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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 11 | Pages 723 - 733
1 Nov 2021
Garner AJ Dandridge OW Amis AA Cobb JP van Arkel RJ


Bi-unicondylar arthroplasty (Bi-UKA) is a bone and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-preserving alternative to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) when the patellofemoral joint is preserved. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes and biomechanics of Bi-UKA.


Bi-UKA subjects (n = 22) were measured on an instrumented treadmill, using standard gait metrics, at top walking speeds. Age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy (n = 24) and primary TKA (n = 22) subjects formed control groups. TKA subjects with preoperative patellofemoral or tricompartmental arthritis or ACL dysfunction were excluded. The Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) were compared. Bi-UKA, then TKA, were performed on eight fresh frozen cadaveric knees, to investigate knee extensor efficiency under controlled laboratory conditions, using a repeated measures study design.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 1 | Pages 1 - 9
1 Jan 2021
Garner A Dandridge O Amis AA Cobb JP van Arkel RJ


Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BCA) have been associated with improved functional outcomes compared to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in suitable patients, although the reason is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure how the different arthroplasties affect knee extensor function.


Extensor function was measured for 16 cadaveric knees and then retested following the different arthroplasties. Eight knees underwent medial UKA then BCA, then posterior-cruciate retaining TKA, and eight underwent the lateral equivalents then TKA. Extensor efficiency was calculated for ranges of knee flexion associated with common activities of daily living. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (α = 0.05).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 4 | Pages 484 - 491
1 Apr 2015
van Arkel RJ Amis AA Cobb JP Jeffers JRT

In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments and the ligamentum teres to rotational restraint was determined by resecting a ligament and measuring the reduced torque required to achieve the same angular position as before resection. The contribution from the acetabular labrum was also measured. Each of the capsular ligaments acted as the primary hip rotation restraint somewhere within the complete ROM, and the ligamentum teres acted as a secondary restraint in high flexion, adduction and external rotation. The iliofemoral lateral arm and the ischiofemoral ligaments were primary restraints in two-thirds of the positions tested. Appreciation of the importance of these structures in preventing excessive hip rotation and subsequent impingement/instability may be relevant for surgeons undertaking both hip joint preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:484–91.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 3 | Pages 325 - 331
1 Mar 2014
Dodds AL Halewood C Gupte CM Williams A Amis AA

There have been differing descriptions of the anterolateral structures of the knee, and not all have been named or described clearly. The aim of this study was to provide a clear anatomical interpretation of these structures. We dissected 40 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees to view the relevant anatomy and identified a consistent structure in 33 knees (83%); we termed this the anterolateral ligament of the knee. This structure passes antero-distally from an attachment proximal and posterior to the lateral femoral epicondyle to the margin of the lateral tibial plateau, approximately midway between Gerdy’s tubercle and the head of the fibula. The ligament is superficial to the lateral (fibular) collateral ligament proximally, from which it is distinct, and separate from the capsule of the knee. In the eight knees in which it was measured, we observed that the ligament was isometric from 0° to 60° of flexion of the knee, then slackened when the knee flexed further to 90° and was lengthened by imposing tibial internal rotation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:325–31.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1440 - 1448
1 Nov 2011
Dodds AL Gupte CM Neyret P Williams AM Amis AA

This annotation considers the place of extra-articular reconstruction in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Extra-articular reconstruction has been employed over the last century to address ACL deficiency. However, the technique has not gained favour, primarily due to residual instability and the subsequent development of degenerative changes in the lateral compartment of the knee. Thus intra-articular reconstruction has become the technique of choice. However, intra-articular reconstruction does not restore normal knee kinematics. Some authors have recommended extra-articular reconstruction in conjunction with an intra-articular technique.

