion zone of 40°/15° ± 15° was four times lower than those outside. The only zone size associated with statistically significant and clinically important improvement in OHS was ± 5°. The best outcomes (ΔOHS > 26) were achieved with a 45°/25° ± 5° zone.

This study demonstrated that with traditional technology surgeons can only reliably achieve a target zone of ±15°. As the optimal zone to diminish the risk of dislocation is also ±15°, surgeons should be able to achieve this. This is the first study to demonstrate that optimal orientation of the acetabular component improves the functional outcome. However, the target zone is small (± 5°) and cannot, with current technology, be consistently achieved.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:164–72.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 185 - 191
1 Feb 2015
Kendrick BJL Kaptein BL Valstar ER Gill HS Jackson WFM Dodd CAF Price AJ Murray DW

The most common reasons for revision of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) are loosening and pain. Cementless components may reduce the revision rate. The aim of this study was to compare the fixation and clinical outcome of cementless and cemented Oxford UKAs.

A total of 43 patients were randomised to receive either a cemented or a cementless Oxford UKA and were followed for two years with radiostereometric analysis (RSA), radiographs aligned with the bone–implant interfaces and clinical scores.

The femoral components migrated significantly during the first year (mean 0.2 mm) but not during the second. There was no significant difference in the extent of migration between cemented and cementless femoral components in either the first or the second year. In the first year the cementless tibial components subsided significantly more than the cemented components (mean 0.28 mm (sd 0.17) vs. 0.09 mm (sd 0.19 mm)). In the second year, although there was a small amount of subsidence (mean 0.05 mm) there was no significant difference (p = 0.92) between cemented and cementless tibial components. There were no femoral radiolucencies. Tibial radiolucencies were narrow (< 1 mm) and were significantly (p = 0.02) less common with cementless (6 of 21) than cemented (13 of 21) components at two years. There were no complete radiolucencies with cementless components, whereas five of 21 (24%) cemented components had complete radiolucencies. The clinical scores at two years were not significantly different (p = 0.20).

As second-year migration is predictive of subsequent loosening, and as radiolucency is suggestive of reduced implant–bone contact, these data suggest that fixation of the cementless components is at least as good as, if not better than, that of cemented devices.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:185–91.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1290 - 1297
1 Oct 2014
Grammatopoulos G Pandit HG da Assunção R McLardy-Smith P De Smet KA Gill HS Murray DW

There is great variability in acetabular component orientation following hip replacement. The aims of this study were to compare the component orientation at impaction with the orientation measured on post-operative radiographs and identify factors that influence the difference between the two. A total of 67 hip replacements (52 total hip replacements and 15 hip resurfacings) were prospectively studied. Intra-operatively, the orientation of the acetabular component after impaction relative to the operating table was measured using a validated stereo-photogrammetry protocol. Post-operatively, the radiographic orientation was measured; the mean inclination/anteversion was 43° (sd 6°)/ 19° (sd 7°). A simulated radiographic orientation was calculated based on how the orientation would have appeared had an on-table radiograph been taken intra-operatively. The mean difference between radiographic and intra-operative inclination/anteversion was 5° (sd 5°)/ -8° (sd 8°). The mean difference between simulated radiographic and intra-operative inclination/anteversion, which quantifies the effect of the different way acetabular orientation is measured, was 3°/-6° (sd 2°). The mean difference between radiographic and simulated radiographic orientation inclination/anteversion, which is a manifestation of the change in pelvic position between component impaction and radiograph, was 1°/-2° (sd 7°).

This study demonstrated that in order to achieve a specific radiographic orientation target, surgeons should implant the acetabular component 5° less inclined and 8° more anteverted than their target. Great variability (2 sd about ± 15°) in the post-operative radiographic cup orientation was seen. The two equally contributing causes for this are variability in the orientation at which the cup is implanted, and the change in pelvic position between impaction and post-operative radiograph.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1290–7

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 7 | Pages 876 - 883
1 Jul 2014
Grammatopoulos G Pandit HG da Assunção R Taylor A McLardy-Smith P De Smet KA Murray DW Gill HS

