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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1060 - 1069
1 Oct 2023
Holleyman RJ Jameson SS Reed M Meek RMD Khanduja V Hamer A Judge A Board T


This study describes the variation in the annual volumes of revision hip arthroplasty (RHA) undertaken by consultant surgeons nationally, and the rate of accrual of RHA and corresponding primary hip arthroplasty (PHA) volume for new consultants entering practice.


National Joint Registry (NJR) data for England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and the Isle of Man were received for 84,816 RHAs and 818,979 PHAs recorded between April 2011 and December 2019. RHA data comprised all revision procedures, including first-time revisions of PHA and any subsequent re-revisions recorded in public and private healthcare organizations. Annual procedure volumes undertaken by the responsible consultant surgeon in the 12 months prior to every index procedure were determined. We identified a cohort of ‘new’ HA consultants who commenced practice from 2012 and describe their rate of accrual of PHA and RHA experience.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 2 | Pages 97 - 98
1 Feb 2023
Farhan-Alanie OM Kennedy JW Meek RMD Haddad FS

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1193 - 1195
1 Nov 2022
Rajput V Meek RMD Haddad FS

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains an extremely challenging complication. We have focused on this issue more over the last decade than previously, but there are still many unanswered questions. We now have a workable definition that everyone should align to, but we need to continue to focus on identifying the organisms involved. Surgical strategies are evolving and care is becoming more patient-centred. There are some good studies under way. There are, however, still numerous problems to resolve, and the challenge of PJI remains a major one for the orthopaedic community. This annotation provides some up-to-date thoughts about where we are, and the way forward. There is still scope for plenty of research in this area.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(11):1193–1195.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1754 - 1758
1 Dec 2021
Farrow L Zhong M Ashcroft GP Anderson L Meek RMD

There is increasing popularity in the use of artificial intelligence and machine-learning techniques to provide diagnostic and prognostic models for various aspects of Trauma & Orthopaedic surgery. However, correct interpretation of these models is difficult for those without specific knowledge of computing or health data science methodology. Lack of current reporting standards leads to the potential for significant heterogeneity in the design and quality of published studies. We provide an overview of machine-learning techniques for the lay individual, including key terminology and best practice reporting guidelines.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(12):1754–1758.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 7 | Pages 509 - 514
12 Jul 2021
Biddle M Kennedy JW Wright PM Ritchie ND Meek RMD Rooney BP


Periprosthetic hip and knee infection remains one of the most severe complications following arthroplasty, with an incidence between 0.5% to 1%. This study compares the outcomes of revision surgery for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following hip and knee arthroplasty prior to and after implementation of a specialist PJI multidisciplinary team (MDT).


Data was retrospectively analyzed from a single centre. In all, 29 consecutive joints prior to the implementation of an infection MDT in November 2016 were compared with 29 consecutive joints subsequent to the MDT conception. All individuals who underwent a debridement antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) procedure, a one-stage revision, or a two-stage revision for an acute or chronic PJI in this time period were included. The definition of successfully treated PJI was based on the Delphi international multidisciplinary consensus.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1215 - 1221
1 Jul 2021
Kennedy JW Ng NYB Young D Kane N Marsh AG Meek RMD


Cement-in-cement revision of the femoral component represents a widely practised technique for a variety of indications in revision total hip arthroplasty. In this study, we compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of two polished tapered femoral components.


From our prospectively collated database, we identified all patients undergoing cement-in-cement revision from January 2005 to January 2013 who had a minimum of two years' follow-up. All cases were performed by the senior author using either an Exeter short revision stem or the C-Stem AMT high offset No. 1 prosthesis. Patients were followed-up annually with clinical and radiological assessment.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 6 | Pages 340 - 347
1 Jun 2021
Jenkinson MRJ Meek RMD Tate R MacMillan S Grant MH Currie S

Elevated levels of circulating cobalt ions have been linked with a wide range of systemic complications including neurological, endocrine, and cardiovascular symptoms. Case reports of patients with elevated blood cobalt ions have described significant cardiovascular complications including cardiomyopathy. However, correlation between the actual level of circulating cobalt and extent of cardiovascular injury has not previously been performed. This review examines evidence from the literature for a link between elevated blood cobalt levels secondary to metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties and cardiomyopathy. Correlation between low, moderate, and high blood cobalt with cardiovascular complications has been considered. Elevated blood cobalt at levels over 250 µg/l have been shown to be a risk factor for developing systemic complications and published case reports document cardiomyopathy, cardiac transplantation, and death in patients with severely elevated blood cobalt ions. However, it is not clear that there is a hard cut-off value and cardiac dysfunction may occur at lower levels. Clinical and laboratory research has found conflicting evidence of cobalt-induced cardiomyopathy in patients with MoM hips. Further work needs to be done to clarify the link between severely elevated blood cobalt ions and cardiomyopathy.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(6):340–347.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 5 | Pages 872 - 880
1 May 2021
Young PS Macarico DT Silverwood RK Farhan-Alanie OM Mohammed A Periasamy K Nicol A Meek RMD


Uncemented metal acetabular components show good osseointegration, but material stiffness causes stress shielding and retroacetabular bone loss. Cemented monoblock polyethylene components load more physiologically; however, the cement bone interface can suffer fibrous encapsulation and loosening. It was hypothesized that an uncemented titanium-sintered monoblock polyethylene component may offer the optimum combination of osseointegration and anatomical loading.


