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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 8 | Pages 504 - 511
23 Aug 2023
Wang C Liu S Chang C


This study aimed to establish the optimal fixation methods for calcaneal tuberosity avulsion fractures with different fragment thicknesses in a porcine model.


A total of 36 porcine calcanea were sawed to create simple avulsion fractures with three different fragment thicknesses (5, 10, and 15 mm). They were randomly fixed with either two suture anchors or one headless screw. Load-to-failure and cyclic loading tension tests were performed for the biomechanical analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 4 | Pages 449 - 454
15 Mar 2023
Zhang C Wang C Duan N Zhou D Ma T


The aim of this study was to assess the safety and clinical outcome of patients with a femoral shaft fracture and a previous complex post-traumatic femoral malunion who were treated with a clamshell osteotomy and fixation with an intramedullary nail (IMN).


The study involved a retrospective analysis of 23 patients. All had a previous, operatively managed, femoral shaft fracture with malunion due to hardware failure. They were treated with a clamshell osteotomy between May 2015 and March 2020. The mean age was 42.6 years (26 to 62) and 15 (65.2%) were male. The mean follow-up was 2.3 years (1 to 5). Details from their medical records were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the quality of correction of the deformity, functional recovery, the healing time of the fracture, and complications.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 2 | Pages 121 - 132
1 Feb 2023
Mo H Wang Z He Z Wan J Lu R Wang C Chen A Cheng P


Pellino1 (Peli1) has been reported to regulate various inflammatory diseases. This study aims to explore the role of Peli1 in the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis (OA), so as to find new targets for the treatment of OA.


After inhibiting Peli1 expression in chondrocytes with small interfering RNA (siRNA), interleukin (IL)-1β was used to simulate inflammation, and OA-related indicators such as synthesis, decomposition, inflammation, and apoptosis were detected. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway were detected. After inhibiting the expression of Peli1 in macrophages Raw 264.7 with siRNA and intervening with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the polarization index of macrophages was detected, and the supernatant of macrophage medium was extracted as conditioned medium to act on chondrocytes and detect the apoptosis index. The OA model of mice was established by destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) surgery, and adenovirus was injected into the knee cavity to reduce the expression of Peli1. The degree of cartilage destruction and synovitis were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Safranin O/Fast Green staining, and immunohistochemistry.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 8 | Pages 594 - 607
17 Aug 2022
Zhou Y Li J Xu F Ji E Wang C Pan Z


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease characterized by chronic inflammatory articular cartilage degradation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been previously indicated to play an important role in inflammation-related diseases. Herein, the current study set out to explore the involvement of lncRNA H19 in OA.


Firstly, OA mouse models and interleukin (IL)-1β-induced mouse chondrocytes were established. Expression patterns of IL-38 were determined in the synovial fluid and cartilage tissues from OA patients. Furthermore, the targeting relationship between lncRNA H19, tumour protein p53 (TP53), and IL-38 was determined by means of dual-luciferase reporter gene, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequent to gain- and loss-of-function assays, the levels of cartilage damage and proinflammatory factors were further detected using safranin O-fast green staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in vivo, respectively, while chondrocyte apoptosis was measured using Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) in vitro.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 5 | Pages 236 - 241
1 May 2020
Li R Wang C Ji X Zheng Q Li X Ni M Zhang G Chen J


The purpose of this study was to validate our hypothesis that centrifugation may eliminate false-positive leucocyte esterase (LE) strip test results caused by autoimmune diseases in the diagnosis of knee infection.


Between January 2016 and May 2019, 83 cases, including 33 cases of septic arthritis and 50 cases of aseptic arthritis, were enrolled in this study. To further validate our hypothesis, another 34 cases of inflammatory arthritis from the Department of Rheumatology of our institution were also included. After aspiration, one drop of synovial fluid was applied to LE strips before and after centrifugation. The results were recorded after approximately three minutes according to the different colour grades on the colour chart. The differences of LE results between each cohort were analyzed.


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as key regulators of bone formation, signalling, and repair. Fracture healing is a proliferative physiological process where the body facilitates the repair of a bone fracture. The aim of our study was to explore the effects of microRNA-186 (miR-186) on fracture healing through the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathway by binding to Smad family member 6 (SMAD6) in a mouse model of femoral fracture.


Microarray analysis was adopted to identify the regulatory miR of SMAD6. 3D micro-CT was performed to assess the bone volume (BV), bone volume fraction (BVF, BV/TV), and bone mineral density (BMD), followed by a biomechanical test for maximum load, maximum radial degrees, elastic radial degrees, and rigidity of the femur. The positive expression of SMAD6 in fracture tissues was measured. Moreover, the miR-186 level, messenger RNA (mRNA) level, and protein levels of SMAD6, BMP-2, and BMP-7 were examined.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 6 | Pages 755 - 760
1 Jun 2018
Lou T Hamushan M Li H Wang C Chai Y Han P


The aim of this study was to describe the technique of distraction osteogenesis followed by arthrodesis using internal fixation to manage complex conditions of the ankle, and to present the results of this technique.

