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Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 2, Issue 1 | Pages 2 - 5
1 Feb 2013
Khan M Roberts S Richardson JB McCaskie A

Stem cells are a key component of regenerative medicine strategies. Particular areas of musculoskeletal application include cartilage and bone regeneration in arthritis and trauma. There are several types of stem cell and this article will focus on the adult derived cells. The review includes current issues and future developments.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1298 - 1304
1 Oct 2012
Hughes SPF Freemont AJ Hukins DWL McGregor AH Roberts S

This article reviews the current knowledge of the intervertebral disc (IVD) and its association with low back pain (LBP). The normal IVD is a largely avascular and aneural structure with a high water content, its nutrients mainly diffusing through the end plates. IVD degeneration occurs when its cells die or become dysfunctional, notably in an acidic environment. In the process of degeneration, the IVD becomes dehydrated and vascularised, and there is an ingrowth of nerves. Although not universally the case, the altered physiology of the IVD is believed to precede or be associated with many clinical symptoms or conditions including low back and/or lower limb pain, paraesthesia, spinal stenosis and disc herniation.

New treatment options have been developed in recent years. These include biological therapies and novel surgical techniques (such as total disc replacement), although many of these are still in their experimental phase. Central to developing further methods of treatment is the need for effective ways in which to assess patients and measure their outcomes. However, significant difficulties remain and it is therefore an appropriate time to be further investigating the scientific basis of and treatment of LBP.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1579 - 1582
1 Dec 2009
Starks I Roberts S White SH

We present a prospective review of the two-year functional outcome of 37 Avon patellofemoral joint replacements carried out in 29 patients with a mean age of 66 years (30 to 82) between October 2002 and March 2007. No patients were lost to follow-up. This is the first independent assessment of this prosthesis using both subjective and objective analysis of outcome. At two years the median Oxford knee score was 39 (interquartile range 32 to 44), the median American Knee Society objective score was 95 (interquartile range 90 to 100), the median American Knee Society functional score was 85 (interquartile range 60 to 100), and the median Melbourne Knee score was 28 (interquartile range 21 to 30). Two patients underwent further surgery. Only one patient reported an unsatisfactory outcome.

We conclude that the promising early results observed by the designing centre are reproducible and provide further support for the role of patellofemoral joint replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 2 | Pages 179 - 183
1 Feb 2005
Whittaker J Smith G Makwana N Roberts S Harrison PE Laing P Richardson JB

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been used most commonly as a treatment for cartilage defects in the knee and there are few studies of its use in other joints. We describe ten patients with an osteochondral lesion of the talus who underwent ACI using cartilage taken from the knee and were prospectively reviewed with a mean follow-up of 23 months. In nine patients the satisfaction score was ‘pleased’ or ‘extremely pleased’, which was sustained at four years. The mean Mazur ankle score increased by 23 points at a mean follow-up of 23 months. The Lysholm knee score returned to the pre-operative level at one year in three patients, with the remaining seven showing a reduction of 15% at 12 months, suggesting donor-site morbidity. Nine patients underwent arthroscopic examination at one year and all were shown to have filled defects and stable cartilage. Biopsies taken from graft sites showed mostly fibrocartilage with some hyaline cartilage. The short-term results of ACI for osteochondral lesions of the talus are good despite some morbidity at the donor site.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 5 | Pages 633 - 636
1 Jul 2003
Eisenstein SM Roberts S

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 6 | Pages 1064 - 1068
1 Nov 1999
Richardson JB Caterson B Evans EH Ashton BA Roberts S

Tissue engineering is an increasingly popular method of addressing pathological disorders of cartilage. Recent studies have demonstrated its clinical efficacy, but there is little information on the structural organisation and biochemical composition of the repair tissue and its relation to the adjacent normal tissue. We therefore analysed by polarised light microscopy and immunohistochemistry biopsies of repair tissue which had been taken 12 months after implantation of autologous chondrocytes in two patients with defects of articular cartilage.

