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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 7 | Pages 552 - 561
28 Jul 2021
Werthel J Boux de Casson F Burdin V Athwal GS Favard L Chaoui J Walch G


The aim of this study was to describe a quantitative 3D CT method to measure rotator cuff muscle volume, atrophy, and balance in healthy controls and in three pathological shoulder cohorts.


In all, 102 CT scans were included in the analysis: 46 healthy, 21 cuff tear arthropathy (CTA), 18 irreparable rotator cuff tear (IRCT), and 17 primary osteoarthritis (OA). The four rotator cuff muscles were manually segmented and their volume, including intramuscular fat, was calculated. The normalized volume (NV) of each muscle was calculated by dividing muscle volume to the patient’s scapular bone volume. Muscle volume and percentage of muscle atrophy were compared between muscles and between cohorts.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 3 | Pages 365 - 370
1 Mar 2020
Min KS Fox HM Bedi A Walch G Warner JJP


Patient-specific instrumentation has been shown to increase a surgeon’s precision and accuracy in placing the glenoid component in shoulder arthroplasty. There is, however, little available information about the use of patient-specific planning (PSP) tools for this operation. It is not known how these tools alter the decision-making patterns of shoulder surgeons. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PSP, when compared with the use of plain radiographs or select static CT images, influences the understanding of glenoid pathology and surgical planning.


A case-based survey presented surgeons with a patient’s history, physical examination, and, sequentially, radiographs, select static CT images, and PSP with a 3D imaging program. For each imaging modality, the surgeons were asked to identify the Walch classification of the glenoid and to propose the surgical treatment. The participating surgeons were grouped according to the annual volume of shoulder arthroplasties that they undertook, and responses were compared with the recommendations of two experts.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 4 | Pages 461 - 469
1 Apr 2019
Lädermann A Schwitzguebel AJ Edwards TB Godeneche A Favard L Walch G Sirveaux F Boileau P Gerber C


The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of different treatment options for glenoid loosening following reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) at a minimum follow-up of two years.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively studied the records of 79 patients (19 men, 60 women; 84 shoulders) aged 70.4 years (21 to 87) treated for aseptic loosening of the glenosphere following RSA. Clinical evaluation included pre- and post-treatment active anterior elevation (AAE), external rotation, and Constant score.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1182 - 1186
1 Sep 2018
Werner BS Chaoui J Walch G


Scapular notching is a frequently observed radiographic phenomenon in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), signifying impingement of components. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effect of glenoid component size and glenosphere type on impingement-free range of movement (ROM) for extension and internal and external rotation in a virtual RSA model, and to determine the optimal configuration to reduce the incidence of friction-type scapular notching.

Materials and Methods

Preoperative CT scans obtained in 21 patients (three male, 18 female) with primary osteoarthritis were analyzed using modelling software. Two concurrent factors were tested for impingement-free ROM and translation of the centre of rotation: glenosphere diameter (36 mm vs 39 mm) and type (centred, 2 mm inferior eccentric offset, 10° inferior tilt).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1074 - 1079
1 Aug 2018
Paul R Knowles N Chaoui J Gauci M Ferreira L Walch G Athwal GS


The Walch Type C dysplastic glenoid is characterized by excessive retroversion. This anatomical study describes its morphology.

Patients and Methods

A total of 29 shoulders with a dysplastic glenoid were analyzed. CT was used to measure retroversion, inclination, height, width, radius-of-curvature, surface area, depth, subluxation of the humeral head and the Goutallier classification of fatty infiltration. The severity of dysplasia and deficiency of the posterior rim of the glenoid were recorded.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 5 | Pages 603 - 609
1 May 2018
Schnetzke M Rick S Raiss P Walch G Loew M


The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of using an anatomical short-stem shoulder prosthesis to treat primary osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint.

Patients and Methods

A total of 66 patients (67 shoulders) with a mean age of 76 years (63 to 92) were available for clinical and radiological follow-up at two different timepoints (T1, mean 2.6 years, sd 0.5; T2, mean 5.3 years, sd 0.7). Postoperative radiographs were analyzed for stem angle, cortical contact, and filling ratio of the stem. Follow-up radiographs were analyzed for timing and location of bone adaptation (cortical bone narrowing, osteopenia, spot welds, and condensation lines). The bone adaptation was classified as low (between zero and three features of bone remodelling around the humeral stem) or high (four or more features).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 4 | Pages 485 - 492
1 Apr 2018
Gauci MO Bonnevialle N Moineau G Baba M Walch G Boileau P


Controversy about the use of an anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty (aTSA) in young arthritic patients relates to which is the ideal form of fixation for the glenoid component: cemented or cementless. This study aimed to evaluate implant survival of aTSA when used in patients aged < 60 years with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (OA), and to compare the survival of cemented all-polyethylene and cementless metal-backed glenoid components.