The anatomy and biomechanics of the anterolateral structures of the knee remain largely undetermined. Further studies to establish the structure and function of the anterolateral structures may lead to more anatomical extra-articular reconstruction techniques that supplement intra-articular reconstruction. This might reduce residual pivot shift after an intra-articular reconstruction and thus improve the post-operative kinematics of the knee.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 237 - 244
1 Feb 2011
Berber O Amis AA Day AC

The purpose of this study was to assess the stability of a developmental pelvic reconstruction system which extends the concept of triangular osteosynthesis with fixation anterior to the lumbosacral pivot point. An unstable Tile type-C fracture, associated with a sacral transforaminal fracture, was created in synthetic pelves. The new concept was compared with three other constructs, including bilateral iliosacral screws, a tension band plate and a combined plate with screws. The pubic symphysis was plated in all cases. The pelvic ring was loaded to simulate single-stance posture in a cyclical manner until failure, defined as a displacement of 2 mm or 2°. The screws were the weakest construct, failing with a load of 50 N after 400 cycles, with maximal translation in the craniocaudal axis of 12 mm. A tension band plate resisted greater load but failure occurred at 100 N, with maximal rotational displacement around the mediolateral axis of 2.3°.

The combination of a plate and screws led to an improvement in stability at the 100 N load level, but rotational failure still occurred around the mediolateral axis. The pelvic reconstruction system was the most stable construct, with a maximal displacement of 2.1° of rotation around the mediolateral axis at a load of 500 N.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 7 | Pages 864 - 869
1 Jul 2008
Amis AA Oguz C Bull AMJ Senavongse W Dejour D

Objective patellar instability has been correlated with dysplasia of the femoral trochlea. This in vitro study tested the hypothesis that trochleoplasty would increase patellar stability and normalise the kinematics of a knee with a dysplastic trochlea. Six fresh-frozen knees were loaded via the heads of the quadriceps. The patella was displaced 10 mm laterally and the displacing force was measured from 0° to 90° of flexion. Patellar tracking was measured from 0° to 130° of knee flexion using magnetic sensors. These tests were repeated after raising the central anterior trochlea to simulate dysplasia, and repeated again after performing a trochleoplasty on each specimen. The simulated dysplasia significantly reduced stability from that of the normal knee (p < 0.001). Trochleoplasty significantly increased the stability (p < 0.001), so that it did not then differ significantly from the normal knee (p = 0.244). There were small but statistically significant changes in patellar tracking (p< 0.001).

This study has provided objective biomechanical data to support the use of trochleoplasty in the treatment of patellar instability associated with femoral trochlear dysplasia.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 4 | Pages 527 - 534
1 Apr 2008
Merican AM Amis AA

Anatomical descriptions of the lateral retinaculum have been published, but the attachments, name or even existence of its tissue bands and layers are ill-defined. We have examined 35 specimens of the knee. The deep fascia is the most superficial layer and the joint capsule is the deepest. The intermediate layer is the most substantial and consists of derivatives of the iliotibial band and the quadriceps aponeurosis. The longitudinal fibres of the iliotibial band merge with those of the quadriceps aponeurosis adjacent to the patella. These longitudinal fibres are reinforced by superficial arciform fibres and on the deep aspect by transverse fibres of the iliotibial band. The latter are dense and provide attachment of the iliotibial band to the patella and the tendon of vastus lateralis obliquus.

Our study identifies two important new findings which are a constant connection of the deep fascia to the quadriceps tendon superior and lateral to the patella, and, a connection of the deeper transverse fibres to the tendon of vastus lateralis obliquus.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1549 - 1556
1 Dec 2006
McDermott ID Amis AA

The menisci of the knee have an important role in load-bearing and shock absorption within the joint. They may also function as secondary stabilisers, have a proprioceptive role, and aid the lubrication and nutrition of the articular cartilage. Complete or partial loss of a meniscus can have damaging effects on a knee, leading to serious long-term sequelae.

This paper reviews the consequences of meniscectomy and summarises the body of evidence in the literature regarding those factors most relevant to long-term outcome.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 5 | Pages 593 - 603
1 May 2005
Harvey A Thomas NP Amis AA

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 4 | Pages 577 - 582
1 Apr 2005
Senavongse W Amis AA