Patients and Methods

Between 2008 and 2014, distraction osteogenesis followed by arthrodesis using internal fixation was performed in 12 patients with complex conditions of the ankle due to trauma or infection. There were eight men and four women: their mean age was 35 years (23 to 51) at the time of surgery. Bone healing and functional recovery were evaluated according to the criteria described by Paley. Function was assessed using the ankle-hindfoot scale of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1643 - 1650
1 Dec 2017
Chou W Wang C Wu K Yang Y Ko J Siu K


We conducted a study to identify factors that are prognostic of the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) for calcific tendinitis of the shoulder.

Patients and Methods

Since 1998, patients with symptomatic calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff have been treated with ESWT using an electrohydraulic mode shockwave device. One year after ESWT, patients were grouped according to the level of resorption of calcification.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 7 | Pages 944 - 950
1 Jul 2017
Fan G Fu Q Zhang J Zhang H Gu X Wang C Gu G Guan X Fan Y He S


Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF) has been well validated in overweight and obese patients who are consequently subject to a higher radiation exposure. This prospective multicentre study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a novel lumbar localisation system for MITLIF in overweight patients.

Patients and Methods

The initial study group consisted of 175 patients. After excluding 49 patients for various reasons, 126 patients were divided into two groups. Those in Group A were treated using the localisation system while those in Group B were treated by conventional means. The primary outcomes were the effective radiation dosage to the surgeon and the exposure time.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1145 - 1150
1 Aug 2016
Wang C Wang T Wu K Huang S Kuo KN


This study compared the long-term results following Salter osteotomy and Pemberton acetabuloplasty in children with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We assessed if there was a greater increase in pelvic height following the Salter osteotomy, and if this had a continued effect on pelvic tilt, lumbar curvature or functional outcomes.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed 42 children at more than ten years post-operatively following a unilateral Salter osteotomy or Pemberton acetabuloplasty. We measured the increase in pelvic height and the iliac crest tilt and sacral tilt at the most recent review and at an earlier review point in the first decade of follow-up. We measured the lumbar Cobb angle and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Harris hip scores were collected at the most recent review.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 2, Issue 12 | Pages 255 - 263
1 Dec 2013
Zhang Y Xu J Wang X Huang J Zhang C Chen L Wang C Ma X


The objective of this study was to evaluate the rotation and translation of each joint in the hindfoot and compare the load response in healthy feet with that in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot by analysing the reconstructive three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) image data during simulated weight-bearing.


CT scans of 15 healthy feet and 15 feet with stage II PTTD flatfoot were taken first in a non-weight-bearing condition, followed by a simulated full-body weight-bearing condition. The images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into 3D models. The ‘twice registration’ method in three planes was used to calculate the position of the talus relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint, the navicular relative to the talus in talonavicular joint, and the cuboid relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1134 - 1138
1 Aug 2013
Hsu C Shih C Wang C Huang K

Although the importance of lateral femoral wall integrity is increasingly being recognised in the treatment of intertrochanteric fracture, little attention has been put on the development of a secondary post-operative fracture of the lateral wall. Patients with post-operative fractures of the lateral wall were reported to have high rates of re-operation and complication. To date, no predictors of post-operative lateral wall fracture have been reported. In this study, we investigated the reliability of lateral wall thickness as a predictor of lateral wall fracture after dynamic hip screw (DHS) implantation.

A total of 208 patients with AO/OTA 31-A1 and -A2 classified intertrochanteric fractures who received internal fixation with a DHS between January 2003 and May 2012 were reviewed. There were 103 men and 150 women with a mean age at operation of 78 years (33 to 94). The mean follow-up was 23 months (6 to 83). The right side was affected in 97 patients and the left side in 111. Clinical information including age, gender, side, fracture classification, tip–apex distance, follow-up time, lateral wall thickness and outcome were recorded and used in the statistical analysis.

Fracture classification and lateral wall thickness significantly contributed to post-operative lateral wall fracture (both p < 0.001). The lateral wall thickness threshold value for risk of developing a secondary lateral wall fracture was found to be 20.5 mm.