Materials and Methods

A total of 69 consecutive aTSAs were performed in 67 patients aged < 60 years with primary glenohumeral OA. Their mean age at the time of surgery was 54 years (35 to 60). Of these aTSAs, 46 were undertaken using a cemented polyethylene component and 23 were undertaken using a cementless metal-backed component. The age, gender, preoperative function, mobility, premorbid glenoid erosion, and length of follow-up were comparable in the two groups. The patients were reviewed clinically and radiographically at a mean of 10.3 years (5 to 12, sd 26) postoperatively. Kaplan–Meier survivorship analysis was performed with revision as the endpoint.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 3 | Pages 318 - 323
1 Mar 2018
Raiss P Alami G Bruckner T Magosch P Habermeyer P Boileau P Walch G


The aim of this study was to analyze the results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) in patients with type 1 sequelae of a fracture of the proximal humerus in association with rotator cuff deficiency or severe stiffness of the shoulder.

Patients and Methods

A total of 38 patients were included: 28 women and ten men. Their mean age at the time of arthroplasty was 73 years (54 to 91). Before the RSA, 18 patients had been treated with open reduction and internal fixation following a fracture. A total of 22 patients had a rotator cuff tear and 11 had severe stiffness of the shoulder with < 0° of external rotation. The mean follow-up was 4.3 years (1.5 to 10). The Constant score and the range of movement of the shoulder were recorded preoperatively and at final follow-up.

Preoperatively, radiographs in two planes were performed, as well as CT or arthro-CT scans; radiographs were also performed at final follow-up.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 7 | Pages 927 - 933
1 Jul 2017
Poltaretskyi S Chaoui J Mayya M Hamitouche C Bercik MJ Boileau P Walch G


Restoring the pre-morbid anatomy of the proximal humerus is a goal of anatomical shoulder arthroplasty, but reliance is placed on the surgeon’s experience and on anatomical estimations. The purpose of this study was to present a novel method, ‘Statistical Shape Modelling’, which accurately predicts the pre-morbid proximal humeral anatomy and calculates the 3D geometric parameters needed to restore normal anatomy in patients with severe degenerative osteoarthritis or a fracture of the proximal humerus.

Materials and Methods

From a database of 57 humeral CT scans 3D humeral reconstructions were manually created. The reconstructions were used to construct a statistical shape model (SSM), which was then tested on a second set of 52 scans. For each humerus in the second set, 3D reconstructions of four diaphyseal segments of varying lengths were created. These reconstructions were chosen to mimic severe osteoarthritis, a fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus and a proximal humeral fracture with diaphyseal extension. The SSM was then applied to the diaphyseal segments to see how well it predicted proximal morphology, using the actual proximal humeral morphology for comparison.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1080 - 1085
1 Aug 2016
Gauci MO Boileau P Baba M Chaoui J Walch G


Patient-specific glenoid guides (PSGs) claim an improvement in accuracy and reproducibility of the positioning of components in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). The results have not yet been confirmed in a prospective clinical trial. Our aim was to assess whether the use of PSGs in patients with osteoarthritis of the shoulder would allow accurate and reliable implantation of the glenoid component.

Patients and Methods

A total of 17 patients (three men and 14 women) with a mean age of 71 years (53 to 81) awaiting TSA were enrolled in the study. Pre- and post-operative version and inclination of the glenoid were measured on CT scans, using 3D planning automatic software. During surgery, a congruent 3D-printed PSG was applied onto the glenoid surface, thus determining the entry point and orientation of the central guide wire used for reaming the glenoid and the introduction of the component. Manual segmentation was performed on post-operative CT scans to compare the planned and the actual position of the entry point (mm) and orientation of the component (°).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1377 - 1382
1 Oct 2013
Walch G Mesiha M Boileau P Edwards TB Lévigne C Moineau G Young A

Osteoarthritis results in changes in the dimensions of the glenoid. This study aimed to assess the size and radius of curvature of arthritic glenoids. A total of 145 CT scans were analysed, performed as part of routine pre-operative assessment before total shoulder replacement in 91 women and 54 men. Only patients with primary osteoarthritis and a concentric glenoid were included in the study. The CT scans underwent three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and were analysed using dedicated computer software. The measurements consisted of maximum superoinferior height, anteroposterior width and a best-fit sphere radius of curvature of the glenoid.

The mean height was 40.2 mm (sd 4.9), the mean width was 29 mm (sd 4.3) and the mean radius of curvature was 35.4 mm (sd 7.8). The measurements were statistically different in men and women and had a Gaussian distribution with marked variation. All measurements were greater than the known values in normal subjects.