A total of 38 patients were prospectively enrolled and received an uncemented monoblock polyethylene acetabular (pressfit) component. This single cohort was then retrospectively compared with previously reported randomized cohorts of cemented monoblock (cemented) and trabecular metal (trabecular) acetabular implants. The primary outcome measure was periprosthetic bone density using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry over two years. Secondary outcomes included radiological and clinical analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 6 | Pages 661 - 663
1 Jun 2020
Meek RMD Treacy R Manktelow A Timperley JA Haddad FS

In this review, we discuss the evidence for patients returning to sport after hip arthroplasty. This includes the choices regarding level of sporting activity and revision or complications, the type of implant, fixation and techniques of implantation, and how these choices relate to health economics. It is apparent that despite its success over six decades, hip arthroplasty has now evolved to accommodate and support ever-increasing patient demands and may therefore face new challenges.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6):661–663.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1405 - 1406
1 Nov 2018
Haddad FS Oussedik S Meek RMD Konan S Stockley I Gant V

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 1 | Pages 103 - 104
1 Jan 2018
Young PS Patil S Meek RMD

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4 | Pages 445 - 450
1 Apr 2017
Marsh AG Nisar A El Refai M Patil S Meek RMD


The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether an innovative templating technique could predict the need for acetabular augmentation during primary total hip arthroplasty for patients with dysplastic hips.

Patients and Methods

We developed a simple templating technique to estimate acetabular component coverage at total hip arthroplasty, the True Cup: False Cup (TC:FC) ratio. We reviewed all patients with dysplastic hips who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty between 2005 and 2012. Traditional radiological methods of assessing the degree of acetabular dysplasia (Sharp’s angle, Tönnis angle, centre-edge angle) as well as the TC:FC ratio were measured from the pre-operative radiographs. A comparison of augmented and non-augmented hips was undertaken to determine any difference in pre-operative radiological indices between the two cohorts. The intra- and inter-observer reliability for all radiological indices used in the study were also calculated.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 283 - 288
1 Feb 2015
Gupta S Maclean M Anderson JG MacGregor SJ Meek RMD Grant MH

High-intensity narrow-spectrum (HINS) light is a novel violet-blue light inactivation technology which kills bacteria through a photodynamic process, and has been shown to have bactericidal activity against a wide range of species. Specimens from patients with infected hip and knee arthroplasties were collected over a one-year period (1 May 2009 to 30 April 2010). A range of these microbial isolates were tested for sensitivity to HINS-light. During testing, suspensions of the pathogens were exposed to increasing doses of HINS-light (of 123mW/cm2 irradiance). Non-light exposed control samples were also used. The samples were then plated onto agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours before enumeration. Complete inactivation (greater than 4-log10 reduction) was achieved for all of the isolates. The typical inactivation curve showed a slow initial reaction followed by a rapid period of inactivation. The doses of HINS-light required ranged between 118 and 2214 J/cm2. Gram-positive bacteria were generally found to be more susceptible than Gram-negative.

As HINS-light uses visible wavelengths, it can be safely used in the presence of patients and staff. This unique feature could lead to its possible use in the prevention of infection during surgery and post-operative dressing changes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:283–8.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 2, Issue 3 | Pages 58 - 65
1 Mar 2013
Johnson R Jameson SS Sanders RD Sargant NJ Muller SD Meek RMD Reed MR


To review the current best surgical practice and detail a multi-disciplinary approach that could further reduce joint replacement infection.


Review of relevant literature indexed in PubMed.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1033 - 1044
1 Aug 2011
Periasamy K Watson WS Mohammed A Murray H Walker B Patil S Meek RMD

The ideal acetabular component is characterised by reliable, long-term fixation with physiological loading of bone and a low rate of wear. Trabecular metal is a porous construct of tantalum which promotes bony ingrowth, has a modulus of elasticity similar to that of cancellous bone, and should be an excellent material for fixation.

