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Volume 93-B, Issue 6 June 2011

Upper Limb
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A. D. Duckworth D. Ring M. M. McQueen

A suspected fracture of the scaphoid remains difficult to manage despite advances in knowledge and imaging methods. Immobilisation and restriction of activities in a young and active patient must be balanced against the risks of nonunion associated with an undiagnosed and undertreated fracture of the scaphoid.

The assessment of diagnostic tests for a suspected fracture of the scaphoid must take into account two important factors. First, the prevalence of true fractures among suspected fractures is low, which greatly reduces the probability that a positive test will correspond with a true fracture, as false positives are nearly as common as true positives. This situation is accounted for by Bayesian statistics. Secondly, there is no agreed reference standard for a true fracture, which necessitates the need for an alternative method of calculating diagnostic performance characteristics, based upon a statistical method which identifies clinical factors tending to associate (latent classes) in patients with a high probability of fracture.

The most successful diagnostic test to date is MRI, but in low-prevalence situations the positive predictive value of MRI is only 88%, and new data have documented the potential for false positive scans. The best strategy for improving the diagnosis of true fractures among suspected fractures of the scaphoid may well be to develop a clinical prediction rule incorporating a set of demographic and clinical factors which together increase the pre-test probability of a fracture of the scaphoid, in addition to developing increasingly sophisticated radiological tests.

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A. Rangan N. Maffulli

Multicentre clinical trials in trauma care are gaining prominence as a means of generating good-quality evidence to inform and influence clinical practice. We believe multicentre trials have an important role to play in supporting evidence-based practice, and further investment in such trials is justified.

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R. Buckley R. Leighton K. Trask

The Canadian Orthopaedic Trauma Society was started in an endeavour to answer the difficult problem of obtaining enough patients to perform top-quality research into fractures. By maintaining a high standard, including randomised study design, inclusivity, open discussion among surgeons and excellent long-term follow-up, this group has become a leader in the orthopaedic research community. This annotation describes the short history, important components and spirit necessary to build a research community or team which will function well despite the difficult research environment facing individual surgeons.

H. Ito H. Tanino Y. Yamanaka T. Nakamura A. Minami T. Matsuno

We report the mid- to long-term (mean 20.3 years, 10 to 32.5) results of the Chiari pelvic osteotomy in patients with pre- to advanced stage osteoarthritis in dysplastic hips. We followed 163 Japanese patients (173 hips) with a mean age at surgery of 20 years (9 to 54). Overall, 124 hips (72%) had satisfactory results, with Harris hip scores ≥ 80. Satisfactory results were seen in 105 of 134 hips with pre- or early osteoarthritis (78%) and 19 of 39 hips with advanced osteoarthritis (49%). A total of 15 hips (9%) underwent a total hip replacement (THR) with a mean interval between osteotomy and THR of 16.4 years. With conversion to THR as the endpoint, the 30-year survival rate was 85.9% (95% confidence interval 82.3 to 89.5). It was 91.8% for patients with pre- or early osteoarthritis and 43.6% for those with advanced osteoarthritis (p < 0.001).

We now perform the Chiari osteotomy for patients with dysplastic hips showing poor joint congruency and who prefer a joint-conserving procedure to THR.

K.-I. Kim Y.-J. Cho A. A. Ramteke M.-C. Yoo

Reconstructive acetabular osteotomy is a well established and effective procedure in the treatment of acetabular dysplasia. However, the dysplasia is frequently accompanied by intra-articular pathology such as labral tears. We intended to determine whether a concomitant hip arthroscopy with peri-acetabular rotational osteotomy could identify and treat intra-articular pathology associated with dysplasia and thereby produce a favourable outcome. We prospectively evaluated 43 consecutive hips treated by combined arthroscopy and acetabular osteotomy. Intra-operative arthroscopic examination revealed labral lesions in 38 hips. At a mean follow-up of 74 months (60 to 97) the mean Harris hip score improved from 72.4 to 94.0 (p < 0.001), as did all the radiological parameters (p < 0.001). Complications included penetration of the joint by the osteotome in one patient, a fracture of the posterior column in another and deep-vein thrombosis in one further patient. This combined surgical treatment gave good results in the medium term.