With current shoulder replacement systems using a unique backside radius of curvature for the glenoid component, there is a risk of undertaking excessive reaming to adapt the bone to the component resulting in sacrifice of subchondral bone or under-reaming and instability of the component due to a ’rocking horse‘ phenomenon.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1377–82.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1106 - 1113
1 Aug 2013
Lädermann A Walch G Denard PJ Collin P Sirveaux F Favard L Edwards TB Kherad O Boileau P

The indications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) continue to be expanded. Associated impairment of the deltoid muscle has been considered a contraindication to its use, as function of the RSA depends on the deltoid and impairment of the deltoid may increase the risk of dislocation. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the functional outcome and risk of dislocation following the use of an RSA in patients with impaired deltoid function. Between 1999 and 2010, 49 patients (49 shoulders) with impairment of the deltoid underwent RSA and were reviewed at a mean of 38 months (12 to 142) post-operatively. There were nine post-operative complications (18%), including two dislocations. The mean forward elevation improved from 50° (sd 38; 0° to 150°) pre-operatively to 121° (sd 40; 0° to 170°) at final follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean Constant score improved from 24 (sd 12; 2 to 51) to 58 (sd 17; 16 to 83) (p < 0.001). The mean Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score was 71 (sd 17; 10 to 95) and the rate of patient satisfaction was 98% (48 of 49) at final follow-up.

These results suggest that pre-operative deltoid impairment, in certain circumstances, is not an absolute contraindication to RSA. This form of treatment can yield reliable improvement in function without excessive risk of post-operative dislocation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1106–13.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1260 - 1264
1 Sep 2012
Raiss P Lin A Mizuno N Melis B Walch G

A total of 12 epileptic patients (14 shoulders) with recurrent seizures and anterior dislocations of the shoulder underwent a Latarjet procedure and were reviewed at a mean of 8.3 years (1 to 20) post-operatively. Mean forward flexion decreased from 165° (100° to 180°) to 160° (90° to 180°) (p = 0.5) and mean external rotation from 54° (10° to 90°) to 43° (5° to 75°) (p = 0.058). The mean Rowe score was 76 (35 to 100) at the final follow-up. Radiologically, all shoulders showed a glenoid-rim defect and Hill-Sachs lesions pre-operatively. Osteo-arthritic changes of the glenohumeral joint were observed in five shoulders (36%) pre-operatively and in eight shoulders (57%) post-operatively. Re-dislocation during a seizure occurred in six shoulders (43%). Five of these patients underwent revision surgery using a bone buttress from the iliac crest and two of these patients re-dislocated due to a new seizure.

Due to the unacceptably high rate of re-dislocation after surgery in these patients, the most important means of reducing the incidence of further dislocation is the medical management of the seizures. The Latarjet procedure should be reserved for the well-controlled patient with epilepsy who has recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder during activities of daily living.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1240 - 1246
1 Sep 2011
Melis B DeFranco M Lädermann A Molé D Favard L Nérot C Maynou C Walch G

Radiological changes and differences between cemented and uncemented components of Grammont reverse shoulder arthroplasties (DePuy) were analysed at a mean follow-up of 9.6 years (8 to 12). Of 122 reverse shoulder arthroplasties implanted in five shoulder centres between 1993 and 2000, a total of 68 (65 patients) were available for study. The indications for reversed shoulder arthroplasty were cuff tear arthropathy in 48 shoulders, revision of shoulder prostheses of various types in 11 and massive cuff tear in nine. The development of scapular notching, bony scapular spur formation, heterotopic ossification, glenoid and humeral radiolucencies, stem subsidence, radiological signs of stress shielding and resorption of the tuberosities were assessed on standardised true anteroposterior and axillary radiographs.

A scapular notch was observed in 60 shoulders (88%) and was associated with the superolateral approach (p = 0.009). Glenoid radiolucency was present in 11 (16%), bony scapular spur and/or ossifications in 51 (75%), and subsidence of the stem and humeral radiolucency in more than three zones were present in three (8.8%) and in four (11.8%) of 34 cemented components, respectively, and in one (2.9%) and two (5.9%) of 34 uncemented components, respectively. Radiological signs of stress shielding were significantly more frequent with uncemented components (p < 0.001), as was resorption of the greater (p < 0.001) and lesser tuberosities (p = 0.009).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 210 - 216
1 Feb 2011
Young A Walch G Boileau P Favard L Gohlke F Loew M Molé D

We report the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of the Aequalis total shoulder replacement with a cemented all-polyethylene flat-back keeled glenoid component implanted for primary osteoarthritis between 1991 and 2003 in nine European centres. A total of 226 shoulders in 210 patients were retrospectively reviewed at a mean of 122.7 months (61 to 219) or at revision. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Constant score, patient satisfaction score and range of movement. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed with glenoid revision for loosening and radiological glenoid loosening (sd) as endpoints. The Constant score was found to improve from a mean of 26.8 (sd 10.3) pre-operatively to 57.6 (sd 20.0) post-operatively (p < 0.001). Active forward flexion improved from a mean of 85.3° (sd 27.4) pre-operatively to 125° (sd 37.3) postoperatively (p < 0.001). External rotation improved from a mean of 7° (sd 6.5) pre-operatively to 30.3° (sd 21.8°) post-operatively (p < 0.001). Survivorship with revision of the glenoid component as the endpoint was 99.1% at five years, 94.5% at ten years and 79.4% at 15 years. Survivorship with radiological loosening as the endpoint was 99.1% at five years, 80.3% at ten years and 33.6% at 15 years.

