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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 534 - 542
1 May 2023
Makaram NS Khan LAK Jenkins PJ Robinson CM


The outcomes following nonoperative management of minimally displaced greater tuberosity (GT) fractures, and the factors which influence patient experience, remain poorly defined. We assessed the early patient-derived outcomes following these injuries and examined the effect of a range of demographic- and injury-related variables on these outcomes.


In total, 101 patients (53 female, 48 male) with a mean age of 50.9 years (19 to 76) with minimally displaced GT fractures were recruited to a prospective observational cohort study. During the first year after injury, patients underwent experiential assessment using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and assessment of associated injuries using MRI performed within two weeks of injury. The primary outcome was the one-year DASH score. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the effect of patient demographic factors, complications, and associated injuries, on outcome.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 4 | Pages 389 - 399
15 Mar 2023
Makaram NS Nicholson JA Yapp LZ Gillespie M Shah CP Robinson CM


The open Latarjet procedure is a widely used treatment for recurrent anterior instability of the shoulder. Although satisfactory outcomes are reported, factors which influence a patient’s experience are poorly quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a range of demographic factors and measures of the severity of instability on patient-reported outcome measures in patients who underwent an open Latarjet procedure at a minimum follow-up of two years.


A total of 350 patients with anterior instability of the shoulder who underwent an open Latarjet procedure between 2005 and 2018 were reviewed prospectively, with the collection of demographic and psychosocial data, preoperative CT, and complications during follow-up of two years. The primary outcome measure was the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), assessed preoperatively, at two years postoperatively, and at mid-term follow-up at a mean of 50.6 months (SD 24.8) postoperatively. The secondary outcome measure was the abbreviated version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score. The influence of the demographic details of the patients, measurements of the severity of instability, and the complications of surgery were assessed in a multivariate analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 1 | Pages 157 - 167
1 Jan 2022
Makaram NS Goudie EB Robinson CM


Open reduction and plate fixation (ORPF) for displaced proximal humerus fractures can achieve reliably good long-term outcomes. However, a minority of patients have persistent pain and stiffness after surgery and may benefit from open arthrolysis, subacromial decompression, and removal of metalwork (ADROM). The long-term results of ADROM remain unknown; we aimed to assess outcomes of patients undergoing this procedure for stiffness following ORPF, and assess predictors of poor outcome.


Between 1998 and 2018, 424 consecutive patients were treated with primary ORPF for proximal humerus fracture. ADROM was offered to symptomatic patients with a healed fracture at six months postoperatively. Patients were followed up retrospectively with demographic data, fracture characteristics, and complications recorded. Active range of motion (aROM), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), and EuroQol five-dimension three-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 12 | Pages 759 - 766
1 Dec 2021
Nicholson JA Oliver WM MacGillivray TJ Robinson CM Simpson AHRW


The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method for producing 3D reconstruction of sonographic callus.


A cohort of ten closed tibial shaft fractures managed with intramedullary nailing underwent ultrasound scanning at two, six, and 12 weeks post-surgery. Ultrasound capture was performed using infrared tracking technology to map each image to a 3D lattice. Using echo intensity, semi-automated mapping was performed to produce an anatomical 3D representation of the fracture site. Two reviewers independently performed 3D reconstructions and kappa coefficient was used to determine agreement. A further validation study was undertaken with ten reviewers to estimate the clinical application of this imaging technique using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 7 | Pages 522 - 529
13 Jul 2021
Nicholson JA Clement ND Clelland AD MacDonald DJ Simpson AHRW Robinson CM


It is unclear whether acute plate fixation facilitates earlier return of normal shoulder function following a displaced mid-shaft clavicular fracture compared with nonoperative management when union occurs. The primary aim of this study was to establish whether acute plate fixation was associated with a greater return of normal shoulder function when compared with nonoperative management in patients who unite their fractures. The secondary aim was to investigate whether there were identifiable predictors associated with return of normal shoulder function in patients who achieve union with nonoperative management.