We suggest that arthroscopy of the hip can be performed in conjunction with peri-acetabular osteotomy to provide good results in patients with symptomatic dysplasia of the hip, and the arthroscopic treatment of intra-articular pathology may alter the progression of osteoarthritis.

K. Davda F. V. Lali B. Sampson J. A. Skinner A. J. Hart

We retrospectively analysed concentrations of chromium and cobalt ions in samples of synovial fluid and whole blood taken from a group of 92 patients with failed current-generation metal-on-metal hip replacements. We applied acid oxidative digestion to our trace metal analysis protocol, which found significantly higher levels of metal ion concentrations in blood and synovial fluid than a non-digestive method. Patients were subcategorised by mode of failure as either ‘unexplained pain’ or ‘defined causes’. Using this classification, chromium and cobalt ion levels were present over a wider range in synovial fluid and not as strongly correlated with blood ion levels as previously reported. There was no significant difference between metal ion concentrations and manufacturer of the implant, nor femoral head size below or above 50 mm. There was a moderately positive correlation between metal ion levels and acetabular component inclination angle as measured on three-dimensional CT imaging.

Our results suggest that acid digestion of samples of synovial fluid samples is necessary to determine metal ion concentrations accurately so that meaningful comparisons can be made between studies.

V. Zampelis E. Ornstein H. Franzén I. Atroshi

Previously, radiostereometric analysis following hip revision performed using impacted morsellised allograft bone and a cemented Exeter stem has shown continuous subsidence of the stem for up to five years. It is not known whether the subsidence continues thereafter. In our study, 17 of 25 consecutive osteo-arthritic patients with aseptically loose stems who underwent first-time revision using impacted morsellised allograft bone and a cemented Exeter stem were followed by yearly radiostereometric examinations for nine years. The mean subsidence at six weeks was 1.1 mm (0.1 to 2.3), from six weeks to one year 1.3 mm (0 to 2.6), from one to five years 0.7 mm (0 to 2.0), and from five to nine years 0.7 mm (0.1 to 3.1). That from six weeks to nine years was 2.7 mm (0 to 6.4) (95% confidence interval 2.0 to 3.5). The Charnley pain score significantly improved after revision, and was maintained at nine years, but walking ability deteriorated slightly as follow-up extended. Of the eight patients who were not followed for nine years, two had early subsidence exceeding 11 mm.

Our findings show that in osteo-arthritic patients who undergo revision for aseptic loosening of the stem using impacted morsellised allograft bone and a cemented Exeter stem, migration of the stem continues over nine years at a slower rate after the first year, but without clinical deterioration or radiological loosening.

R. Choa R. Gundle P. Critchley H. Giele

Deep prosthetic joint infection remains an uncommon but serious complication of total hip replacement. We reviewed 24 patients with recalcitrant hip wounds following infected total hip replacement treated with either pedicled rectus femoris or vastus lateralis muscle flaps between 1998 and 2009. The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years (42 to 86) with ten men and 14 women.

There had been a mean of four (1 to 8) previous attempts to close the wound. A total of 20 rectus femoris and five vastus lateralis flaps were used, with one of each type of flap failing and requiring further reconstruction. All patients had positive microbiology. At a mean follow-up of 47 months (9 to 128), 22 patients had a healed wound and two had a persistent sinus. The prosthesis had been retained in five patients. In the remainder it had been removed, and subsequently re-implanted in nine patients. Six patients continued to take antibiotics at final follow-up.

This series demonstrates the effectiveness of pedicled muscle flaps in healing these infected wounds. The high number of previous debridements suggests that these flaps could have been used earlier.

S. A. Brennan D. Brabazon J. M. O’Byrne

We developed a method of applying vibration to the impaction bone grafting process and assessed its effect on the mechanical properties of the impacted graft. Washed morsellised bovine femoral heads were impacted into shear test rings. A range of frequencies of vibration was tested, as measured using an accelerometer housed in a vibration chamber. Each shear test was repeated at four different normal loads to generate stress-strain curves. The Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope from which shear strength and interlocking values are derived was plotted for each test. The experiments were repeated with the addition of blood in order to replicate a saturated environment.

