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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 9 | Pages 536 - 545
8 Sep 2023
Luo P Yuan Q Yang M Wan X Xu P

Osteoarthritis (OA) is mainly caused by ageing, strain, trauma, and congenital joint abnormalities, resulting in articular cartilage degeneration. During the pathogenesis of OA, the changes in subchondral bone (SB) are not only secondary manifestations of OA, but also an active part of the disease, and are closely associated with the severity of OA. In different stages of OA, there were microstructural changes in SB. Osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts in SB are important in the pathogenesis of OA. The signal transduction mechanism in SB is necessary to maintain the balance of a stable phenotype, extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis, and bone remodelling between articular cartilage and SB. An imbalance in signal transduction can lead to reduced cartilage quality and SB thickening, which leads to the progression of OA. By understanding changes in SB in OA, researchers are exploring drugs that can regulate these changes, which will help to provide new ideas for the treatment of OA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2023;12(9):536–545.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 7 | Pages 426 - 438
20 Jul 2022
Luo P Wang P Xu J Hou W Xu P Xu K Liu L

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that involves T and B cells and their reciprocal immune interactions with proinflammatory cytokines. T cells, an essential part of the immune system, play an important role in RA. T helper 1 (Th1) cells induce interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-2, which are proinflammatory cytokines, leading to cartilage destruction and bone erosion. Th2 cells primarily secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which exert anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenic effects in inflammatory arthritis models. IL-22 secreted by Th17 cells promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts through induction of the chemokine C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). T follicular helper (Tfh) cells produce IL-21, which is key for B cell stimulation by the C-X-C chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) and coexpression with programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and/or inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS). PD-1 inhibits T cell proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, there are many immunomodulatory agents that promote or inhibit the immunomodulatory role of T helper cells in RA to alleviate disease progression. These findings help to elucidate the aetiology and treatment of RA and point us toward the next steps.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(7):426–438.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 2 | Pages 134 - 142
23 Feb 2022
Luo P Cheng S Zhang F Feng R Xu K Jing W Xu P


The aim of this study was to explore the genetic correlation and causal relationship between blood plasma proteins and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).


Based on the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) summary statistics of RA from European descent and the GWAS summary datasets of 3,622 plasma proteins, we explored the relationship between RA and plasma proteins from three aspects. First, linkage disequilibrium score regression (LD score regression) was applied to detect the genetic correlation between RA and plasma proteins. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was then used to evaluate the causal association between RA and plasma proteins. Finally, GEO2R was used to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between patients with RA and healthy controls.