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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 7 | Pages 426 - 438
20 Jul 2022
Luo P Wang P Xu J Hou W Xu P Xu K Liu L

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that involves T and B cells and their reciprocal immune interactions with proinflammatory cytokines. T cells, an essential part of the immune system, play an important role in RA. T helper 1 (Th1) cells induce interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-2, which are proinflammatory cytokines, leading to cartilage destruction and bone erosion. Th2 cells primarily secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which exert anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenic effects in inflammatory arthritis models. IL-22 secreted by Th17 cells promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts through induction of the chemokine C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). T follicular helper (Tfh) cells produce IL-21, which is key for B cell stimulation by the C-X-C chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) and coexpression with programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and/or inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS). PD-1 inhibits T cell proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, there are many immunomodulatory agents that promote or inhibit the immunomodulatory role of T helper cells in RA to alleviate disease progression. These findings help to elucidate the aetiology and treatment of RA and point us toward the next steps.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(7):426–438.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 2 | Pages 134 - 142
23 Feb 2022
Luo P Cheng S Zhang F Feng R Xu K Jing W Xu P


The aim of this study was to explore the genetic correlation and causal relationship between blood plasma proteins and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).


Based on the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) summary statistics of RA from European descent and the GWAS summary datasets of 3,622 plasma proteins, we explored the relationship between RA and plasma proteins from three aspects. First, linkage disequilibrium score regression (LD score regression) was applied to detect the genetic correlation between RA and plasma proteins. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was then used to evaluate the causal association between RA and plasma proteins. Finally, GEO2R was used to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between patients with RA and healthy controls.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 5 | Pages 343 - 350
1 May 2018
He A Ning Y Wen Y Cai Y Xu K Cai Y Han J Liu L Du Y Liang X Li P Fan Q Hao J Wang X Guo X Ma T Zhang F


Osteoarthritis (OA) is caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of genes and are likely to regulate the OA transcriptome. We performed integrative genomic analyses to define methylation-gene expression relationships in osteoarthritic cartilage.

Patients and Methods

Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of articular cartilage from five patients with OA of the knee and five healthy controls was conducted using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, California). Other independent genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of articular cartilage from three patients with OA and three healthy controls were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Integrative pathway enrichment analysis of DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles was performed using integrated analysis of cross-platform microarray and pathway software. Gene ontology (GO) analysis was conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1140 - 1142
1 Aug 2011
Gao X Wu Q Chen W Chen Q Xu K Li F Yan S

High-pressure injection injuries occur infrequently but are usually work-related and involve the non-dominant hand. The neck is a very rare site for such an injury. We describe the management of a 36-year-old man with a high-pressure grease-gun injection injury to his neck causing a cervical spinal cord injury. He developed severe motor and sensory changes which were relieved by surgical removal of the grease through anterior and posterior approaches.