Patient data from a randomized controlled trial were used to compare acute plate fixation with nonoperative management of united fractures. Return of shoulder function was based on the age- and sex-matched Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores for the cohort. Independent predictors of an early recovery of normal shoulder function were investigated using a separate prospective series of consecutive nonoperative displaced mid-shaft clavicular fractures recruited over a two-year period (aged ≥ 16 years). Patient demographics and functional recovery were assessed over the six months post-injury using a standardized protocol.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 5 | Pages 951 - 957
1 May 2021
Ng N Nicholson JA Chen P Yapp LZ Gaston MS Robinson CM


The aim of this study was to define the complications and long-term outcome following adolescent mid-shaft clavicular fracture.


We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 677 adolescent fractures in 671 patients presenting to our region (age 13 to 17 years) over a ten-year period (2009 to 2019). Long-term patient-reported outcomes (abbreviated version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score and EuroQol five-dimension three-level (EQ-5D-3L) quality of life score) were undertaken at a mean of 6.4 years (1.2 to 11.3) following injury in severely displaced mid-shaft fractures (Edinburgh 2B) and angulated mid-shaft fractures (Edinburgh 2A2) at a minimum of one year post-injury. The median patient age was 14.8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 14.0 to 15.7) and 89% were male (n = 594/671).

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 2 | Pages 113 - 121
1 Feb 2021
Nicholson JA Oliver WM MacGillivray TJ Robinson CM Simpson AHRW


To evaluate if union of clavicle fractures can be predicted at six weeks post-injury by the presence of bridging callus on ultrasound.


Adult patients managed nonoperatively with a displaced mid-shaft clavicle were recruited prospectively. Ultrasound evaluation of the fracture was undertaken to determine if sonographic bridging callus was present. Clinical risk factors at six weeks were used to stratify patients at high risk of nonunion with a combination of Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (QuickDASH) ≥ 40, fracture movement on examination, or absence of callus on radiograph.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 5 | Pages 606 - 610
1 May 2020
Nicholson JA Slader B Martindale A Mckie S Robinson CM


The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of distension arthrography in the treatment of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. The secondary aim was to assess which patient and procedural factors predicted the recurrence of symptoms after the procedure.


All patients referred to our shoulder clinic over a ten-year period, between 2008 and 2018, with a clinical diagnosis of capsulitis and symptoms persisting for more than six months, were offered treatment with a distension arthrogram. All procedures were performed by one of five musculoskeletal radiologists, with a combination of steroid, local anaesthetic, and a distention volume of 10 ml, 30 ml, or 50 ml. Patient demographics, procedural details, recurrence of symptoms, and the need for further intervention were evaluated.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1385 - 1391
1 Oct 2019
Nicholson JA Gribbin H Clement ND Robinson CM


The primary aim of this study was to determine if delayed clavicular fixation results in a greater risk of operative complications and revision surgery.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective case series was undertaken of all displaced clavicular fractures that underwent plate fixation over a ten-year period (2007 to 2017). Patient demographics, time to surgery, complications, and mode of failure were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors contributing towards operative complications. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine if a potential ‘safe window’ exists from injury to delayed surgery. Propensity score matching was used to construct a case control study for comparison of risk.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 8 | Pages 995 - 1001
1 Aug 2019
Nicholson JA Clement N Goudie E Robinson CM


The primary aim of this study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of the early fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures.

Patients and Methods

A cost analysis was conducted within a randomized controlled trial comparing conservative management (n = 92) versus early plate fixation (n = 86) of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to express the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The Six-Dimension Short-Form Health Survey (SF-6D) score was used as the preference-based health index to calculate the cost per QALY at 12 months after the injury.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1 | Pages 125 - 130
1 Jan 2016
Clement ND Goudie EB Brooksbank AJ Chesser TJS Robinson CM


This study identifies early risk factors for symptomatic nonunion of displaced midshaft fractures of the clavicle that aid identification of an at risk group who may benefit from surgery.


