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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 3 | Pages 162 - 171
1 Mar 2017
Walker JA Ewald TJ Lewallen E Van Wijnen A Hanssen AD Morrey BF Morrey ME Abdel MP Sanchez-Sotelo J


Sustained intra-articular delivery of pharmacological agents is an attractive modality but requires use of a safe carrier that would not induce cartilage damage or fibrosis. Collagen scaffolds are widely available and could be used intra-articularly, but no investigation has looked at the safety of collagen scaffolds within synovial joints. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of collagen scaffold implantation in a validated in vivo animal model of knee arthrofibrosis.

Materials and Methods

A total of 96 rabbits were randomly and equally assigned to four different groups: arthrotomy alone; arthrotomy and collagen scaffold placement; contracture surgery; and contracture surgery and collagen scaffold placement. Animals were killed in equal numbers at 72 hours, two weeks, eight weeks, and 24 weeks. Joint contracture was measured, and cartilage and synovial samples underwent histological analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 7 | Pages 976 - 983
1 Jul 2016
Streubel PN Simone JP Morrey BF Sanchez-Sotelo J Morrey ME


We describe the use of a protocol of irrigation and debridement (I& D) with retention of the implant for the treatment of periprosthetic infection of a total elbow arthroplasty (TEA). This may be an attractive alternative to staged re-implantation.

Patients and Methods

Between 1990 and 2010, 23 consecutive patients were treated in this way. Three were lost to follow-up leaving 20 patients (21 TEAs) in the study. There were six men and 14 women. Their mean age was 58 years (23 to 76). The protocol involved: component unlinking, irrigation and debridement (I& D), and the introduction of antibiotic laden cement beads; organism-specific intravenous antibiotics; repeat I& D and re-linkage of the implant if appropriate; long-term oral antibiotic therapy.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 1 | Pages 11 - 17
1 Jan 2016
Barlow JD Morrey ME Hartzler RU Arsoy D Riester S van Wijnen AJ Morrey BF Sanchez-Sotelo J Abdel MP


Animal models have been developed that allow simulation of post-traumatic joint contracture. One such model involves contracture-forming surgery followed by surgical capsular release. This model allows testing of antifibrotic agents, such as rosiglitazone.


A total of 20 rabbits underwent contracture-forming surgery. Eight weeks later, the animals underwent a surgical capsular release. Ten animals received rosiglitazone (intramuscular initially, then orally). The animals were sacrificed following 16 weeks of free cage mobilisation. The joints were tested biomechanically, and the posterior capsule was assessed histologically and via genetic microarray analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1681 - 1687
1 Dec 2014
Foruria AM Lawrence TM Augustin S Morrey BF Sanchez-Sotelo J

We retrospectively reviewed 89 consecutive patients (45 men and 44 women) with a mean age at the time of injury of 58 years (18 to 97) who had undergone external fixation after sustaining a unilateral fracture of the distal humerus. Our objectives were to determine the incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO); identify risk factors associated with the development of HO; and characterise the location, severity and resultant functional impairment attributable to the presence of HO.

HO was identified in 37 elbows (42%), mostly around the humerus and along the course of the medial collateral ligament. HO was hazy immature in five elbows (13.5%), mature discrete in 20 (54%), extensive mature in 10 (27%), and complete bone bridges were present in two elbows (5.5%). Mild functional impairment occurred in eight patients, moderate in 27 and severe in two. HO was associated with less extension (p = 0.032) and less overall flexion-to-extension movement (p = 0.022); the flexion-to-extension arc was < 100º in 21 elbows (57%) with HO compared with 18 elbows (35%) without HO (p = 0.03). HO was removed surgically in seven elbows.