Graft impacted with the addition of vibration at all frequencies showed improved shear strength when compared with impaction without vibration, with 60 Hz giving the largest effect. Under saturated conditions the addition of vibration was detrimental to the shear strength of the aggregate. The civil-engineering principles of particulate settlement and interlocking also apply to impaction bone grafting. Although previous studies have shown that vibration may be beneficial in impaction bone grafting on the femoral side, our study suggests that the same is not true in acetabular revision.

R. H. M. ten Broeke A. Alves A. Baumann J. J. C. Arts R. G. T. Geesink

Four uncemented Symax hip stems were extracted at three weeks and nine, 13 and 32 months, respectively, for reasons other than loosening. The reasons for implant removal were infection in two cases, recurrent dislocation in one and acetabular fracture in one. They were analysed to assess the effect and behaviour of an electrochemically deposited, completely resorbable biomimetic BONIT-hydroxyapatite (HA) coating (proximal part) and a DOTIZE surface treatment (distal part) using qualitative histology, quantitative histomorphometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Early and direct bone-implant bonding with signs of active remodelling of bone and the HA coating were demonstrated by histology and SEM. No loose BONIT-HA particles or delamination of the coating were observed, and there was no inflammation or fibrous interposition at the interface.

Histomorphometry showed bone-implant contact varying between 26.5% at three weeks and 83.5% at 13 months at the HA-coated implant surface. The bone density in the area of investigation was between 24.6% at three weeks and 41.1% at 32 months. The DOTIZE surface treatment of the distal part of the stem completely prevented tissue and bone apposition in all cases, thereby optimising proximal stress transfer.

The overall features of this implant, in terms of geometry and surface texture, suggest a mechanically stable design with a highly active biomimetic coating, resulting in rapid and extensive osseo-integration, exclusively in the metaphyseal part of the stem. Early remodelling of the HA coating does not seem to have a detrimental effect on short-term bone-implant coupling. There were no adverse effects identified from either the BONIT-HA coating or the DOTIZE surface treatment.

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T. Hogervorst H. Bouma S. F. de Boer J. de Vos

We examined the morphology of mammalian hips asking whether evolution can explain the morphology of impingement in human hips. We describe two stereotypical mammalian hips, coxa recta and coxa rotunda. Coxa recta is characterised by a straight or aspherical section on the femoral head or head-neck junction. It is a sturdy hip seen mostly in runners and jumpers. Coxa rotunda has a round femoral head with ample head-neck offset, and is seen mostly in climbers and swimmers.

Hominid evolution offers an explanation for the variants in hip morphology associated with impingement. The evolutionary conflict between upright gait and the birth of a large-brained fetus is expressed in the female pelvis and hip, and can explain pincer impingement in a coxa profunda. In the male hip, evolution can explain cam impingement in coxa recta as an adaptation for running.

S. Kalra T. O. Smith B. Berko N. P. Walton

The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement gives good results in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the medial compartment. Previous studies have suggested that the presence of radiolucent lines (RLLs) does not reflect a poor outcome in such patients. However, the reliability and validity of this assessment have not been determined. Our aim was to assess the intra- and interobserver reliability and the sensitivity and specificity of the assessment of RLLs around both tibial and femoral components using standard radiographs.

Two reviewers assessed the radiographs of 45 patients who had loosening of the tibial or femoral component confirmed at revision surgery and compared them with those of a series of 45 asymptomatic patients matched for age and gender.

The results suggested that, using standard radiographs, tibial RLLs were 63.6% sensitive and 94.4% specific and femoral RLLs 63.9% sensitive and 72.7% specific for loosening. Overall intra- and interobserver reliability was highly variable, but zonal analysis showed that lucency at the tip of the femoral peg was significantly associated with loosening of the femoral component.

Fluoroscopically guided radiographs may improve the zonal reliability of the assessment of RLLs, but further independent and comparative studies are required. In the meantime, the innocence of the physiological RLLs detected by standard radiographs should be viewed with caution.

X.-T. Sun T. R. Easwar S. Manesh J.-H. Ryu S.-H. Song S.-J. Kim H.-R. Song

We compared the complications and outcome of tibial lengthening using the Ilizarov method with and without the use of a supplementary intramedullary nail. In a retrospective case-matched series assembled from 176 patients with tibial lengthening, we matched 52 patients (26 pairs, group A with nail and group B without) according to the following criteria in order of importance: 1) difference in amount of lengthening (± 2 cm); 2) percentage difference in lengthening (± 5%); 3) difference in patient’s age (± seven years); 4) aetiology of the shortening, and 5) level of difficulty in obtaining the correction. The outcome was evaluated using the external fixator index, the healing index and an outcome score according to the criteria of Paley. It was found that some complications were specific to group A or B respectively, but others were common to both groups.