We performed a retrospective study of 88 patients aged between 16 and 60 years that were managed non-operatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 4 | Pages 520 - 526
1 Apr 2015
Roberts SB Beattie N McNiven ND Robinson CM

The natural history of primary anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint in adolescent patients remains unclear and there is no consensus for management of these patients.

The objectives of this study were to report the natural history of primary anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint in adolescent patients and to identify the risk factors for recurrent dislocation.

We reviewed prospectively-collected clinical and radiological data on 133 adolescent patients diagnosed with a primary anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint who had been managed non-operatively at our hospital between 1996 and 2008. There were 115 male (86.5%) and 18 female patients (13.5%) with a mean age of 16.3 years (13 to 18) and a mean follow-up of 95.2 months (1 to 215).

During follow-up, 102 (absolute incidence of 76.7%) patients had a recurrent dislocation. The median interval between primary and recurrent dislocation was ten months (95% CI 7.4 to 12.6). Applying survival analysis the likelihood of having a stable shoulder one year after the initial injury was 59% (95% CI 51.2 to 66.8), 38% (95% CI 30.2 to 45.8%) after two years, 21% (95% CI 13.2 to 28.8) after five years, and 7% (95% CI 1.1 to 12.9) after ten years. Neither age nor gender significantly predicted recurrent dislocation during follow-up.

We conclude that adolescent patients with a primary anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint have a high rate of recurrent dislocation, which usually occurs within two years of their initial injury: these patients should be considered for early operative stabilisation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:520–6.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 6 | Pages 721 - 728
1 Jun 2012
Goudie EB Murray IR Robinson CM

Dislocation of the shoulder may occur during seizures in epileptics and other patients who have convulsions. Following the initial injury, recurrent instability is common owing to a tendency to develop large bony abnormalities of the humeral head and glenoid and a susceptibility to further seizures. Assessment is difficult and diagnosis may be missed, resulting in chronic locked dislocations with protracted morbidity. Many patients have medical comorbidities, and successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach addressing the underlying seizure disorder in addition to the shoulder pathology. The use of bony augmentation procedures may have improved the outcomes after surgical intervention, but currently there is no evidence-based consensus to guide treatment. This review outlines the epidemiology and pathoanatomy of seizure-related instability, summarising the currently-favoured options for treatment, and their results.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 1 | Pages 1 - 9
1 Jan 2012
Robinson CM Seah KTM Chee YH Hindle P Murray IR

Frozen shoulder is commonly encountered in general orthopaedic practice. It may arise spontaneously without an obvious predisposing cause, or be associated with a variety of local or systemic disorders. Diagnosis is based upon the recognition of the characteristic features of the pain, and selective limitation of passive external rotation. The macroscopic and histological features of the capsular contracture are well-defined, but the underlying pathological processes remain poorly understood. It may cause protracted disability, and imposes a considerable burden on health service resources. Most patients are still managed by physiotherapy in primary care, and only the more refractory cases are referred for specialist intervention. Targeted therapy is not possible and treatment remains predominantly symptomatic. However, over the last ten years, more active interventions that may shorten the clinical course, such as capsular distension arthrography and arthroscopic capsular release, have become more popular.

This review describes the clinical and pathological features of frozen shoulder. We also outline the current treatment options, review the published results and present our own treatment algorithm.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1632 - 1637
1 Dec 2011
Robinson CM Stone OD Murray IR

We identified 16 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years (31 to 86) from a large consecutive series of patients with proximal humeral fractures over a 15-year period, who had sustained a fracture with skin compromise after a blunt injury. The study group represented 0.2% of 7825 proximal humeral fractures treated during this period and all had a displaced Neer two-part fracture pattern. Two patterns of skin injury were identified: in ten patients there was skin penetration at the time of the original injury, and the other six patients initially had closed injuries. These six patients had fracture fragments penetrating the muscular envelope to lie subcutaneously producing either early skin tethering (two patients) or delayed skin penetration and sinus formation (four patients). The pattern of injury to the soft-tissue envelope and the fracture pattern were similar for all injuries. Treatment of these injuries was determined by the initial severity of the soft-tissue injury and the medical status of the patient. We currently favour open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures wherever possible, owing to the high rate of nonunion with non-operative management.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 3 | Pages 387 - 392
1 Mar 2011
Robinson CM Murray IR

