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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 5 | Pages 614 - 622
1 May 2017
Grammatopoulos G Bolduc M Atkins BL Kendrick BJL McLardy-Smith P Murray DW Gundle R Taylor AH


Advocates of debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) in hip periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) argue that a procedure not disturbing a sound prosthesis-bone interface is likely to lead to better survival and functional outcome compared with revision. This case-control study aims were to compare outcome of DAIRs for infected primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) with outcomes following primary THA and two-stage revision of infected primary THAs.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all DAIRs, performed for confirmed infected primary hip arthropasty (n = 82) at out institution, between 1997 and 2013. Data recorded included full patient information and type of surgery. Outcome measures included complications, mortality, implant survivorship and functional outcome. Outcome was compared with two control groups matched for gender and age; a cohort of primary THAs (n = 120) and a cohort of two-stage revisions for infection (n = 66).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1290 - 1297
1 Oct 2014
Grammatopoulos G Pandit HG da Assunção R McLardy-Smith P De Smet KA Gill HS Murray DW

There is great variability in acetabular component orientation following hip replacement. The aims of this study were to compare the component orientation at impaction with the orientation measured on post-operative radiographs and identify factors that influence the difference between the two. A total of 67 hip replacements (52 total hip replacements and 15 hip resurfacings) were prospectively studied. Intra-operatively, the orientation of the acetabular component after impaction relative to the operating table was measured using a validated stereo-photogrammetry protocol. Post-operatively, the radiographic orientation was measured; the mean inclination/anteversion was 43° (sd 6°)/ 19° (sd 7°). A simulated radiographic orientation was calculated based on how the orientation would have appeared had an on-table radiograph been taken intra-operatively. The mean difference between radiographic and intra-operative inclination/anteversion was 5° (sd 5°)/ -8° (sd 8°). The mean difference between simulated radiographic and intra-operative inclination/anteversion, which quantifies the effect of the different way acetabular orientation is measured, was 3°/-6° (sd 2°). The mean difference between radiographic and simulated radiographic orientation inclination/anteversion, which is a manifestation of the change in pelvic position between component impaction and radiograph, was 1°/-2° (sd 7°).

This study demonstrated that in order to achieve a specific radiographic orientation target, surgeons should implant the acetabular component 5° less inclined and 8° more anteverted than their target. Great variability (2 sd about ± 15°) in the post-operative radiographic cup orientation was seen. The two equally contributing causes for this are variability in the orientation at which the cup is implanted, and the change in pelvic position between impaction and post-operative radiograph.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1290–7

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 7 | Pages 876 - 883
1 Jul 2014
Grammatopoulos G Pandit HG da Assunção R Taylor A McLardy-Smith P De Smet KA Murray DW Gill HS

The orientation of the acetabular component is influenced not only by the orientation at which the surgeon implants the component, but also the orientation of the pelvis at the time of implantation. Hence, the orientation of the pelvis at set-up and its movement during the operation, are important. During 67 hip replacements, using a validated photogrammetric technique, we measured how three surgeons orientated the patient’s pelvis, how much the pelvis moved during surgery, and what effect these had on the final orientation of the acetabular component. Pelvic orientation at set-up, varied widely (mean (± 2, standard deviation (sd))): tilt 8° (2sd ±32), obliquity –4° (2sd ±12), rotation –8° (2sd ±14). Significant differences in pelvic positioning were detected between surgeons (p < 0.001). The mean angular movement of the pelvis between set-up and component implantation was 9° (sd 6). Factors influencing pelvic movement included surgeon, approach (posterior >  lateral), procedure (hip resurfacing > total hip replacement) and type of support (p < 0.001). Although, on average, surgeons achieved their desired acetabular component orientation, there was considerable variability (2sd ±16) in component orientation. We conclude that inconsistency in positioning the patient at set-up and movement of the pelvis during the operation account for much of the variation in acetabular component orientation. Improved methods of positioning and holding the pelvis are required.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:876–83.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1180 - 1186
1 Sep 2012
Murray DW Grammatopoulos G Pandit H Gundle R Gill HS McLardy-Smith P

Recent events have highlighted the importance of implant design for survival and wear-related complications following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The mid-term survival of the most widely used implant, the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR), has been described by its designers. The aim of this study was to report the ten-year survival and patient-reported functional outcome of the BHR from an independent centre.

