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Foot & Ankle

An evolution in the management of fractures of the ankle

safety and efficacy of posteromedial approach for Haraguchi type 2 posterior malleolar fractures

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There has been an evolution recently in the management of unstable fractures of the ankle with a trend towards direct fixation of a posterior malleolar fragment. Within these fractures, Haraguchi type 2 fractures extend medially and often cannot be fixed using a standard posterolateral approach. Our aim was to describe the posteromedial approach to address these fractures and to assess its efficacy and safety.

Patients and Methods

We performed a review of 15 patients with a Haraguchi type 2 posterior malleolar fracture which was fixed using a posteromedial approach. Five patients underwent initial temporary spanning external fixation. The outcome was assessed at a median follow-up of 29 months (interquartile range (IQR) 17 to 36) using the Olerud and Molander score and radiographs were assessed for the quality of the reduction.


The median Olerud and Molander score was 72 (IQR 70 to 75), representing a good functional outcome. The reduction was anatomical in ten, with a median step of 1.2 mm (IQR 0.9 to 1.85) in the remaining five patients. One patient had parasthaesiae affecting the medial forefoot, which resolved within three months.


We found that the posteromedial approach to the ankle for the surgical treatment of Haraguchi type 2 posterior malleolar fractures is a safe technique that enables good visualisation and reduction of the individual fracture fragments with promising early outcomes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1496–1501.

Correspondence should be sent to P. Fenton; email:

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