Normal function of the patellofemoral joint is maintained by a complex interaction between soft tissues and articular surfaces. No quantitative data have been found on the relative contributions of these structures to patellar stability. Eight knees were studied using a materials testing machine to displace the patella 10 mm laterally and medially and measure the force required. Patellar stability was tested from 0° to 90° knee flexion with the quadriceps tensed to 175 N. Four conditions were examined: intact, vastus medialis obliquus relaxed, flat lateral condyle, and ruptured medial retinaculae. Abnormal trochlear geometry reduced the lateral stability by 70% at 30° flexion, while relaxation of vastus medialis obliquus caused a 30% reduction. Ruptured medial retinaculae had the largest effect at 0° flexion with 49% reduction. There was no effect on medial stability. There is a complex interaction between these structures, with their contributions to loss of lateral patellar stability varying with knee flexion.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 1 | Pages 36 - 40
1 Jan 2005
Mountney J Senavongse W Amis AA Thomas NP

The tensile strength of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), and of surgical procedures which reconstitute it, are unknown. Ten fresh cadaver knees were prepared by isolating the patella, leaving only the MPFL as its attachment to the medial femoral condyle. The MPFL was either repaired by using a Kessler suture or reconstructed using either bone anchors or one of two tendon grafting techniques. The tensile strength and the displacement to peak force of the MPFL were then measured using an Instron materials-testing machine.

The MPFL was found to have a mean tensile strength of 208 N (SD 90) at 26 mm (SD 7) of displacement. The strengths of the other techniques were: sutures alone, 37 N (SD 27); bone anchors plus sutures, 142 N (SD 39); blind-tunnel tendon graft, 126 N (SD 21); and through-tunnel tendon graft, 195 N (SD 66). The last was not significantly weaker than the MPFL itself.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 5 | Pages 674 - 681
1 Jul 2004
Robinson JR Sanchez-Ballester J Bull AMJ Thomas RDWM Amis AA

We have reviewed the literature on the anatomy of the posteromedial peripheral ligamentous structures of the knee and found differing descriptions. Our aim was to clarify the differing descriptions with a simplified interpretation of the anatomy and its contribution to the stability of the knee.

We dissected 20 fresh-frozen cadaver knees and the anatomy was recorded using video and still digital photography. The anatomy was described by dividing the medial collateral ligament (MCL) complex into thirds, from anterior to posterior and into superficial and deep layers. The main passive restraining structures of the posteromedial aspect of the knee were found to be superficial MCL (parallel, longitudinal fibres), the deep MCL and the posteromedial capsule (PMC). In the posterior third, the superficial and deep layers blend. Although there are oblique fibres (capsular condensations) running posterodistally from femur to tibia, no discrete ligament was seen. In extension, the PMC appears to be an important functional unit in restraining tibial internal rotation and valgus.

Our aim was to clarify and possibly simplify the anatomy of the posteromedial structures. The information would serve as the basis for future biomechanical studies to investigate the contribution of the posteromedial structures to joint stability.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 5 | Pages 765 - 773
1 Jul 2003
Gupte CM Bull AMJ Thomas RD Amis AA

We have tested the hypothesis that the meniscofemoral ligaments make a significant contribution to resisting anteroposterior and rotatory laxity of the posterior-cruciate-ligament-deficient knee. Eight cadaver human knees were tested for anteroposterior and rotatory laxity in a materials-testing machine. The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was then divided, followed by division of the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs). Laxity results were obtained for intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL-MFL-deficient knees.

Division of the MFLs in the PCL-deficient knee increased posterior laxity between 15° and 90° of flexion. Force-displacement measurements showed that the MFLs contributed 28% to the total force resisting posterior drawer at 90° of flexion in the intact knee, and 70.1% in the PCL-deficient knee. There was no effect on rotatory laxity.

This is the first study which shows a function for the MFLs as secondary restraints to posterior tibial translation. The integrity of these structures should be assessed during both imaging and arthroscopic studies of PCL-injured knees since this may affect the diagnosis and management of such injuries.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 4 | Pages 594 - 599
1 May 2003
Reilly P Amis AA Wallace AL Emery RJH

Differential strain has been proposed to be a causative factor in failure of the supraspinatus tendon. We quantified the strains on the joint and bursal sides of the supraspinatus tendon with increasing load (20 to 200 N) and during 120° of glenohumeral abduction with a constant tensile load (20 to 100 N).

We tested ten fresh frozen cadaver shoulders on a purpose-built rig. Differential variable reluctance extensometers allowed calculation of the strain.