The development of HO was significantly associated with sustaining a head injury (p = 0.015), delayed internal fixation (p = 0.027), the method of fracture fixation (p = 0.039) and the use of bone graft or substitute (p = 0.02).HO continues to be a substantial complication after internal fixation for distal humerus fractures.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1681–7.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 3, Issue 3 | Pages 82 - 88
1 Mar 2014
Abdel MP Morrey ME Barlow JD Grill DE Kolbert CP An KN Steinmann SP Morrey BF Sanchez-Sotelo J


The goal of this study was to determine whether intra-articular administration of the potentially anti-fibrotic agent decorin influences the expression of genes involved in the fibrotic cascade, and ultimately leads to less contracture, in an animal model.


A total of 18 rabbits underwent an operation on their right knees to form contractures. Six limbs in group 1 received four intra-articular injections of decorin; six limbs in group 2 received four intra-articular injections of bovine serum albumin (BSA) over eight days; six limbs in group 3 received no injections. The contracted limbs of rabbits in group 1 were biomechanically and genetically compared with the contracted limbs of rabbits in groups 2 and 3, with the use of a calibrated joint measuring device and custom microarray, respectively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 1 | Pages 82 - 87
1 Jan 2014
Duquin TR Jacobson JA Schleck CD Larson DR Sanchez-Sotelo J Morrey BF

Treatment of an infected total elbow replacement (TER) is often successful in eradicating or suppressing the infection. However, the extensor mechanism may be compromised by both the infection and the surgery. The goal of this study was to assess triceps function in patients treated for deep infection complicating a TER. Between 1976 and 2007 a total of 217 TERs in 207 patients were treated for infection of a TER at our institution. Superficial infections and those that underwent resection arthroplasty were excluded, leaving 93 TERs. Triceps function was assessed by examination and a questionnaire. Outcome was measured using the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS).

Triceps weakness was identified in 51 TERs (49 patients, 55%). At a mean follow-up of five years (0.8 to 34), the extensor mechanism was intact in 13 patients, with the remaining 38 having bone or soft-tissue loss. The mean MEPS was 70 points (5 to 100), with a mean functional score of 18 (0 to 25) of a possible 25 points.

Infection following TER can often be eradicated; however, triceps weakness occurs in more than half of the patients and may represent a major functional problem.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:82–7.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 4 | Pages 517 - 522
1 Apr 2012
Jeon I Chun J Lee C Yoon J Kim P An K Morrey BF Shin H

The zona conoidea comprises the area of the lateral trochlear ridge of the humerus. The purpose of this study is to reintroduce this term ‘zona conoidea’ to the discussion of the human elbow and to investigate its significance in the development of osteoarthritis of the elbow.

The upper extremities of 12 cadavers were prepared. With the forearm in neutral, pronation and supination, the distance between the bevel of the radial head and zona conoidea was inspected. A total of 12 healthy volunteers had a CT scan. The distance between the zona conoidea and the bevelled rim of the radial head was measured in these positions.

In the anatomical specimens, early osteo-arthritic changes were identified in the posteromedial bevelled rim of the radial head, and the corresponding zona conoidea in supination. Measurement in the CT study showed that in full supination, the distance between the bevel of the radial head and the zona conoidea was at a minimum.

This study suggests that the significant contact between the bevel of the radial head and the zona conoidea in supination is associated with the initiation of osteoarthritis of the elbow in this area.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1273 - 1277
1 Sep 2010
Larson AN Adams RA Morrey BF

Between 1996 and 2008, nine patients with severe post-traumatic arthritis underwent revision of a failed interposition arthroplasty of the elbow with a further interposition procedure using an allograft of tendo Achillis at a mean of 5.6 years (0.7 to 13.1) after the initial procedure. There were eight men and one woman with a mean age of 47 years (36 to 56).

The mean follow-up was 4.7 years (2 to 8). The mean Mayo Elbow Performance score improved from 49 (15 to 65) pre-operatively to 73 (55 to 95) (p = 0.04). The mean Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score was 26 (7 to 42). One patient was unavailable for clinical follow-up and one underwent total elbow replacement three months post-operatively. Of the remaining patients, one had an excellent, two had good, three fair and one a poor result. Subjectively, five of the nine patients were satisfied. Four continued manual labour.