Our findings showed zonal heterogeneity throughout the repair tissue. The deeper zone resembled hyaline-like articular cartilage whereas the upper zone was more fibrocartilaginous. The results indicate that within 12 months autologous chondrocyte implantation successfully produces replacement cartilage tissue, a major part of which resembles normal hyaline cartilage.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 4 | Pages 683 - 683
1 Jul 1996

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 4 | Pages 647 - 650
1 Jul 1991
Roberts S Foley A Swallow H Wallace W Coughlan D

The articular surface of the humeral head is usually described as facing posteromedially, making an angle of between 16 degrees and 35 degrees with the transepicondylar plane. At hemiarthroplasty the articular surface also appears to be offset posteriorly with respect to the humeral shaft. Coracoid impingement may occur if this offset is not accommodated. An analysis was made of 29 cadaveric humeri using an industrial co-ordinate measuring machine. The position of the centre of the head was defined with respect to the humeral shaft and transepicondylar plane. The humeral articular surface was found to be retroverted by 21.4 degrees and its centre offset posteriorly by 4.7 mm. Previous interpretation of retroversion did not take into account the posterior displacement, and this may be of importance in improving future prosthetic design.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 68-B, Issue 3 | Pages 418 - 422
1 May 1986
Roberts S Weightman B Urban J Chappell D

Articular cartilage from the femoral heads of 27 patients having an arthroplasty for subcapital fracture was studied, and its mechanical and chemical properties compared to those of a group of 33 age-matched macroscopically normal autopsy specimens. Water and proteoglycan contents were measured, as were swelling ability, compressive and tensile strength of the cartilage, and the density of the underlying bone. Cartilage from the fracture specimens had a significantly reduced proteoglycan content, as measured by fixed charge density, and increased swelling ability. These results indicate that this group differs from the "normal" population and care should be taken before they are accepted as control material for studies on osteoarthritic cartilage. Another finding was that bone density was much the same in the fracture and the normal group. This casts some doubt upon the concept that patients who sustain subcapital fractures are more osteoporotic than the average for the same age range.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 68-B, Issue 2 | Pages 278 - 288
1 Mar 1986
Roberts S Weightman B Urban J Chappell D

We studied the mechanical and biochemical properties of articular cartilage from 22 osteoarthritic femoral heads obtained at operation and 97 femoral heads obtained at autopsy. Cartilage from the zenith and from the antero-inferior aspect of each head was tested both in tension and in compression. Water content, swelling ability and proteoglycan content were measured, the cartilage was examined histologically and the density of the underlying bone was assessed. Fifty-five of the autopsy specimens were defined as macroscopically normal because they exhibited no progressive fibrillation patterns on staining with Indian ink; but significant changes in water content, bone density and tensile strength related to age were seen in this group. In 20 pairs of femoral heads which were both macroscopically normal, we found, surprisingly, that cartilage from the left and right sides of the same patient was sometimes very different. Compared with the normal autopsy specimens the osteoarthritic specimens had a significantly increased swelling ability, a lower proteoglycan content and impaired mechanical properties, being both weaker in tension and softer in compression. Abnormal autopsy specimens had values intermediate between those of osteoarthritic and normal groups. Results from this abnormal group suggest that there is no primary loss of proteoglycan in early osteoarthritis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 63-B, Issue 4 | Pages 529 - 534
1 Nov 1981
Beard H Roberts S O'Brien J

Specific antisera to collagen Types I, II and III and proteoglycan were used to investigate the distributions of these molecules in normal human intervertebral discs. Immunofluorescent staining indicated the presence of small amounts of Type III collagen located pericellularly in normal adult intervertebral discs. This finding had not been demonstrated previously by other methods. Similar specimens of intervertebral discs from 17 patients with scoliosis of varying aetiologies were examined, but no evidence was obtained for primary connective tissue defects. Secondary changes, especially marked vascularisation of the inner annulus, were apparent in a number of scoliotic discs, and some of these showed enhanced staining for collagen Type I and proteoglycan, and intercellular matrix staining for Type III collagen.