The orientation of the acetabular component is influenced not only by the orientation at which the surgeon implants the component, but also the orientation of the pelvis at the time of implantation. Hence, the orientation of the pelvis at set-up and its movement during the operation, are important. During 67 hip replacements, using a validated photogrammetric technique, we measured how three surgeons orientated the patient’s pelvis, how much the pelvis moved during surgery, and what effect these had on the final orientation of the acetabular component. Pelvic orientation at set-up, varied widely (mean (± 2, standard deviation (sd))): tilt 8° (2sd ±32), obliquity –4° (2sd ±12), rotation –8° (2sd ±14). Significant differences in pelvic positioning were detected between surgeons (p < 0.001). The mean angular movement of the pelvis between set-up and component implantation was 9° (sd 6). Factors influencing pelvic movement included surgeon, approach (posterior >  lateral), procedure (hip resurfacing > total hip replacement) and type of support (p < 0.001). Although, on average, surgeons achieved their desired acetabular component orientation, there was considerable variability (2sd ±16) in component orientation. We conclude that inconsistency in positioning the patient at set-up and movement of the pelvis during the operation account for much of the variation in acetabular component orientation. Improved methods of positioning and holding the pelvis are required.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:876–83.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 5 | Pages 605 - 608
1 May 2013
Murray DW Gulati A Gill HS

The Exeter femoral stem is a double-tapered highly polished collarless cemented implant with good long-term clinical results. In order to determine why the stem functions well we have undertaken a long-term radiostereometric analysis (RSA) study.

A total of 20 patients undergoing primary Exeter total hip replacement for osteoarthritis using the Hardinge approach were recruited and followed with RSA for ten years. The stems progressively subsided and internally rotated with posterior head migration. The mean subsidence was 0.7 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5 to 0.9) at two years and 1.3 mm (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) at ten years. The mean posterior migration of the head was 0.7 mm (95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) at two years and 1.2 mm (95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) at ten years. There was no significant cement restrictor migration.

The Exeter stem continues to subside slowly into the cement mantle in the long term. This appears to compress the cement and the cement bone interface, contributing to secure fixation in the long term.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:605–8.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1216 - 1220
1 Sep 2012
Weston-Simons JS Pandit H Jenkins C Jackson WFM Price AJ Gill HS Dodd CAF Murray DW

The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) is an established treatment option in the management of symptomatic end-stage medial compartmental osteoarthritis (MCOA), which works well in the young and active patient. However, previous studies have shown that it is reliable only in the presence of a functionally intact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This review reports the outcomes, at a mean of five years and a maximum of ten years, of 52 consecutive patients with a mean age of 51 years (36 to 57) who underwent staged or simultaneous ACL reconstruction and Oxford UKR. At the last follow-up (with one patient lost to follow-up), the mean Oxford knee score was 41 (sd 6.3; 17 to 48). Two patients required conversion to TKR: one for progression of lateral compartment osteoarthritis and one for infection. Implant survival at five years was 93% (95% CI 83 to 100). All but one patient reported being satisfied with the procedure. The outcome was not significantly influenced by age, gender, femoral or tibial tunnel placement, or whether the procedure was undertaken at one- or two-stages.

In summary, ACL reconstruction and Oxford UKR gives good results in patients with end-stage MCOA secondary to ACL deficiency.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1180 - 1186
1 Sep 2012
Murray DW Grammatopoulos G Pandit H Gundle R Gill HS McLardy-Smith P

Recent events have highlighted the importance of implant design for survival and wear-related complications following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The mid-term survival of the most widely used implant, the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR), has been described by its designers. The aim of this study was to report the ten-year survival and patient-reported functional outcome of the BHR from an independent centre.

In this cohort of 554 patients (646 BHRs) with a mean age of 51.9 years (16.5 to 81.5) followed for a mean of eight years (1 to 12), the survival and patient-reported functional outcome depended on gender and the size of the implant. In female hips (n = 267) the ten-year survival was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI) 83 to 91), the ten-year revision rate for pseudotumour was 7%, the mean Oxford hip score (OHS) was 43 (sd 8) and the mean UCLA activity score was 6.4 (sd 2). In male hips (n = 379) the ten-year survival was 95% (95% CI 92.0 to 97.4), the ten-year revision rate for pseudotumour was 1.7%, the mean OHS was 45 (sd 6) and the mean UCLA score was 7.6 (sd 2). In the most demanding subgroup, comprising male patients aged < 50 years treated for primary osteoarthritis, the survival was 99% (95% CI 97 to 100).