Fractures and nonunions of the proximal humerus are increasingly treated by open reduction and internal fixation. The extended deltopectoral approach remains the most widely used for this purpose. However, it provides only limited exposure of the lateral and posterior aspects of the proximal humerus. We have previously described the alternative extended deltoid-splitting approach. In this paper we outline variations and extensions of this technique that we have developed in the management of further patients with these fractures.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 1 | Pages 1 - 11
1 Jan 2011
Murray IR Amin AK White TO Robinson CM

Most proximal humeral fractures are stable injuries of the ageing population, and can be successfully treated non-operatively. The management of the smaller number of more complex displaced fractures is more controversial and new fixation techniques have greatly increased the range of fractures that may benefit from surgery.

This article explores current concepts in the classification and clinical aspects of these injuries, reviewing the indications, innovations and outcomes for the most common methods of treatment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1678 - 1684
1 Dec 2010
Mitchell SE Keating JF Robinson CM

The results of the treatment of 31 open femoral fractures (29 patients) with significant bone loss in a single trauma unit were reviewed. A protocol of early soft-tissue and bony debridement was followed by skeletal stabilisation using a locked intramedullary nail or a dynamic condylar plate for diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures respectively. Soft-tissue closure was obtained within 48 hours then followed, if required, by elective bone grafting with or without exchange nailing.

The mean time to union was 51 weeks (20 to 156). The time to union and functional outcome were largely dependent upon the location and extent of the bone loss. It was achieved more rapidly in fractures with wedge defects than in those with segmental bone loss. Fractures with metaphyseal defects healed more rapidly than those of comparable size in the diaphysis. Complications were more common in fractures with greater bone loss, and included stiffness of the knee, malunion and limb-length discrepancy.

Based on our findings, we have produced an algorithm for the treatment of these injuries. We conclude that satisfactory results can be achieved in most femoral fractures with bone loss using initial debridement and skeletal stabilisation to maintain length, with further procedures as required.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1592 - 1595
1 Nov 2010
Ahmed I Robinson CM Patton JT Cook RE

We present two cases of metastatic lung cancer which occurred at the site of a previously united tibial fracture. Both patients were treated with a locked intramedullary nail. The patients presented with metastases at the site of their initial fracture approximately 16 and 13 months after injury respectively.

We discuss this unusual presentation and review the relevant literature. We are unaware of any previous reports of a metastatic tumour occurring at the site of an orthopaedic implant used to stabilise a non-pathological fracture. These cases demonstrate the similar clinical presentation of infection and malignancy: a diagnosis which should always be considered in such patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 6 | Pages 811 - 816
1 Jun 2010
Robinson CM Akhtar MA Jenkins PJ Sharpe T Ray A Olabi B

Displaced fractures of the lateral end of the clavicle in young patients have a high incidence of nonunion and a poor functional outcome after conservative management. Operative treatment is therefore usually recommended. However, current techniques may be associated with complications which require removal of the fixation device. We have evaluated the functional and radiological outcomes using a novel technique of open reduction and internal fixation. A series of 16 patients under 60 years of age with displaced fractures of the lateral end were treated by open reduction and fixation using a twin coracoclavicular endobutton technique. They were followed up for the first year after their injury.

At one year the mean Constant score was 87.1 and the median Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score was 3.3. All fractures had united, except in one patient who developed an asymptomatic fibrous union. One patient had post-traumatic stiffness of the shoulder, which resolved with physiotherapy. None required re-operation.

This technique produces good functional and radiological outcomes with a low prevalence of complications and routine implant removal is not necessary.