The outcome was generally better in lengthenings with a nail, although there was a higher incidence of rectifiable equinus deformity in these patients.

F. M. Schiedel S. Pip S. Wacker J. Pöpping H. Tretow B. Leidinger R. Rödl

We report the results of intramedullary leg lengthening conducted between 2002 and 2009 using the Intramedullary Skeletal Kinetic Distractor in 69 unilateral lengthenings involving 58 femora and 11 tibiae. We identified difficulties that occurred during the treatment and assessed whether they were specifically due to the implant or independent of it. Paley’s classification for evaluating problems, obstacles and complications with external fixators was adopted, and implant-specific difficulties were continuously noted. There were seven failures requiring premature removal of the device, in four due to nail breakage and three for other reasons, and five unsuccessful outcomes after completion of the lengthening. In all, 116 difficulties were noted in 45 patients, with only 24 having problem-free courses. In addition to the difficulties arising from the use of external fixators, there were almost the same number again of implant-specific difficulties.

Nevertheless, successful femoral lengthening was achieved in 52 of the 58 patients (90%). However, successful tibial lengthening was only achieved in five of 11 patients (45%).

N. Yalçin A. Öztürk Y. Özkan N. Çelimli E. Özocak A. Erdogan N. Sahin S. Ilgezdi

We studied the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and zoledronic acid (ZA) on posterior lumbar fusion using a validated animal model. A total of 40 New Zealand white rabbits underwent posterior lumbar fusion at L5–6 with autogenous iliac bone grafting. They were divided randomly into four groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, HBO (2.4 atm for two hours daily); group 3, local ZA (20 μg of ZA mixed with bone graft); and group 4, combined HBO and local ZA. All the animals were killed six weeks after surgery and the fusion segments were subjected to radiological analysis, manual palpation, biomechanical testing and histological examination.

Five rabbits died within two weeks of operation. Thus, 35 rabbits (eight in group 1 and nine in groups 2, 3 and 4) completed the study. The rates of fusion in groups 3 and 4 (p = 0.015) were higher than in group 1 (p < 0.001) in terms of radiological analysis and in group 4 was higher than in group 1 with regard to manual palpation (p = 0.015). We found a statistically significant difference in the biomechanical analysis between groups 1 and 4 (p = 0.024). Histological examination also showed a statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 4 (p = 0.036).

Our results suggest that local ZA combined with HBO may improve the success rate in posterior lumbar spinal fusion.

C. Quah C. Boulton C. Moran

This is the first study to use the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2007, the Government’s official measure of multiple deprivation, to analyse the effect of socioeconomic status on the incidence of fractures of the hip and their outcome and mortality. Our sample consisted of all patients admitted to hospital with a fracture of the hip (n = 7511) in Nottingham between 1999 and 2009.

The incidence was 1.3 times higher (p = 0.038) in the most deprived populations than in the least deprived; the most deprived suffered a fracture, on average, 1.1 years earlier (82.0 years versus 83.1 years, p < 0.001). The mortality rate proved to be significantly higher in the most deprived population (log-rank test, p = 0.033), who also had a higher number of comorbidities (p = 0.001).

This study has shown an increase in the incidence of fracture of the hip in the most deprived population, but no association between socioeconomic status and mortality at 30 days. Preventative programmes aimed at reducing the risk of hip fracture should be targeted towards the more deprived if they are to make a substantial impact.

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N. D. Clement S. A. Aitken A. D. Duckworth M. M. McQueen C. M. Court-Brown

We compared case-mix and outcome variables in 1310 patients who sustained an acute fracture at the age of 80 years or over. A group of 318 very elderly patients (≥ 90 years) was compared with a group of 992 elderly patients (80 to 89 years), all of whom presented to a single trauma unit between July 2007 and June 2008. The very elderly group represented only 0.6% of the overall population, but accounted for 4.1% of all fractures and 9.3% of all orthopaedic trauma admissions. Patients in this group were more likely to require hospital admission (odds ratio 1.4), less likely to return to independent living (odds ratio 3.1), and to have a significantly longer hospital stay (ten days, p = 0.01).