This study supports the ongoing use of resurfacing in young active men, who are a subgroup of patients who tend to have problems with conventional THR. In contrast, the results in women have been poor and we do not recommend metal-on-metal resurfacing in women. Continuous follow-up is recommended because of the increasing incidence of pseudotumour with the passage of time.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 1, Issue 4 | Pages 42 - 49
1 Apr 2012
Kwon Y Mellon SJ Monk P Murray DW Gill HS


Pseudotumours (abnormal peri-prosthetic soft-tissue reactions) following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoMHRA) have been associated with elevated metal ion levels, suggesting that excessive wear may occur due to edge-loading of these MoM implants. This study aimed to quantify in vivo edge-loading in MoMHRA patients with and without pseudotumours during functional activities.


The duration and magnitude of edge-loading in vivo was quantified during functional activities by combining the dynamic hip joint segment contact force calculated from the three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system with the 3D reconstruction of orientation of the acetabular component and each patient’s specific hip joint centre, based on CT scans.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 4 | Pages 477 - 482
1 Apr 2012
Merle C Waldstein W Pegg E Streit MR Gotterbarm T Aldinger PR Murray DW Gill HS

The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify any difference in femoral offset as measured on pre-operative anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of the pelvis, AP radiographs of the hip and corresponding CT scans in a consecutive series of 100 patients with primary end-stage osteoarthritis of the hip (43 men and 57 women with a mean age of 61 years (45 to 74) and a mean body mass index of 28 kg/m2 (20 to 45)).

Patients were positioned according to a standardised protocol to achieve reproducible projection and all images were calibrated. Inter- and intra-observer reliability was evaluated and agreement between methods was assessed using Bland-Altman plots.

In the entire cohort, the mean femoral offset was 39.0 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) 37.4 to 40.6) on radiographs of the pelvis, 44.0 mm (95% CI 42.4 to 45.6) on radiographs of the hip and 44.7 mm (95% CI 43.5 to 45.9) on CT scans. AP radiographs of the pelvis underestimated femoral offset by 13% when compared with CT (p < 0.001). No difference in mean femoral offset was seen between AP radiographs of the hip and CT (p = 0.191).

Our results suggest that femoral offset is significantly underestimated on AP radiographs of the pelvis but can be reliably and accurately assessed on AP radiographs of the hip in patients with primary end-stage hip osteoarthritis.

We, therefore, recommend that additional AP radiographs of the hip are obtained routinely for the pre-operative assessment of femoral offset when templating before total hip replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1586 - 1591
1 Dec 2011
Alvand A Auplish S Khan T Gill HS Rees JL

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of training on the arthroscopic performance of a group of medical students and to determine whether all students could be trained to competence. Thirty-three medical students with no previous experience of arthroscopy were randomised to a ‘Trained’ or an ‘Untrained’ cohort. They were required to carry out 30 episodes of two simulated arthroscopic tasks (one shoulder and one knee). The primary outcome variable was task success at each episode. Individuals achieved competence when their learning curve stabilised. The secondary outcome was technical dexterity, assessed objectively using a validated motion analysis system. Six subjects in the ‘Untrained’ cohort failed to achieve competence in the shoulder task, compared with one in the ‘Trained’ cohort. During the knee task, two subjects in each cohort failed to achieve competence. Based on the objective motion analysis parameters, the ‘Trained’ cohort performed better on the shoulder task (p < 0.05) but there was no significant difference for the knee task (p > 0.05).

Although specific training improved the arthroscopic performance of novices, there were individuals who could not achieve competence despite focused training.These findings may have an impact on the selection process for trainees and influence individual career choices.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1610 - 1616
1 Dec 2011
Pegg E Pandit H Gill HS Keys GW Svard UGC O’Connor JJ Murray DW

Since the Oxford knee was first used unicompartmentally in 1982, a small number of bearings have fractured. Of 14 retrieved bearings, we examined ten samples with known durations in situ (four Phase 1, four Phase 2 and two Phase 3). Evidence of impingement and associated abnormally high wear (> 0.05 mm per year) as well as oxidation was observed in all bearings. In four samples the fracture was associated with the posterior radio-opaque wire. Fracture surfaces indicated fatigue failure, and scanning electron microscopy suggested that the crack initiated in the thinnest region. The estimated incidence of fracture was 3.20% for Phase 1, 0.74% for Phase 2, 0.35% for Phase 3, and 0% for Phase 3 without the posterior marker wire. The important aetiological factors for bearing fracture are impingement leading to high wear, oxidation, and the posterior marker wire. With improved surgical technique, impingement and high wear should be prevented and modern polyethylene may reduce the oxidation risk. A posterior marker wire is no longer used in the polyethylene meniscus. Therefore, the rate of fracture, which is now very low, should be reduced to a negligible level.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1341 - 1347
1 Oct 2011
Monk AP Doll HA Gibbons CLMH Ostlere S Beard DJ Gill HS Murray DW

Patella subluxation assessed on dynamic MRI has previously been shown to be associated with anterior knee pain. In this MRI study of 60 patients we investigated the relationship between subluxation and multiple bony, cartilaginous and soft-tissue factors that might predispose to subluxation using discriminant function analysis.

