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Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 2, Issue 1 | Pages 2 - 5
1 Feb 2013
Khan M Roberts S Richardson JB McCaskie A

Stem cells are a key component of regenerative medicine strategies. Particular areas of musculoskeletal application include cartilage and bone regeneration in arthritis and trauma. There are several types of stem cell and this article will focus on the adult derived cells. The review includes current issues and future developments.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1344 - 1350
1 Oct 2010
Carrothers AD Gilbert RE Jaiswal A Richardson JB

Despite the increasing interest and subsequent published literature on hip resurfacing arthroplasty, little is known about the prevalence of its complications and in particular the less common modes of failure. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of failure of hip resurfacing arthroplasty and to analyse the reasons for it.

From a multi-surgeon series (141 surgeons) of 5000 Birmingham hip resurfacings we have analysed the modes, prevalence, gender differences and times to failure of any hip requiring revision. To date 182 hips have been revised (3.6%). The most common cause for revision was a fracture of the neck of the femur (54 hips, prevalence 1.1%), followed by loosening of the acetabular component (32 hips, 0.6%), collapse of the femoral head/avascular necrosis (30 hips, 0.6%), loosening of the femoral component (19 hips, 0.4%), infection (17 hips, 0.3%), pain with aseptic lymphocytic vascular and associated lesions (ALVAL)/metallosis (15 hips, 0.3%), loosening of both components (five hips, 0.1%), dislocation (five hips, 0.1%) and malposition of the acetabular component (three hips, 0.1%). In two cases the cause of failure was unknown.

Comparing men with women, we found the prevalence of revision to be significantly higher in women (women = 5.7%; men = 2.6%, p < 0.001). When analysing the individual modes of failure women had significantly more revisions for loosening of the acetabular component, dislocation, infection and pain/ALVAL/metallosis (p < 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.008, p = 0.01 respectively).

The mean time to failure was 2.9 years (0.003 to 11.0) for all causes, with revision for fracture of the neck of the femur occurring earlier than other causes (mean 1.5 years, 0.02 to 11.0). There was a significantly shorter time to failure in men (mean 2.1 years, 0.4 to 8.7) compared with women (mean 3.6 years, 0.003 to 11.0) (p < 0.001).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1243 - 1248
1 Sep 2009
Caesar BC Morgan-Jones RL Warren RE Wade RH Roberts PJ Richardson JB

Between November 1994 and June 1999, 35 patients referred to our Problem Fracture Service with chronic diaphyseal osteomyelitis were treated using a closed double-lumen suction irrigation system after reaming and arthroscopic debridement of the intramedullary canal. This is a modified system based on that of Lautenbach.

Between June and July 2007 the patients were reviewed by postal questionnaire and telephone and from the case notes. At a mean follow-up of 101 months (2 to 150), 26 had no evidence of recurrence and four had died from unrelated causes with no evidence of recurrent infection. One had been lost to follow-up at two months and was therefore excluded. Four had persisting problems with sinus discharge and one had his limb amputated for recurrent metaplastic change.

Our results represent a clearance of infection of 85.3% (29 of 34), with recurrence in 11.8% (4 of 34). They are comparable to the results of the Papineau and Belfast techniques, but with considerably less surgical insult to the patient.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1152 - 1157
1 Sep 2008
Khan M Kuiper J Richardson JB

Wear of metal-on-metal bearings causes elevated levels of cobalt and chromium in blood and body fluids. Metal-on-metal bearings have two distinct wear phases. In the early phase, the wear rate is high. Later, it decreases and the bearing enters a steady-state phase. It is expected that as the wear rates decline, the level of cobalt detected in plasma will also decrease. We studied the baseline and exercise-related cobalt rise in 21 patients (13 men and eight women) with a mean age of 54 years (38 to 80) who had undergone successful hip resurfacing at a mean of 44 months (10 to 96) earlier. Our results showed that circulating baseline cobalt levels were not significantly correlated with the time since implantation (r = 0.08, p = 0.650). By contrast, the exercise-related cobalt rise was directly correlated with the inclination angle of the acetabular component (r = 0.47, p = 0.032) and inversely correlated with the time since implantation (r = −0.5, p = 0.020).

