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A modified Delphi consensus statement on patellar instability: part I

diagnosis, nonoperative management, and medial patellofemoral complex repair

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The aim of this study was to establish consensus statements on the diagnosis, nonoperative management, and indications, if any, for medial patellofemoral complex (MPFC) repair in patients with patellar instability, using the modified Delphi approach.


A total of 60 surgeons from 11 countries were invited to develop consensus statements based on their expertise in this area. They were assigned to one of seven working groups defined by subtopics of interest within patellar instability. Consensus was defined as achieving between 80% and 89% agreement, strong consensus was defined as between 90% and 99% agreement, and 100% agreement was considered to be unanimous.


Of 27 questions and statements on patellar instability, three achieved unanimous consensus, 14 achieved strong consensus, five achieved consensus, and five did not achieve consensus.


The statements that reached unanimous consensus were that an assessment of physeal status is critical for paediatric patients with patellar instability. There was also unanimous consensus on early mobilization and resistance training following nonoperative management once there is no apprehension. The statements that did not achieve consensus were on the importance of immobilization of the knee, the use of orthobiologics in nonoperative management, the indications for MPFC repair, and whether a vastus medialis oblique advancement should be performed.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(12):1259–1264.

Correspondence should be sent to Eoghan T. Hurley. E-mail:

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