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Volume 10, Issue 6 June 2021

Mark R. J. Jenkinson R. M. Dominic Meek Rothwell Tate Sandy MacMillan M. Helen Grant Susan Currie

Elevated levels of circulating cobalt ions have been linked with a wide range of systemic complications including neurological, endocrine, and cardiovascular symptoms. Case reports of patients with elevated blood cobalt ions have described significant cardiovascular complications including cardiomyopathy. However, correlation between the actual level of circulating cobalt and extent of cardiovascular injury has not previously been performed. This review examines evidence from the literature for a link between elevated blood cobalt levels secondary to metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties and cardiomyopathy. Correlation between low, moderate, and high blood cobalt with cardiovascular complications has been considered. Elevated blood cobalt at levels over 250 µg/l have been shown to be a risk factor for developing systemic complications and published case reports document cardiomyopathy, cardiac transplantation, and death in patients with severely elevated blood cobalt ions. However, it is not clear that there is a hard cut-off value and cardiac dysfunction may occur at lower levels. Clinical and laboratory research has found conflicting evidence of cobalt-induced cardiomyopathy in patients with MoM hips. Further work needs to be done to clarify the link between severely elevated blood cobalt ions and cardiomyopathy.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(6):340–347.

Metal ion toxicity Pages 348 - 350
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John A. Skinner Shiraz A. Sabah Alister J. Hart

Fracture-related infection Pages 351 - 353
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Susanne Baertl Willem-Jan Metsemakers Mario Morgenstern Volker Alt Robert Geoff Richards Thomas Fintan Moriarty Katie Young

Yue Luo Xin Zhao Zhouyuan Yang Releken Yeersheng Pengde Kang


The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of carbazochrome sodium sulfonate (CSS) combined with tranexamic acid (TXA) on blood loss and inflammatory responses after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), and to investigate the influence of different administration methods of CSS on perioperative blood loss during THA.


This study is a randomized controlled trial involving 200 patients undergoing primary unilateral THA. A total of 200 patients treated with intravenous TXA were randomly assigned to group A (combined intravenous and topical CSS), group B (topical CSS), group C (intravenous CSS), or group D (placebo).

David R. W. MacDonald David W. Neilly Kirsten E. Elliott Alan J. Johnstone


Tourniquets have potential adverse effects including postoperative thigh pain, likely caused by their ischaemic and possible compressive effects. The aims of this preliminary study were to determine if it is possible to directly measure intramuscular pH in human subjects over time, and to measure the intramuscular pH changes resulting from tourniquet ischaemia in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy.


For patients undergoing short knee arthroscopic procedures, a sterile calibrated pH probe was inserted into the anterior fascial compartment of the leg after skin preparation, but before tourniquet inflation. The limb was elevated for three minutes prior to tourniquet inflation to 250 mmHg or 300 mmHg. Intramuscular pH was recorded at one-second intervals throughout the procedure and for 20 minutes following tourniquet deflation. Probe-related adverse events were recorded.