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Volume 6, Issue 5 May 2017

A. McKirdy A. M. Imbuldeniya

Objectives

To assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a virtual fracture clinic (VFC) model, and supplement the literature regarding this service as recommended by The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA).

Methods

This was a retrospective study including all patients (17 116) referred to fracture clinics in a London District General Hospital from May 2013 to April 2016, using hospital-level data. We used interrupted time series analysis with segmented regression, and direct before-and-after comparison, to study the impact of VFCs introduced in December 2014 on six clinical parameters and on local Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) spend. Student’s t-tests were used for direct comparison, whilst segmented regression was employed for projection analysis.


J. D. Gosiewski T. P. Holsgrove H. S. Gill

Objectives

Fractures of the proximal femur are a common clinical problem, and a number of orthopaedic devices are available for the treatment of such fractures. The objective of this study was to assess the rotational stability, a common failure predictor, of three different rotational control design philosophies: a screw, a helical blade and a deployable crucifix.

Methods

Devices were compared in terms of the mechanical work (W) required to rotate the implant by 6° in a bone substitute material. The substitute material used was Sawbones polyurethane foam of three different densities (0.08 g/cm3, 0.16 g/cm3 and 0.24 g/cm3). Each torsion test comprised a steady ramp of 1°/minute up to an angular displacement of 10°.


M. Yoshikawa T. Nakasa M. Ishikawa N. Adachi M. Ochi

Objectives

Regenerative medicine is an emerging field aimed at the repair and regeneration of various tissues. To this end, cytokines (CKs), growth factors (GFs), and stem/progenitor cells have been applied in this field. However, obtaining and preparing these candidates requires invasive, costly, and time-consuming procedures. We hypothesised that skeletal muscle could be a favorable candidate tissue for the concept of a point-of-care approach. The purpose of this study was to characterize and confirm the biological potential of skeletal muscle supernatant for use in regenerative medicine.

Methods

Semitendinosus muscle was used after harvesting tendon from patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. A total of 500 milligrams of stripped muscle was minced and mixed with 1 mL of saline. The collected supernatant was analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry. The biological effects of the supernatant on cell proliferation, osteogenesis, and angiogenesis in vitro were evaluated using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).


H. Lin J. Zhou L. Cao H.R. Wang J. Dong Z.R. Chen

Objectives

The lack of effective treatment for cartilage defects has prompted investigations using tissue engineering techniques for their regeneration and repair. The success of tissue-engineered repair of cartilage may depend on the rapid and efficient adhesion of transplanted cells to a scaffold. Our aim in this study was to repair full-thickness defects in articular cartilage in the weight-bearing area of a porcine model, and to investigate whether the CD44 monoclonal antibody biotin-avidin (CBA) binding technique could provide satisfactory tissue-engineered cartilage.

Methods

Cartilage defects were created in the load-bearing region of the lateral femoral condyle of mini-type pigs. The defects were repaired with traditional tissue-engineered cartilage, tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with the biotin-avidin (BA) technique, tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with the CBA technique and with autologous cartilage. The biomechanical properties, Western blot assay, histological findings and immunohistochemical staining were explored.


E. Samara T. F. Moriarty L. A. Decosterd R. G. Richards E. Gautier P. Wahl

Objectives

Thermal stability is a key property in determining the suitability of an antibiotic agent for local application in the treatment of orthopaedic infections. Despite the fact that long-term therapy is a stated goal of novel local delivery carriers, data describing thermal stability over a long period are scarce, and studies that avoid interference from specific carrier materials are absent from the orthopaedic literature.

Methods

In this study, a total of 38 frequently used antibiotic agents were maintained at 37°C in saline solution, and degradation and antibacterial activity assessed over six weeks. The impact of an initial supplementary heat exposure mimicking exothermically curing bone cement was also tested as this material is commonly used as a local delivery vehicle. Antibiotic degradation was assessed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, or by immunoassays, as appropriate. Antibacterial activity over time was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay.


J. S. Rendon M. Swinton N. Bernthal M. Boffano T. Damron N. Evaniew P. Ferguson M. Galli Serra W. Hettwer P. McKay B. Miller L. Nystrom W. Parizzia P. Schneider A. Spiguel R. Vélez K. Weiss J. P. Zumárraga M. Ghert

Objectives

As tumours of bone and soft tissue are rare, multicentre prospective collaboration is essential for meaningful research and evidence-based advances in patient care. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators encountered in large-scale collaborative research by orthopaedic oncological surgeons involved or interested in prospective multicentre collaboration.

Methods

All surgeons who were involved, or had expressed an interest, in the ongoing Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumour Surgery (PARITY) trial were invited to participate in a focus group to discuss their experiences with collaborative research in this area. The discussion was digitally recorded, transcribed and anonymised. The transcript was analysed qualitatively, using an analytic approach which aims to organise the data in the language of the participants with little theoretical interpretation.


