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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 2 | Pages 207 - 212
1 Feb 2021
Hurley ET Stewart SK Kennedy JG Strauss EJ Calder J Ramasamy A

The management of symptomatic osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) can be challenging. The number of ways of treating these lesions has increased considerably during the last decade, with published studies often providing conflicting, low-level evidence. This paper aims to present an up-to-date concise overview of the best evidence for the surgical treatment of OLTs. Management options are reviewed based on the size of the lesion and include bone marrow stimulation, bone grafting options, drilling techniques, biological preparations, and resurfacing. Although many of these techniques have shown promising results, there remains little high level evidence, and further large scale prospective studies and systematic reviews will be required to identify the optimal form of treatment for these lesions.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(2):207–212.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 1 | Pages 1 - 14
1 Jan 2020
Stewart S Darwood A Masouros S Higgins C Ramasamy A

Bone is one of the most highly adaptive tissues in the body, possessing the capability to alter its morphology and function in response to stimuli in its surrounding environment. The ability of bone to sense and convert external mechanical stimuli into a biochemical response, which ultimately alters the phenotype and function of the cell, is described as mechanotransduction. This review aims to describe the fundamental physiology and biomechanisms that occur to induce osteogenic adaptation of a cell following application of a physical stimulus. Considerable developments have been made in recent years in our understanding of how cells orchestrate this complex interplay of processes, and have become the focus of research in osteogenesis. We will discuss current areas of preclinical and clinical research exploring the harnessing of mechanotransductive properties of cells and applying them therapeutically, both in the context of fracture healing and de novo bone formation in situations such as nonunion.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2019;9(1):1–14.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1466 - 1468
1 Dec 2019
Ramasamy A Humphrey J Robinson AHN

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1496 - 1501
1 Nov 2017
Bali N Aktselis I Ramasamy A Mitchell S Fenton P


There has been an evolution recently in the management of unstable fractures of the ankle with a trend towards direct fixation of a posterior malleolar fragment. Within these fractures, Haraguchi type 2 fractures extend medially and often cannot be fixed using a standard posterolateral approach. Our aim was to describe the posteromedial approach to address these fractures and to assess its efficacy and safety.

Patients and Methods

We performed a review of 15 patients with a Haraguchi type 2 posterior malleolar fracture which was fixed using a posteromedial approach. Five patients underwent initial temporary spanning external fixation. The outcome was assessed at a median follow-up of 29 months (interquartile range (IQR) 17 to 36) using the Olerud and Molander score and radiographs were assessed for the quality of the reduction.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 1 | Pages 94 - 99
1 Jan 2014
Evans S Ramasamy A Marks DS Spilsbury J Miller P Tatman A Gardner AC

The management of spinal deformity in children with univentricular cardiac pathology poses significant challenges to the surgical and anaesthetic teams. To date, only posterior instrumented fusion techniques have been used in these children and these are associated with a high rate of complications. We reviewed our experience of both growing rod instrumentation and posterior instrumented fusion in children with a univentricular circulation.

Six children underwent spinal corrective surgery, two with cavopulmonary shunts and four following completion of a Fontan procedure. Three underwent growing rod instrumentation, two had a posterior fusion and one had spinal growth arrest. There were no complications following surgery, and the children undergoing growing rod instrumentation were successfully lengthened. We noted a trend for greater blood loss and haemodynamic instability in those whose surgery was undertaken following completion of a Fontan procedure. At a median follow-up of 87.6 months (interquartile range (IQR) 62.9 to 96.5) the median correction of deformity was 24.2% (64.5° (IQR 46° to 80°) vs 50.5° (IQR 36° to 63°)).

We believe that early surgical intervention with growing rod instrumentation systems allows staged correction of the spinal deformity and reduces the haemodynamic insult to these physiologically compromised children. Due to the haemodynamic changes that occur with the completed Fontan circulation, the initial scoliosis surgery should ideally be undertaken when in the cavopulmonary shunt stage.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:94–9.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 6 | Pages 829 - 835
1 Jun 2012
Ramasamy A Evans S Kendrew JM Cooper J

The open blast fracture of the pelvis is considered to be the most severe injury within the spectrum of battlefield trauma. We report our experience of 29 consecutive patients who had sustained this injury in Afghanistan between 2008 and 2010. Their median new injury severity score (NISS) was 41 (8 to 75), and mean blood requirement in the first 24 hours was 60.3 units (0 to 224). In addition to their orthopaedic injury, six had an associated vascular injury, seven had a bowel injury, 11 had a genital injury and seven had a bladder injury. In all, eight fractures were managed definitively with external fixation and seven required internal fixation. Of those patients who underwent internal fixation, four required removal of metalwork for infection. Faecal diversion was performed in nine cases. The median length of hospital stay following emergency repatriation to the United Kingdom was 70.5 days (5 to 357) and the mean total operating time was 29.6 hours (5 to 187). At a mean follow-up of 20.3 months (13.2 to 29.9), 24 patients (82.8%) were able to walk and 26 (89.7%) had clinical and radiological evidence of stability of the pelvic ring.