The 30- and 120-day unadjusted mortality was greater in the very elderly group. The 120-day mortality associated with non-hip fractures of the lower limb was equal to that of proximal femoral fractures, and was significantly increased with a delay to surgery > 48 hours for both age groups (p = 0.04). This suggests that the principle of early surgery and mobilisation of elderly patients with hip fractures should be extended to include all those in this vulnerable age group.

A. D. Duckworth S. J. Bennet J. Aderinto J. F. Keating

The aim of this study was to determine the comorbid risk factors for failure in young patients who undergo fixation of a displaced fracture of the femoral neck. We identified from a prospective database all such patients ≤ 60 years of age treated with reduction and internal fixation. The main outcome measures were union, failure of fixation, nonunion and the development of avascular necrosis.

There were 122 patients in the study. Union occurred in 83 patients (68%) at a mean follow-up of 58 months (18 to 155). Complications occurred in 39 patients (32%) at a mean of 11 months (0.5 to 39). The rate of nonunion was 7.4% (n = 9) and of avascular necrosis was 11.5% (n = 14). Failures were more common in patients over 40 years of age (p = 0.03). Univariate analysis identified that delay in time to fixation (> 24 hours), alcohol excess and pre-existing renal, liver or respiratory disease were all predictive of failure (all p < 0.05). Of these, alcohol excess, renal disease and respiratory disease were most predictive of failure on multivariate analysis.

Younger patients with fractures of the femoral neck should be carefully evaluated for comorbidities that increase the risk of failure after reduction and fixation. In patients with a history of alcohol abuse, renal or respiratory disease, arthroplasty should be considered as an alternative treatment.

L. B. Solomon S. A. Callary A. W. Stevenson M. A. McGee M. J. Chehade D. W. Howie

We investigated the stability of seven Schatzker type II fractures of the lateral tibial plateau treated by subchondral screws and a buttress plate followed by immediate partial weight-bearing. In order to assess the stability of the fracture, weight-bearing inducible displacements of the fracture fragments and their migration over a one-year period were measured by differentially loaded radiostereometric analysis and standard radiostereometric analysis, respectively. The mean inducible craniocaudal fracture fragment displacements measured −0.30 mm (−0.73 to 0.02) at two weeks and 0.00 mm (−0.12 to 0.15) at 52 weeks. All inducible displacements were elastic in nature under all loads at each examination during follow-up. At one year, the mean craniocaudal migration of the fracture fragments was −0.34 mm (−1.64 to 1.51).

Using radiostereometric methods, this case series has shown that in the Schatzker type II fractures investigated, internal fixation with subchondral screws and a buttress plate provided adequate stability to allow immediate post-operative partial weight-bearing, without harmful consequences.

S. Wanner M. Gstöttner R. Meirer J. Hausdorfer M. Fille B. Stöckl

Biofilm-associated infections in wounds or on implants are difficult to treat. Eradication of the bacteria is nearly always impossible, despite the use of specific antibiotics. The bactericidal effects of high-energy extracorporeal shock waves on Staphylococcus aureus have been reported, but the effect of low-energy shock waves on staphylococci and staphylococcal biofilms has not been investigated. In this study, biofilms grown on stainless steel washers were examined by electron microscopy. We tested ten experimental groups with Staph. aureus-coated washers and eight groups with Staph. epidermidis.

The biofilm-cultured washers were exposed to low-energy shock waves at 0.16 mJ/mm2 for 500 impulses. The washers were then treated with cefuroxime, rifampicin and fosfomycin, both alone and in combination. All tests were carried out in triplicate. Viable cells were counted to determine the bactericidal effect.

The control groups of Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis revealed a cell count of 6 × 108 colony-forming units/ml. Complete eradication was achieved using the combination of antibiotic therapy (single antibiotic in Staph. aureus, a combination in Staph. epidermidis) and shock wave application (p < 0.01).

We conclude that shock waves combined with antibiotics could be tested in an in vitro model of infection.