Revision interposition arthroplasty is an option for young, active patients with severe post-traumatic arthritis who require both mobility and durability of the elbow.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 5 | Pages 661 - 667
1 May 2010
van Riet RP Sanchez-Sotelo J Morrey BF

There is little information available at present regarding the mechanisms of failure of modern metallic radial head implants. Between 1998 and 2008, 44 consecutive patients (47 elbows) underwent removal of a failed metallic radial head replacement. In 13 patients (13 elbows) the initial operation had been undertaken within one week of a fracture of the radial head, at one to six weeks in seven patients (seven elbows) and more than six weeks (mean of 2.5 years (2 to 65 months)) in 22 patients (25 elbows). In the remaining two elbows the replacement was inserted for non-traumatic reasons. The most common indication for further surgery was painful loosening (31 elbows). Revision was undertaken for stiffness in 18 elbows, instability in nine, and deep infection in two. There were signs of over-lengthening of the radius in 11 elbows. Degenerative changes were found in all but one. Only three loose implants had been fixed with cement. Instability was not identified in any of the bipolar implants.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 5 | Pages 632 - 635
1 May 2009
Adams JE Hoskin TL Morrey BF Steinmann SP

A series of 103 acute fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna in 101 patients was reviewed to determine their frequency. The Regan-Morrey classification, treatment, associated injuries, course and outcomes were evaluated. Of the 103 fractures, 34 were type IA, 17 type IB, ten type IIA, 19 type IIB, ten type IIIA and 13 type IIIB. A total of 44 type-I fractures (86%) were treated conservatively, while 22 type-II (76%) and all type-III fractures were managed by operation.

At follow-up at a mean of 3.4 years (1 to 8.9) the range of movement differed significantly between the types of fracture (p = 0.002). Patients with associated injuries had a lower Mayo elbow performance score (p = 0.03), less extension (p = 0.03), more pain (p = 0.007) and less pronosupination (p = 0.004), than those without associated injuries. The presence of a fracture of the radial head had the greatest effect on outcome. An improvement in outcome relative to that of a previous series was noted, perhaps because of more aggressive management and early mobilisation. While not providing complete information about the true details of a fracture and its nature, the Regan-Morrey classification is useful as a broad index of severity and prognosis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1348 - 1351
1 Oct 2008
Rispoli DM Athwal GS Morrey BF

Ulnar neuropathy presents as a complication in 5% to 10% of total elbow replacements, but subsequent ulnar neurolysis is rarely performed. Little information is available on the surgical management of persistent ulnar neuropathy after elbow replacement. We describe our experience with the surgical management of this problem.

Of 1607 total elbow replacements performed at our institution between January 1969 and December 2004, eight patients (0.5%) had a further operation for persistent or progressive ulnar neuropathy. At a mean follow-up of 9.2 years (3.1 to 21.7) six were clinically improved and satisfied with their outcome, although, only four had complete recovery. When transposition was performed on a previously untransposed nerve the rate of recovery was 75%, but this was reduced to 25% if the nerve had been transposed at the time of the replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1198 - 1204
1 Sep 2008
Peden JP Morrey BF

This study reports our experience with total elbow replacement for fused elbows.

Between 1982 and 2004, 13 patients with spontaneously ankylosed elbows were treated with a linked semi-constrained non-custom total elbow implant. The mean age at operation was 54 years (24 to 80). The stiffness was a result of trauma in ten elbows, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in one, and rheumatoid arthritis in two. The patients were followed for a mean of 12 years (2 to 26) and were evaluated clinically using the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, as well as radiologically.

A mean arc from 37° of extension to 118° of flexion was achieved. Outcomes were good or excellent for seven elbows at final review. Ten patients felt better or much better after total elbow replacement. However, there was a high complication rate and re-operation was required in over half of patients. Two developed peri-operative soft-tissue breakdown requiring debridement. A muscle flap with skin grafting was used for soft-tissue cover in one. Revision was undertaken in one elbow following fracture of the ulnar component. Three patients developed a deep infection. Three elbows were manipulated under anaesthesia for post-operative stiffness. Prophylactic measures for heterotopic ossification were unsuccessful.