M. Martinez-Perez C. Perez-Jorge D. Lozano S. Portal-Nuñez R. Perez-Tanoira A. Conde M. A. Arenas J. M. Hernandez-Lopez J. J. de Damborenea E. Gomez-Barrena P. Esbrit J. Esteban

Objectives

Implant-related infection is one of the most devastating complications in orthopaedic surgery. Many surface and/or material modifications have been developed in order to minimise this problem; however, most of the in vitro studies did not evaluate bacterial adhesion in the presence of eukaryotic cells, as stated by the ‘race for the surface’ theory. Moreover, the adherence of numerous clinical strains with different initial concentrations has not been studied.

Methods

We describe a method for the study of bacterial adherence in the presence of preosteoblastic cells. For this purpose we mixed different concentrations of bacterial cells from collection and clinical strains of staphylococci isolated from implant-related infections with preosteoblastic cells, and analysed the minimal concentration of bacteria able to colonise the surface of the material with image analysis.


B. G. Pijls I. M. J. G. Sanders E. J. Kuijper R. G. H. H. Nelissen

Objectives

Infection of implants is a major problem in elective and trauma surgery. Heating is an effective way to reduce the bacterial load in food preparation, and studies on hyperthermia treatment for cancer have shown that it is possible to heat metal objects with pulsed electromagnetic fields selectively (PEMF), also known as induction heating. We therefore set out to answer the following research question: is non-contact induction heating of metallic implants effective in reducing bacterial load in vitro?

Methods

Titanium alloy cylinders (Ti6Al4V) were exposed to PEMF from an induction heater with maximum 2000 watts at 27 kHz after being contaminated with five different types of micro-organisms: Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; spore-forming Bacillus cereus; and yeast Candida albicans. The cylinders were exposed to incremental target temperatures (35°C, 45°C, 50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 65°C, 70°C) for up to 3.5 minutes.


R. Yamauchi T. Itabashi K. Wada T. Tanaka G. Kumagai Y. Ishibashi

Objectives

Ultraviolet (UV) light-mediated photofunctionalisation is known to improve osseointegration of pure titanium (Ti). However, histological examination of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), which is frequently applied in orthopaedic and dental surgery, has not yet been performed. This study examined the osseointegration of photofunctionalised Ti6Al4V implants.

Methods

Ti and Ti6Al4V implants were treated with UV light, and the chemical composition and contact angle on the surfaces were evaluated to confirm photofunctionalisation. The implants were inserted into femurs in rats, and the rats were killed two or four weeks after the surgery. For histomorphometric analysis, both the bone–implant contact (BIC) ratio and the bone volume (BV) ratio were calculated from histological analysis and microcomputed tomography data.


J. Kim J. Y. Hwang J. K. Oh M. S. Park S. W. Kim H. Chang T-H. Kim

Objectives

The objective of this study was to assess the association between whole body sagittal balance and risk of falls in elderly patients who have sought treatment for back pain. Balanced spinal sagittal alignment is known to be important for the prevention of falls. However, spinal sagittal imbalance can be markedly compensated by the lower extremities, and whole body sagittal balance including the lower extremities should be assessed to evaluate actual imbalances related to falls.

Methods

Patients over 70 years old who visited an outpatient clinic for back pain treatment and underwent a standing whole-body radiograph were enrolled. Falls were prospectively assessed for 12 months using a monthly fall diary, and patients were divided into fallers and non-fallers according to the history of falls. Radiological parameters from whole-body radiographs and clinical data were compared between the two groups.


A. Di Laura H. Hothi J. Henckel I. Swiatkowska M. H. L. Liow Y-M. Kwon J. A. Skinner A. J. Hart

Objectives

The use of ceramic femoral heads in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has increased due to their proven low bearing wear characteristics. Ceramic femoral heads are also thought to reduce wear and corrosion at the head-stem junction with titanium (Ti) stems when compared with metal heads. We sought to evaluate taper damage of ceramic compared with metal heads when paired with cobalt chromium (CoCr) alloy stems in a single stem design.

Methods

This retrieval study involved 48 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with CoCr V40 trunnions paired with either CoCr (n = 21) or ceramic (n = 27) heads. The taper junction of all hips was evaluated for fretting/corrosion damage and volumetric material loss using a roundness-measuring machine. We used linear regression analysis to investigate taper damage differences after adjusting for potential confounding variables.


E. Takahashi A. Kaneuji R. Tsuda Y. Numata T. Ichiseki K. Fukui N. Kawahara

Objectives

Favourable results for collarless polished tapered stems have been reported, and cement creep due to taper slip may be a contributing factor. However, the ideal cement thickness around polished stems remains unknown. We investigated the influence of cement thickness on stem subsidence and cement creep.

Methods

We cemented six collarless polished tapered (CPT) stems (two stems each of small, medium and large sizes) into composite femurs that had been reamed with a large CPT rasp to achieve various thicknesses of the cement mantle. Two or three tantalum balls were implanted in the proximal cement in each femur. A cyclic loading test was then performed for each stem. The migration of the balls was measured three-dimensionally, using a micro-computed tomography (CT) scanner, before and after loading. A digital displacement gauge was positioned at the stem shoulder, and stem subsidence was measured continuously by the gauge. Final stem subsidence was measured at the balls at the end of each stem.