Inclination of the acetabular component should be kept less than 40° to decrease the production of wear debris.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1382 - 1386
1 Oct 2007
Bajada S Harrison PE Ashton BA Cassar-Pullicino VN Ashammakhi N Richardson JB

Successful healing of a nine-year tibial nonunion resistant to six previous surgical procedures was achieved by tissue engineering. We used autologous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) expanded to 5 × 106 cells after three weeks’ tissue culture. Calcium sulphate (CaSO4) in pellet form was combined with these cells at operation. The nonunion was clinically and radiologically healed two months after implantation.

This is the description of on healing of a long-standing tibial nonunion by tissue engineering. The successful combination of BMSCs and CaSO4 has not to our knowledge been reported in a clinical setting.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 4 | Pages 445 - 449
1 Apr 2005
Smith GD Knutsen G Richardson JB

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 2 | Pages 179 - 183
1 Feb 2005
Whittaker J Smith G Makwana N Roberts S Harrison PE Laing P Richardson JB

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been used most commonly as a treatment for cartilage defects in the knee and there are few studies of its use in other joints. We describe ten patients with an osteochondral lesion of the talus who underwent ACI using cartilage taken from the knee and were prospectively reviewed with a mean follow-up of 23 months. In nine patients the satisfaction score was ‘pleased’ or ‘extremely pleased’, which was sustained at four years. The mean Mazur ankle score increased by 23 points at a mean follow-up of 23 months. The Lysholm knee score returned to the pre-operative level at one year in three patients, with the remaining seven showing a reduction of 15% at 12 months, suggesting donor-site morbidity. Nine patients underwent arthroscopic examination at one year and all were shown to have filled defects and stable cartilage. Biopsies taken from graft sites showed mostly fibrocartilage with some hyaline cartilage. The short-term results of ACI for osteochondral lesions of the talus are good despite some morbidity at the donor site.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 1 | Pages 150 - 151
1 Jan 2001

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 6 | Pages 1064 - 1068
1 Nov 1999
Richardson JB Caterson B Evans EH Ashton BA Roberts S

Tissue engineering is an increasingly popular method of addressing pathological disorders of cartilage. Recent studies have demonstrated its clinical efficacy, but there is little information on the structural organisation and biochemical composition of the repair tissue and its relation to the adjacent normal tissue. We therefore analysed by polarised light microscopy and immunohistochemistry biopsies of repair tissue which had been taken 12 months after implantation of autologous chondrocytes in two patients with defects of articular cartilage.

Our findings showed zonal heterogeneity throughout the repair tissue. The deeper zone resembled hyaline-like articular cartilage whereas the upper zone was more fibrocartilaginous. The results indicate that within 12 months autologous chondrocyte implantation successfully produces replacement cartilage tissue, a major part of which resembles normal hyaline cartilage.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 2 | Pages 312 - 316
1 Mar 1999
Wade RH New AMR Tselentakis G Kuiper JH Roberts A Richardson JB

Nomograms derived from mathematical analysis indicate that the level of malunion is the most important determinant of changes in the moment arm of the knee, the plane of the ankle and alterations in limb length. Testing in five patients undergoing reconstruction showed a mean error of postoperative limb length of 2.2 mm (sd 0.8 mm), knee moment arm of 4.7 mm (sd 3.3 mm) and ankle angle of 2.6° (sd 2.3°). These nomograms provide the information required when assessing whether a particular degree of angulation may be accepted.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 2 | Pages 286 - 289
1 Mar 1996
Dwyer JSM Owen PJ Evans GA Kuiper JH Richardson JB

We describe a technique for measuring the Stiffness of regenerate bone after leg lengthening. This allows early identification of slow healing by reference to normal patterns. We determined the time of removal of the fixator from clinical and radiological information independent of the stiffness result.

In a series of 30 leg lengthenings there were no refractures when the tibial stiffness had reached 15 Nm/° or the femoral stiffness 20 Nm/°. Three refractures occurred at lower stiffness values. The technique is simple to perform, will allow a reduction in plain radiography and is recommended for routine postoperative management.