As a result of the increase in terrorism, injuries that were previously confined exclusively to warfare can now occur anywhere, with civilian surgeons who are involved in trauma care potentially required to manage similar injuries. Our study demonstrates that the management of this injury pattern demands huge resources and significant multidisciplinary input. Given the nature of the soft-tissue injury, we would advocate external fixation as the preferred management of these fractures. With the advent of emerging wound and faecal management techniques, we do not believe that faecal diversion is necessary in all cases.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 4 | Pages 529 - 535
1 Apr 2012
Birch R Misra P Stewart MPM Eardley WGP Ramasamy A Brown K Shenoy R Anand P Clasper J Dunn R Etherington J

The outcomes of 261 nerve injuries in 100 patients were graded good in 173 cases (66%), fair in 70 (26.8%) and poor in 18 (6.9%) at the final review (median 28.4 months (1.3 to 64.2)). The initial grades for the 42 sutures and graft were 11 good, 14 fair and 17 poor. After subsequent revision repairs in seven, neurolyses in 11 and free vascularised fasciocutaneous flaps in 11, the final grades were 15 good, 18 fair and nine poor. Pain was relieved in 30 of 36 patients by nerve repair, revision of repair or neurolysis, and flaps when indicated. The difference in outcome between penetrating missile wounds and those caused by explosions was not statistically significant; in the latter group the onset of recovery from focal conduction block was delayed (mean 4.7 months (2.5 to 10.2) vs 3.8 months (0.6 to 6); p = 0.0001). A total of 42 patients (47 lower limbs) presented with an insensate foot. By final review (mean 27.4 months (20 to 36)) plantar sensation was good in 26 limbs (55%), fair in 16 (34%) and poor in five (11%). Nine patients returned to full military duties, 18 to restricted duties, 30 to sedentary work, and 43 were discharged from military service. Effective rehabilitation must be early, integrated and vigorous. The responsible surgeons must be firmly embedded in the process, at times exerting leadership.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 4 | Pages 523 - 528
1 Apr 2012
Birch R Misra P Stewart MPM Eardley WGP Ramasamy A Brown K Shenoy R Anand P Clasper J Dunn R Etherington J

We describe 261 peripheral nerve injuries sustained in war by 100 consecutive service men and women injured in Iraq and Afghanistan. Their mean age was 26.5 years (18.1 to 42.6), the median interval between injury and first review was 4.2 months (mean 8.4 months (0.36 to 48.49)) and median follow-up was 28.4 months (mean 20.5 months (1.3 to 64.2)). The nerve lesions were predominantly focal prolonged conduction block/neurapraxia in 116 (45%), axonotmesis in 92 (35%) and neurotmesis in 53 (20%) and were evenly distributed between the upper and the lower limbs. Explosions accounted for 164 (63%): 213 (82%) nerve injuries were associated with open wounds. Two or more main nerves were injured in 70 patients. The ulnar, common peroneal and tibial nerves were most commonly injured. In 69 patients there was a vascular injury, fracture, or both at the level of the nerve lesion. Major tissue loss was present in 50 patients: amputation of at least one limb was needed in 18. A total of 36 patients continued in severe neuropathic pain.

This paper outlines the methods used in the assessment of these injuries and provides information about the depth and distribution of the nerve lesions, their associated injuries and neuropathic pain syndromes.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 4 | Pages 536 - 543
1 Apr 2012
Brown KV Guthrie HC Ramasamy A Kendrew JM Clasper J

The types of explosive devices used in warfare and the pattern of war wounds have changed in recent years. There has, for instance, been a considerable increase in high amputation of the lower limb and unsalvageable leg injuries combined with pelvic trauma.

The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan prompted the Department of Military Surgery and Trauma in the United Kingdom to establish working groups to promote the development of best practice and act as a focus for research.

In this review, we present lessons learnt in the initial care of military personnel sustaining major orthopaedic trauma in the Middle East.