General Orthopaedics
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S. Patwardhan A. K. Shyam P. Sancheti P. Arora T. Nagda P. Naik

Adult presentation of neglected congenital muscular torticollis is rare. We report 12 patients with this condition who underwent a modified Ferkel’s release comprising a bipolar release of sternocleidomastoid with Z-lengthening. They had a mean age of 24 years (17 to 31) and were followed up for a minimum of two years. Post-operatively a cervical collar was applied for three weeks with intermittent supervised active assisted exercises for six weeks. Outcome was assessed using a modified Lee score and a Cheng and Tang score. The mean pre-operative rotational deficit was 8.25° (0° to 15°) and mean lateral flexion deficit was 20.42° (15° to 30°), which improved after treatment to a mean of 1.67° (0° to 5°) and 7.0° (4° to 14°) after treatment, respectively. According to the modified Lee scoring system, six patients had excellent results, two had good results and four had fair results, and using the Cheng and Tang score, eight patients had excellent results and four had good results.

Surgical management of adult patients with neglected congenital muscular torticollis using a modified Ferkel’s bipolar release gives excellent results. The range of neck movement and head tilt improved in all 12 patients and cosmesis improved in 11, despite the long-standing nature of the deformity.

H. Huber C. Dora L. E. Ramseier F. Buck S. Dierauer

Between June 2001 and November 2008 a modified Dunn osteotomy with a surgical hip dislocation was performed in 30 hips in 28 patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Complications and clinical and radiological outcomes after a mean follow-up of 3.8 years (1.0 to 8.5) were documented. Subjective outcome was assessed using the Harris hip score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index questionnaire.

Anatomical or near-anatomical reduction was achieved in all cases. The epiphysis in one hip showed no perfusion intra-operatively and developed avascular necrosis. There was an excellent outcome in 28 hips. Failure of the implants with a need for revision surgery occurred in four hips.

Anatomical reduction can be achieved by this technique, with a low risk of avascular necrosis. Cautious follow-up is necessary in order to avoid implant failure.

F. P. Monsell J. R. Barnes R. Kirubanandan A. M. B. McBride

Survivors of infantile meningococcal septicaemia often develop progressive skeletal deformity as a result of physeal damage at many sites, particularly in the lower limb. Distal tibial physeal arrest typically occurs with sparing of the distal fibular physis leading to a rapidly progressive varus deformity. There have been reports of isolated cases of this deformity, but to our knowledge there have been no papers which specifically describe the development of the deformity and the options for treatment.

Surgery to correct this deformity is complex because of the patient’s age, previous scarring and the multiplanar nature of the deformity. The surgical goal is to restore leg-length equality and the mechanical axis at the end of growth. Surgery should be planned and staged throughout growth in order to achieve the best functional results.

We report our experience in six patients (seven ankles) with this deformity, who were managed by corrective osteotomy using a programmable circular fixator.

S. M. Sarasin R. Karthikeyan P. Skinner A. Nassef I. Stockley

Intrapelvic migration of the acetabular component of a total hip replacement, with severe acetabular destruction making reconstruction impossible, is very rare. We present a patient in whom the component was removed using a laparotomy and a transperitoneal approach with subsequent salvage using a saddle prosthesis and a total femoral replacement.

I. Gunal T. Altay

Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid following a fracture in children is rare and there is no established treatment protocol in the literature. We present two boys with nonunion and avascular necrosis of the scaphoid treated by simple immobilisation. Both cases healed with painless wrists and full movements. Our cases confirm that an ununited scaphoid fracture in children may heal with conservative treatment, even when an MRI scan suggests avascular necrosis. Unlike in adults, operative treatment need only be considered in children when conservative treatment fails.

R. Tomaszewski W. Bijata

Haematogenous osteomyelitis in newborns and infants usually occurs in the long bones and is rare in the short or flat bones. We present two neonates with osteomyelitis of the upper cervical spine affecting the second to fourth cervical vertebrae and the first and second cervical vertebrae, respectively. Despite some delay in diagnosis, both responded successfully to conservative treatment with antibiotics, a cervical collar and needle puncture. The latest follow-up at six and seven years, respectively, showed no persistent neurological deficit and a normal diameter of the cervical spinal canal on MRI.

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Exam Corner Pages 855 - 856
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