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Volume 12, Issue 7 July 2023

Arthritis
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Xianchun Ruan Jinning Gu Mingyang Chen Fulin Zhao Munire Aili Demao Zhang

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive cartilage degradation, synovial membrane inflammation, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone sclerosis. Pathological changes in cartilage and subchondral bone are the main processes in OA. In recent decades, many studies have demonstrated that activin-like kinase 3 (ALK3), a bone morphogenetic protein receptor, is essential for cartilage formation, osteogenesis, and postnatal skeletal development. Although the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling in articular cartilage and bone has been extensively studied, many new discoveries have been made in recent years around ALK3 targets in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and the interaction between the two, broadening the original knowledge of the relationship between ALK3 and OA. In this review, we focus on the roles of ALK3 in OA, including cartilage and subchondral bone and related cells. It may be helpful to seek more efficient drugs or treatments for OA based on ALK3 signalling in future.


Jamie Ferguson Jonathan Bourget-Murray Andrew J. Hotchen David Stubbs Martin McNally

Aims

Dead-space management, following dead bone resection, is an important element of successful chronic osteomyelitis treatment. This study compared two different biodegradable antibiotic carriers used for dead-space management, and reviewed clinical and radiological outcomes. All cases underwent single-stage surgery and had a minimum one-year follow-up.

Methods

A total of 179 patients received preformed calcium sulphate pellets containing 4% tobramycin (Group OT), and 180 patients had an injectable calcium sulphate/nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite ceramic containing gentamicin (Group CG). Outcome measures were infection recurrence, wound leakage, and subsequent fracture involving the treated segment. Bone-void filling was assessed radiologically at a minimum of six months post-surgery.


Haibin Xie Ning Wang Hongyi He Zidan Yang Jing Wu Tuo Yang Yilun Wang

Aims

Previous studies have suggested that selenium as a trace element is involved in bone health, but findings related to the specific effect of selenium on bone health remain inconclusive. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis by including all the relevant studies to elucidate the association between selenium status (dietary intake or serum selenium) and bone health indicators (bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis (OP), or fracture).

Methods

PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched to retrieve relevant articles published before 15 November 2022. Studies focusing on the correlation between selenium and BMD, OP, or fracture were included. Effect sizes included regression coefficient (β), weighted mean difference (WMD), and odds ratio (OR). According to heterogeneity, the fixed-effect or random-effect model was used to assess the association between selenium and bone health.


Li Guo Hua Guo Yuanyu Zhang Zhi Chen Jian Sun Gaige Wu Yunfei Wang Yang Zhang Xiaochun Wei Pengcui Li

Aims

To explore the novel molecular mechanisms of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in chondrocytes via RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis.

Methods

Empty adenovirus (EP) and a HDAC4 overexpression adenovirus were transfected into cultured human chondrocytes. The cell survival rate was examined by real-time cell analysis (RTCA) and EdU and flow cytometry assays. Cell biofunction was detected by Western blotting. The expression profiles of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the EP and HDAC4 transfection groups were assessed using whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). Volcano plot, Gene Ontology, and pathway analyses were performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). For verification of the results, the A289E/S246/467/632 A sites of HDAC4 were mutated to enhance the function of HDAC4 by increasing HDAC4 expression in the nucleus. RNA-seq was performed to identify the molecular mechanism of HDAC4 in chondrocytes. Finally, the top ten DEGs associated with ribosomes were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) in chondrocytes, and the top gene was verified both in vitro and in vivo.


Other
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Anthony B. Lisacek-Kiosoglous Amber S. Powling Andreas Fontalis Ayman Gabr Evangelos Mazomenos Fares S. Haddad

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly growing across many domains, of which the medical field is no exception. AI is an umbrella term defining the practical application of algorithms to generate useful output, without the need of human cognition. Owing to the expanding volume of patient information collected, known as ‘big data’, AI is showing promise as a useful tool in healthcare research and across all aspects of patient care pathways. Practical applications in orthopaedic surgery include: diagnostics, such as fracture recognition and tumour detection; predictive models of clinical and patient-reported outcome measures, such as calculating mortality rates and length of hospital stay; and real-time rehabilitation monitoring and surgical training. However, clinicians should remain cognizant of AI’s limitations, as the development of robust reporting and validation frameworks is of paramount importance to prevent avoidable errors and biases. The aim of this review article is to provide a comprehensive understanding of AI and its subfields, as well as to delineate its existing clinical applications in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. Furthermore, this narrative review expands upon the limitations of AI and future direction.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2023;12(7):447–454.