Total elbow replacement for the ankylosed elbow should be performed with caution. However, the outcome can be reliable in the long term and have a markedly positive impact on patient function and satisfaction. The high potential for complications must be considered. We consider total elbow replacement to be an acceptable procedure in selected patients with reasonable expectations.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1369 - 1374
1 Oct 2005
Athwal GS Chin PY Adams RA Morrey BF

We reviewed 20 patients who had undergone a Coonrad-Morrey total elbow arthroplasty after resection of a primary or metastatic tumour from the elbow or distal humerus between 1980 and 2002. Eighteen patients underwent reconstruction for palliative treatment with restoration of function after intralesional surgery and two after excision of a primary bone tumour. The mean follow-up was 30 months (1 to 192).

Five patients (25%) were alive at the final follow-up; 14 (70%) had died of their disease and one of unrelated causes. Local control was achieved in 15 patients (75%). The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score improved from 22 (5 to 45) to 75 points (55 to 95). Four reconstructions (20%) failed and required revision. Seven patients (35%) had early complications, the most frequent being nerve injury (25%). There were no infections or wound complications although 18 patients (90%) had radiotherapy, chemotherapy or both.

The Coonrad-Morrey total elbow arthroplasty provides good relief from pain and a good functional outcome after resection of tumours of the elbow. The rates of complications involving local recurrence of tumour (25%) and nerve injury (25%) are of concern.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 1 | Pages 106 - 107
1 Jan 2005
Morrey BF

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 1 | Pages 54 - 61
1 Jan 2005
Sanchez-Sotelo J Morrey BF O’Driscoll SW

We describe the intermediate results of lateral ligamentous repair or reconstruction for posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow. Between 1986 and 1999, we performed 12 direct repairs and 33 ligament reconstructions with a tendon autograft. One patient was lost to follow-up and 44 were retrospectively studied at a mean of six years (2 to 15).

Surgery restored stability in all except five patients. In two the elbow became stable after a second procedure. The mean post-operative Mayo elbow performance score was 85 points (60 to 100). The result was classified as excellent in 19, good in 13, fair in seven and poor in five patients. Thirty-eight patients (86%) were subjectively satisfied with the outcome of the operation. Better results were obtained in patients with a post-traumatic aetiology (p = 0.03), those with subjective symptoms of instability at presentation (p = 0.006) and those who had an augmented reconstruction using a tendon graft (p = 0.04).

Reconstruction using a tendon graft seems to provide better results than ligament repair and the results do not seem to deteriorate with time. The outcome of this procedure is less predictable in patients with no subjective instability.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 1 | Pages 47 - 53
1 Jan 2005
Whaley A Morrey BF Adams R

We examined the effects of previous resection of the radial head and synovectomy on the outcome of subsequent total elbow arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Fifteen elbows with a history of resection and synovectomy were compared with a control group of patients who had elbow arthroplasty with an implant of the same design. The mean age in both groups was 63 years. In the study group, resection of the radial head and synovectomy had been undertaken at a mean of 8.9 years before arthroplasty. The mean radiological follow-up for the 13 available patients in the study group was 5.89 years (0.3 to 11.0) and in the control group was 6.6 years (2.2 to 12.6). There were no revisions in either group. The mean Mayo elbow performance score improved from 29 to 96 in the study group, with similar improvement in the control group (28 to 87). The study group had excellent results in 13 elbows and good results in two. The control group had excellent results in seven and good results in six.

Our experience indicates that previous resection of the radial head and synovectomy are not associated with an increased rate of revision following subsequent arthroplasty of the elbow. However, there was a higher rate of complication in the study group compared with the control group.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1116 - 1120
1 Nov 2002
Sanchez-Sotelo J Morrey BF

Seven patients with chronic insufficiency of the triceps were treated by either a rotation flap using anconeus (4) or an allograft of tendo Achillis (3). The latter procedure was selected for patients with a large defect in whom the anconeus muscle had been devitalised. Five disruptions were in patients who had previously undergone an elbow replacement. The patients were assessed for subjective satisfaction, pain, range of movement and strength, and the results were graded using the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). The mean follow-up was for 33 months (9 to 63).