Younger patient age and the curettage technique for glenoid preparation correlated with loosening. The rate of glenoid revision and radiological loosening increased with duration of follow-up, but not until a follow-up of five years. Therefore, we recommend that future studies reporting radiological outcomes of new glenoid designs should report follow-up of at least five to ten years.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1329 - 1335
1 Oct 2007
Lunn JV Castellanos-Rosas J Walch G

We retrospectively identified 18 consecutive patients with synovial chrondromatosis of the shoulder who had arthroscopic treatment between 1989 and 2004. Of these, 15 were available for review at a mean follow-up of 5.3 years (2.3 to 16.5). There were seven patients with primary synovial chondromatosis, but for the remainder, the condition was a result of secondary causes. The mean Constant score showed that pain and activities of daily living were the most affected categories, being only 57% and 65% of the values of the normal side. Surgery resulted in a significant improvement in the mean Constant score in these domains from 8.9 (4 to 15) to 11.3 (2 to 15) and from 12.9 (5 to 20) to 18.7 (11 to 20), respectively (unpaired t-test, p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Movement and strength were not significantly affected. Osteoarthritis was present in eight patients at presentation and in 11 at the final review. Recurrence of the disease with new loose bodies occurred in two patients from the primary group at an interval of three and 12 years post-operatively. In nine patients, loose bodies were also present in the bicipital groove; seven of these underwent an open bicipital debridement and tenodesis.

We found that arthroscopic debridement of the glenohumeral joint and open debridement and tenodesis of the long head of biceps, when indicated, are safe and effective in relieving symptoms at medium-term review.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 5 | Pages 562 - 575
1 May 2006
Boileau P Sinnerton RJ Chuinard C Walch G

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 3 | Pages 388 - 395
1 Apr 2004
Sirveaux F Favard L Oudet D Huquet D Walch G Mole D

We reviewed 80 shoulders (77 patients) at a mean follow-up of 44 months after insertion of a Grammont inverted shoulder prosthesis. Three implants had failed and had been revised. The mean Constant score had increased from 22.6 points pre-operatively to 65.6 points at review. In 96% of these shoulders there was no or only minimal pain. The mean active forward elevation increased from 73° to 138°. The integrity of teres minor is essential for the recovery of external rotation and significantly influenced the Constant score. Five cases of aseptic loosening of the glenoid and seven of dissociation of the glenoid component were noted.

This study confirms the promising early results obtained with the inverted prosthesis in the treatment of a cuff-tear arthropathy. It should be considered in the treatment of osteoarthritis with a massive tear of the cuff but should be reserved for elderly patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 1 | Pages 65 - 69
1 Jan 2004
Coste JS Reig S Trojani C Berg M Walch G Boileau P

The management and outcome of treatment in 42 patients (49 shoulders) with an infected shoulder prosthesis was reviewed in a retrospective multicentre study of 2343 prostheses. The factors which were analysed included the primary diagnosis, the delay between the diagnosis of infection and treatment and the type of treatment. Treatment was considered to be successful in 30 patients (71%). Previous surgery and radiotherapy were identified as risk factors for the development of infection. All patients with an infected prosthesis had pain and limitation of movement and 88% showed radiological loosening. In 50% of the shoulders, the antibiotics chosen and the length of treatment were considered not to be optimal. The mean follow-up was 34 months. Antibiotics or debridement alone were ineffective. In acute infection, immediate revision with excision of all infected tissue and exchange of the prosthesis with appropriate antibiotic therapy gave the best results. Multidisciplinary collaboration is recommended.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 4 | Pages 624 - 628
1 Jul 1998
Walch G Boulahia A Calderone S Robinson AHN

We studied 54 patients operated on for combined supraspinatus and infraspinatus rotator-cuff tears. The presence or absence of the dropping and hornblower’s clinical signs of impaired external rotation were correlated with Goutallier stage-3 or stage-4 fatty degeneration of infraspinatus and teres minor. These grades of fatty degeneration have previously been correlated with a poorer outcome from reconstructive surgery.

We found that hornblower’s sign had 100% sensitivity and 93% specificity for irreparable degeneration of teres minor and the dropping sign 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for similar degeneration of infraspinatus.

In seven patients, teres minor showed hypertrophy. This muscle can give useful function for the activities of daily living in patients with rotator-cuff tears in whom it is intact.