Static loading to 100 N or more increased strains on the joint side significantly more than on the bursal side. During glenohumeral abduction an increasing and significant difference in strain was measured between the joint and bursal sides of the supraspinatus tendon, which reached a maximum of 10.6% at abduction of 120°. The joint side strain of 7.5% reached values which were previously reported to cause failure.

Differential strain causes shearing between the layers of the supraspinatus tendon, which may contribute to the propagation of intratendinous defects that are initiated by high joint side strains.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1075 - 1081
1 Sep 2002
Bull AMJ Earnshaw PH Smith A Katchburian MV Hassan ANA Amis AA

Our objectives were to establish the envelope of passive movement and to demonstrate the kinematic behaviour of the knee during standard clinical tests before and after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). An electromagnetic device was used to measure movement of the joint during surgery.

Reconstruction of the ACL significantly reduced the overall envelope of tibial rotation (10° to 90° flexion), moved this envelope into external rotation from 0° to 20° flexion, and reduced the anterior position of the tibial plateau (5° to 30° flexion) (p < 0.05 for all). During the pivot-shift test in early flexion there was progressive anterior tibial subluxation with internal rotation. These subluxations reversed suddenly around a mean position of 36 ± 9° of flexion of the knee and consisted of an external tibial rotation of 13 ± 8° combined with a posterior tibial translation of 12 ± 8 mm. This abnormal movement was abolished after reconstruction of the ACL.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 6 | Pages 846 - 851
1 Aug 2002
Gupte CM Smith A McDermott ID Bull AMJ Thomas RD Amis AA

The meniscofemoral ligaments were studied in 84 fresh-frozen knees from 49 cadavers. Combined anterior and posterior approaches were used to identify the ligaments. In total, 78 specimens (93%) contained at least one meniscofemoral ligament. The anterior meniscofemoral ligament (aMFL) was present in 62 specimens (74%), and the posterior meniscofemoral ligament (pMFL) in 58 (69%). The 42 specimens (50%) in which both ligaments were present were from a significantly younger population than that with one MFL or none (p < 0.05). Several anatomical variations were identified, including oblique fibres of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), which were seen in 16 specimens (19%). These were termed the ‘false pMFL’.

The high incidence of MFLs and their anatomical variations should be borne in mind during arthroscopic and radiological examination of the PCL. It is important to recognise the oblique fibres of the PCL on MRI in order to avoid wrongly identifying them as either a pMFL or a tear of the lateral meniscus. The increased incidence of MFLs in younger donors suggests that they degenerate with age.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 1 | Pages 155 - 155
1 Jan 2000
Amis AA

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 1 | Pages 173 - 179
1 Jan 1998
Race A Amis AA

We compared the ability of three different posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstructions to restore normal anteroposterior laxity to the knee from 0 to 130° of knee flexion.

Cadaver knees were tested intact, after PCL rupture or after bone-patellar tendon-bone grafting. Grafts were performed isometrically or with a single bundle representing the anatomical anterior PCL fibre bulk (aPC) or with a double bundle that added the posterior PCL fibre bulk (pPC). The grafts were tensioned to restore normal knee laxity at 60° of flexion, except for the pPC which was tensioned at 130°.

The isometric graft led to overconstraint as the knee extended resulting in high graft tension in extension and excess laxity in flexion. The aPC graft matched normal laxity from 0 to 60° of flexion but was lax from 90 to 130° of flexion. Only the double-bundled graft could restore normal knee laxity across the full range of flexion.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 3 | Pages 458 - 461
1 May 1997
Rossouw DJ McElroy BJ Amis AA Emery RJH

Repair of the rotator cuff requires secure reattachment, but large chronic defects cause osteoporosis of the greater tuberosity which may then have insufficient strength to allow proper fixation of the tendon. Recently, suture anchors have been introduced, but have not been fully evaluated.

We have investigated the strength of suture-to-anchor attachment, and the use of suture anchors in repairs of the rotator cuff either to the greater tuberosity or the lateral cortex of the humerus. The second method gave a significant increase in the strength of the repair (p = 0.014).

The repairs were loaded cyclically and failed at low loads by cutting into bone and tendon, casting doubt on the integrity of the repair in early mobilisation after surgery. Repairs with suture anchors did not perform better than those with conventional transosseous attachment.