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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1245 - 1248
1 Sep 2008
Xia Z Murray D Hulley PA Triffitt JT Price AJ

Human articular cartilage samples were retrieved from the resected material of patients undergoing total knee replacement. Samples underwent automated controlled freezing at various stages of preparation: as intact articular cartilage discs, as minced articular cartilage, and as chondrocytes immediately after enzymatic isolation from fresh articular cartilage. Cell viability was examined using a LIVE/DEAD assay which provided fluorescent staining. Isolated chondrocytes were then cultured and Alamar blue assay was used for estimation of cell proliferation at days zero, four, seven, 14, 21 and 28 after seeding. The mean percentage viabilities of chondrocytes isolated from group A (fresh, intact articular cartilage disc samples), group B (following cryopreservation and then thawing, after initial isolation from articular cartilage), group C (from minced cryopreserved articular cartilage samples), and group D (from cryopreserved intact articular cartilage disc samples) were 74.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 73.1 to 76.3), 47.0% (95% CI 43 to 51), 32.0% (95% CI 30.3 to 33.7) and 23.3% (95% CI 22.1 to 24.5), respectively. Isolated chondrocytes from all groups were expanded by the following mean proportions after 28 days of culturing: group A ten times, group B 18 times, group C 106 times, and group D 154 times.

This experiment demonstrated that it is possible to isolate viable chondrocytes from cryopreserved intact human articular cartilage which can then be successfully cultured.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 5 | Pages 791 - 794
1 Sep 1991
Guo M Xia Z Lin L

We studied the calcium content and mechanical strength of cortical bone from rats and dogs after different periods of demineralisation, showing that the rate of demineralisation differed considerably between the species. Specimens from the rat were further treated by chemical extraction and autolysis and tested for osteoinductive properties. We showed that partially demineralised cortical bone retained adequate mechanical strength, while retaining the biological effects of completely demineralised bone. This shows that it is possible to prepare allografts which have adequate mechanical strength and still retain osteo-inductive properties.