To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the risk factors of post-operative lateral wall fracture in intertrochanteric fracture. We found that lateral wall thickness was a reliable predictor of post-operative lateral wall fracture and conclude that intertrochanteric fractures with a lateral wall thickness < 20.5 mm should not be treated with DHS alone.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1134–8.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 3 | Pages 344 - 347
1 Mar 2012
Wu T Chen P Chen C Wang C

It is difficult to determine the safe timing of weight-bearing or reconstructive surgery in patients with Charcot arthropathy of the foot and ankle. In this study the Doppler spectrum of the first dorsal metatarsal artery was used to monitor the activity of the disease activity and served as a guideline for management. A total of 15 patients (seven men and eight women) with acute diabetic Charcot arthropathy of the foot and ankle were immobilised in a non-weight-bearing cast. They were followed at two-week intervals and bilateral Doppler spectra of the first dorsal metatarsal arteries were obtained using a 10 MHz linear ultrasound probe. The patients were allowed to start weight-bearing or undergo surgery after the Doppler spectrum had returned to normal pattern. The Doppler spectra in the unaffected limbs were triphasic in pattern, whereas those in limbs with active Charcot arthropathy showed monophasic forward flow. They returned to normal after a mean of 13.6 weeks (6 to 20) of immobilisation. Three patients underwent pan-talar arthrodesis to correct gross instability and deformity.

Doppler spectrum analysis of the foot may reflect the activity of the disease in patients with Charcot arthropathy, and may be used as a guide to begin weight-bearing or undergo reconstructive surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1392 - 1396
1 Oct 2010
Wang J Chen W Lin P Hsu C Wang C

Intra-articular resection of bone with soft-tissue balancing and total knee replacement (TKR) has been described for the treatment of patients with severe osteoarthritis of the knee associated with an ipsilateral malunited femoral fracture. However, the extent to which deformity in the sagittal plane can be corrected has not been addressed. We treated 12 patients with severe arthritis of the knee and an extra-articular malunion of the femur by TKR with intra-articular resection of bone and soft-tissue balancing. The femora had a mean varus deformity of 16° (8° to 23°) in the coronal plane. There were seven recurvatum deformities with a mean angulation of 11° (6° to 15°) and five antecurvatum deformities with a mean angulation of 12° (6° to 15°).

The mean follow-up was 93 months (30 to 155). The median Knee Society knee and function scores improved from 18.7 (0 to 49) and 24.5 (10 to 50) points pre-operatively to 93 (83 to 100) and 90 (70 to 100) points at the time of the last follow-up, respectively. The mean mechanical axis of the knee improved from 22.6° of varus (15° to 27° pre-operatively to 1.5° of varus (3° of varus to 2° of valgus) at the last follow-up. The recurvatum deformities improved from a mean of 11° (6° to 15°) pre-operatively to 3° (0° to 6°) at the last follow-up. The antecurvatum deformities in the sagittal plane improved from a mean of 12° (6° to 16°) pre-operatively to 4.4° (0° to 8°) at the last follow-up.

Apart from varus deformities, TKR with intra-articular bone resection effectively corrected the extra-articular deformity of the femur in the presence of antecurvatum of up to 16° and recurvatum of up to 15°.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 6 | Pages 841 - 844
1 Aug 2003
Wang C Wang J Weng L Hsu C Lo C

We investigated the outcome of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in the calf after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in 48 patients (45 women and three men) by clinical assessment and venographic study between three and four years after surgery. The mean age of the patients was 67.2 ± 7.7 years (52 to 85) and the mean follow-up was 42.6 ± 2.7 months (38 to 48). The diagnosis was osteoarthritis in 47 patients and rheumatoid arthritis in one patient. There were 44 calf thrombi, four popliteal thrombi but no thrombi in the femoral or iliac regions. Of the 48 patients, 24 were clinically symptomatic and 24 were asymptomatic. Clinical examination was carried out on 41 patients, of whom 37 underwent ascending venography. Seven were evaluated by telephone interview.

No patient had the symptoms or signs of recurrent DVT, venous insufficiency in the affected leg, or a history of pulmonary embolism. No patient had been treated for complications of their DVT. Thirty-six of the 37 venographic studies were negative for either old or new DVT in the affected leg. One patient had residual thrombi in the muscular branches of the veins.

Our study shows that deep-vein thromboses in the calf after TKA disappear spontaneously with time. No patient developed a recurrent DVT, proximal propagation or embolisation. Treatment of DVT in the calf after TKA should be based on the severity of the symptoms during the immediate postoperative period.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 2 | Pages 207 - 211
1 Mar 1999
Wang C Shau Y Hsu T Chen H Chien S

We compared the mechanical properties of normal and reconstructed heel pads in seven patients. Four had latissimus dorsi flaps and one each an anterior thigh flap, a local dorsalis pedis flap and a sural arterial flap.

The thickness of the heel pad was measured under serial incremental loads of 0.5 kg to a maximum of 3 kg and then relaxed sequentially. The load-displacement curve of the heel pad during a loading-unloading cycle was plotted and from this the unloaded heel-pad thickness (UHPT), compressibility index (CI), elastic modulus (Ep), and energy dissipation ratio (EDR) were calculated.

The EDR was significantly increased in the reconstructed heels (53.7 ± 18% v 23.4 ± 6.5%, p = 0.003) indicating that in them more energy is dissipated as heat. Insufficient functional capacity in the reconstructed heel pad can lead to the development of shock-induced discomfort and ulceration.