Patella engagement (% of patella cartilage overlapping with trochlea cartilage) had the strongest relationship with subluxation. Patellae with > 30% engagement tended not to sublux; those with < 30% tended to sublux. Other factors that were associated with subluxation included the tibial tubercle-trochlea notch distance, vastus medialis obliquus distance from patella, patella alta, and the bony and cartilaginous sulcus angles in the superior part of the trochlea. No relationship was found between subluxation and sulcus angles for cartilage and bone in the middle and lower part of the trochlea, cartilage thicknesses and Wiberg classification of the patella.

This study indicates that patella engagement is a key factor associated with patellar subluxation. This suggests that in patients with anterior knee pain with subluxation, resistant to conservative management, surgery directed towards improving patella engagement should be considered. A clinical trial is necessary to test this hypothesis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 5 | Pages 622 - 628
1 May 2011
Pandit H Jenkins C Gill HS Smith G Price AJ Dodd CAF Murray DW

The contraindications for unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) remain controversial. The views of many surgeons are based on Kozinn and Scott’s 1989 publication which stated that patients who weighed more than 82 kg, were younger than 60 years, undertook heavy labour, had exposed bone in the patellofemoral joint or chondrocalcinosis, were not ideal candidates for UKR. Our aim was to determine whether these potential contraindications should apply to patients with a mobile-bearing UKR. In order to do this the outcome of patients with these potential contraindications was compared with that of patients without the contraindications in a prospective series of 1000 UKRs. The outcome was assessed using the Oxford knee score, the American Knee Society score, the Tegner activity score, revision rate and survival.

The clinical outcome of patients with each of the potential contraindications was similar to or better than those without each contraindication. Overall, 678 UKRs (68%) were performed in patients who had at least one potential contraindication and only 322 (32%) in patients deemed to be ideal. The survival at ten years was 97.0% (95% confidence interval 93.4 to 100.0) for those with potential contraindications and 93.6% (95% confidence interval 87.2 to 100.0) in the ideal patients.

We conclude that the thresholds proposed by Kozinn and Scott using weight, age, activity, the state of the patellofemoral joint and chondrocalcinosis should not be considered to be contraindications for the use of the Oxford UKR.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 5 | Pages 572 - 579
1 May 2011
Haddad FS Thakrar RR Hart AJ Skinner JA Nargol AVF Nolan JF Gill HS Murray DW Blom AW Case CP

Lately, concerns have arisen following the use of large metal-on-metal bearings in hip replacements owing to reports of catastrophic soft-tissue reactions resulting in implant failure and associated complications. This review examines the literature and contemporary presentations on current clinical dilemmas in metal-on-metal hip replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 4 | Pages 470 - 475
1 Apr 2011
Kendrick BJL Simpson DJ Kaptein BL Valstar ER Gill HS Murray DW Price AJ

The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) was designed to minimise wear utilising a fully-congruent, mobile, polyethylene bearing. Wear of polyethylene is a significant cause of revision surgery in UKR in the first decade, and the incidence increases in the second decade. Our study used model-based radiostereometric analysis to measure the combined wear of the upper and lower bearing surfaces in 13 medial-compartment Oxford UKRs at a mean of 20.9 years (17.2 to 25.9) post-operatively.

The mean linear penetration of the polyethylene bearing was 1.04 mm (0.307 to 2.15), with a mean annual wear rate of 0.045 mm/year (0.016 to 0.099). The annual wear rate of the phase-2 bearings (mean 0.022 mm/year) was significantly less (p = 0.01) than that of phase-1 bearings (mean 0.07 mm/year).

The linear wear rate of the Oxford UKR remains very low into the third decade. We believe that phase-2 bearings had lower wear rates than phase-1 implants because of the improved bearing design and surgical technique which decreased the incidence of impingement. We conclude that the design of the Oxford UKR gives low rates of wear in the long term.