Between 2004 and 2006, 55 patients were randomised to receive either a cemented polyethylene or a monobloc trabecular metal acetabular component with a polyethylene articular surface. We measured the peri-prosthetic bone density around the acetabular components for up to two years using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

We found evidence that the cemented acetabular component loaded the acetabular bone centromedially whereas the trabecular metal monobloc loaded the lateral rim and behaved like a hemispherical rigid metal component with regard to loading of the acetabular bone. We suspect that this was due to the peripheral titanium rim used for the mechanism of insertion.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 7 | Pages 876 - 880
1 Jul 2011
Jameson SS Lees D James P Serrano-Pedraza I Partington PF Muller SD Meek RMD Reed MR

Increased femoral head size may reduce dislocation rates following total hip replacement. The National Joint Registry for England and Wales has highlighted a statistically significant increase in the use of femoral heads ≥ 36 mm in diameter from 5% in 2005 to 26% in 2009, together with an increase in the use of the posterior approach. The aim of this study was to determine whether rates of dislocation have fallen over the same period. National data for England for 247 546 procedures were analysed in order to determine trends in the rate of dislocation at three, six, 12 and 18 months after operation during this time. The 18-month revision rates were also examined.

Between 2005 and 2009 there were significant decreases in cumulative dislocations at three months (1.12% to 0.86%), six months (1.25% to 0.96%) and 12 months (1.42% to 1.11%) (all p < 0.001), and at 18 months (1.56% to 1.31%) for the period 2005 to 2008 (p < 0.001). The 18-month revision rates did not significantly change during the study period (1.26% to 1.39%, odds ratio 1.10 (95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.24), p = 0.118). There was no evidence of changes in the coding of dislocations during this time.

These data have revealed a significant reduction in dislocations associated with the use of large femoral head sizes, with no change in the 18-month revision rate.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 1 | Pages 96 - 101
1 Jan 2011
Meek RMD Norwood T Smith R Brenkel IJ Howie CR

Peri-prosthetic fracture after joint replacement in the lower limb is associated with significant morbidity. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of peri-prosthetic fracture after total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) over a ten-year period using a population-based linked dataset.

Between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2008, 52 136 primary THRs, 8726 revision THRs, 44 511 primary TKRs, and 3222 revision TKRs were performed. Five years post-operatively, the rate of fracture was 0.9% after primary THR, 4.2% after revision THR, 0.6% after primary TKR and 1.7% after revision TKR. Comparison of survival analysis for all primary and revision arthroplasties showed peri-prosthetic fractures were more likely in females, patients aged > 70 and after revision arthroplasty.

Female patients aged > 70 should be warned of a significantly increased risk of peri-prosthetic fracture after hip or knee replacement. The use of adjuvant medical treatment to reduce the effect of peri-prosthetic osteoporosis may be a direction of research for these patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1259 - 1261
1 Sep 2010
Gupta S Augustine A Horey L Meek RMD Hullin MG Mohammed A

The management of the patella during total knee replacement is controversial. In some studies the absence of patellar resurfacing results in residual anterior knee pain in over 10% of patients. One form of treatment which may be used in an endeavour to reduce this is circumferential patellar rim electrocautery. This is believed to partially denervate the patella. However, there is no evidence of the efficacy of this procedure, nor do we know if it results in harm.

A retrospective comparative cohort study was performed of 192 patients who had undergone a primary total knee replacement with the porous coated Low Contact Stress rotating platform prosthesis without patellar resurfacing between 2003 and 2007. In 98 patients circumferential electrocautery of the patellar rim was performed and in 94 patients it was not. The two groups were matched for gender and age. The general Oxford Knee Score and the more specific patellar score for anterior knee pain were used to assess patient outcomes a minimum of two years post-operatively.

No statistically significant differences were noted between the groups for either scoring system (p = 0.41 and p = 0.87, respectively). Electrocautery of the patella rim did not improve the outcome scores after primary total knee replacement in our patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 1 | Pages 138 - 140
1 Jan 2009
Sutherland AG Barrow A Mulhall K Meek RMD Pollock R Poon P Williams R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 5 | Pages 606 - 613
1 May 2006
Abu-Rajab RB Watson WS Walker B Roberts J Gallacher SJ Meek RMD

We compared peri-prosthetic bone mineral density between identical cemented and cementless LCS rotating platform total knee arthroplasties. Two matched cohorts had dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans two years post-operatively using a modified validated densitometric analysis protocol, to assess peri-prosthetic bone mineral density. The knee that was not operated on was also scanned to enable the calculation of a relative bone mineral density difference. Oxford Knee and American Knee Society scores were comparable in the two cohorts.

Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in absolute, or relative peri-prosthetic bone mineral density with respect to the method of fixation. However, the femoral peri-prosthetic bone mineral density and relative bone mineral density difference were significantly decreased, irrespective of the method of fixation, particularly in the anterior distal portion of the femur, with a mean reduction in relative bone mineral density difference of 27%.

There was no difference in clinical outcome between the cemented and cementless LCS total knee arthroplasty. However, both produce stress-shielding around the femoral implants. This leads us to question the use of more expensive cementless total knee components.