One rotation flap failed six months after operation. At the most recent follow-up, the remaining six patients had no or slight pain, restoration of a functional arc of movement and normal or slightly decreased power of extension. All six were satisfied with the outcome and were able to resume their daily activities with no limitations other than those imposed by the previous elbow replacement. The final MEPS was 100 points in five patients and 75 in one.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 7 | Pages 961 - 966
1 Sep 2002
Kamineni S O’Driscoll SW Morrey BF

We present 12 patients with synovial osteochondromatosis of the elbow treated by synovectomy. Histological review showed that seven cases were primary and five secondary osteochondromatosis. The patients with primary disease had a mean improvement in the flexion arc from a preoperative value of 40° to 123° to 5° to 128° when reviewed at a mean of nine years after operation. The secondary group had a mean improvement in the flexion arc from a preoperative value of 21° to 98° to 4° to 131° at a mean of 6.8 years after operation. There was recurrence in two of seven patients in the primary group and three of five in the secondary group. Osteoarthritis developed in six elbows in the primary and in three in the secondary group. Osteoarthritis secondary to synovial osteochondromatosis is progressive. In the established condition, the distinction between primary and secondary disease may be of greater histological than clinical relevance.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 7 | Pages 952 - 958
1 Sep 2000
Morrey BF Adams RA Kessler M

Between 1985 and 1993, 146 patients (162 hips) had total hip replacement (THR) using a conservative uncemented femoral component. The mean age of the patients was 50.8 years and the mean follow-up was 6.2 years (2 to 13). One patient was lost to follow-up, one died within two years of surgery and one had a revision procedure after a fracture sustained in a road-traffic accident.

For the remaining 159, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was calculated for the incidence of revision because of mechanical loosening or osteolysis. Survival without mechanical loosening at both five and ten years was 98.2%. Survival without osteolysis was 99% at five and 91% at ten years. The Harris hip score improved from a mean of 66.3 before to 90.4 at follow-up. Of particular note is the lack of thigh pain in this group. Radiological analysis showed that 139 stems (88%) had no measurable subsidence, 8 (5%) had less than 2 mm and 12 (7%) had more than 2 mm. Two of the eight and one of the 12 were revised for mechanical loosening. Nine hips were revised for late loosening associated with osteolysis. No reaming of the femoral canal was associated with statistically significant less blood loss compared with a comparable control group of uncemented implants (p < 0.0001).

Our study suggests that using a conservative femoral implant does not protect against wear debris but the reliable mechanical stability (98.2%) makes this an attractive design of implant particularly for young patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 2 | Pages 233 - 238
1 Mar 2000
Cheng SL Morrey BF

Between 1986 and 1994, 13 patients with mobile painful arthritic elbows were treated by distraction interposition arthroplasty using fascia lata. The mean period of follow-up was 63 months. An elbow distractor/fixator was applied for three to four weeks to separate the articular surfaces and to protect the fascial graft.

Nine of the 13 patients (69%) had satisfactory relief from pain; eight (62%) had an excellent or good result by the objective criteria of the Mayo Elbow Performance score. Four have required revision to total elbow arthroplasty at a mean of 30 months with good results to date.

Instability of the elbow, both before and after surgery, was found to be associated with unsatisfactory results. The rate of success when the procedure was performed for inflammatory arthritis was similar to that for post-traumatic arthritis, about 67%. Eight complications occurred in six patients, all in the group with post-traumatic arthritis. Two of these required further surgical procedures such as transposition of the ulnar nerve or repair of hernia of the fascia lata.

Although less reliable than prosthetic replacement, distraction interposition arthroplasty is a useful option in the treatment of young, high-demand patients with arthritis of the elbow. It is rarely indicated in the presence of generalised inflammatory arthritis, but may be of value in those patients in whom the disease is limited primarily to the elbow.