In this cohort of 554 patients (646 BHRs) with a mean age of 51.9 years (16.5 to 81.5) followed for a mean of eight years (1 to 12), the survival and patient-reported functional outcome depended on gender and the size of the implant. In female hips (n = 267) the ten-year survival was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI) 83 to 91), the ten-year revision rate for pseudotumour was 7%, the mean Oxford hip score (OHS) was 43 (sd 8) and the mean UCLA activity score was 6.4 (sd 2). In male hips (n = 379) the ten-year survival was 95% (95% CI 92.0 to 97.4), the ten-year revision rate for pseudotumour was 1.7%, the mean OHS was 45 (sd 6) and the mean UCLA score was 7.6 (sd 2). In the most demanding subgroup, comprising male patients aged < 50 years treated for primary osteoarthritis, the survival was 99% (95% CI 97 to 100).

This study supports the ongoing use of resurfacing in young active men, who are a subgroup of patients who tend to have problems with conventional THR. In contrast, the results in women have been poor and we do not recommend metal-on-metal resurfacing in women. Continuous follow-up is recommended because of the increasing incidence of pseudotumour with the passage of time.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1072 - 1078
1 Aug 2010
Grammatopoulos G Pandit H Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Whitwell D Gill HS Murray DW

Pseudotumours are a rare complication of hip resurfacing. They are thought to be a response to metal debris which may be caused by edge loading due to poor orientation of the acetabular component. Our aim was to determine the optimal acetabular orientation to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation.

We matched 31 hip resurfacings revised for pseudotumour formation with 58 controls who had a satisfactory outcome from this procedure. The radiographic inclination and anteversion angles of the acetabular component were measured on anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis using Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse software. The mean inclination angle (47°, 10° to 81°) and anteversion angle (14°, 4° to 34°) of the pseudotumour cases were the same (p = 0.8, p = 0.2) as the controls, 46° (29° to 60°) and 16° (4° to 30°) respectively, but the variation was greater. Assuming an accuracy of implantation of ± 10° about a target position, the optimal radiographic position was found to be approximately 45° of inclination and 20° of anteversion. The incidence of pseudotumours inside the zone was four times lower (p = 0.007) than outside the zone.

In order to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation we recommend that surgeons implant the acetabular component at an inclination of 45° (± 10) and anteversion of 20° (± 10) on post-operative radiographs. Because of differences between the radiographic and the operative angles, this may be best achieved by aiming for an inclination of 40° and an anteversion of 25°.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 3 | Pages 356 - 361
1 Mar 2010
Kwon Y- Glyn-Jones S Simpson DJ Kamali A McLardy-Smith P Gill HS Murray DW

The presence of pseudotumours, which are soft-tissue masses relating to the hip, after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty has been associated with elevated levels of metal ions in serum, suggesting that pseudotumours occur when there is increased wear. We aimed to quantify the wear in vivo of implants revised for pseudotumours (eight) and of a control group of implants (22) revised for other reasons of failure.

We found that the implant group with pseudotumours had a significantly higher rate of median linear wear of the femoral component at 8.1 μm/year (2.75 to 25.4) than the 1.79 μm/year (0.82 to 4.15; p = 0.002) of the non-pseudotumour group. For the acetabular component a significantly higher rate of median linear wear of 7.36 μm/year (1.61 to 24.9) was observed in the pseudotumour group compared with 1.28 μm/year (0.81 to 3.33, p = 0.001) in the other group. Wear of the acetabular component in the pseudotumour group always involved the edge of the implant, indicating that edge-loading had occurred.

Our findings are the first direct evidence that pseudotumour is associated with increased wear at the metal-on-metal articulation. Furthermore, edge-loading with the loss of fluid-film lubrication may be an important mechanism of generation of wear in patients with a pseudotumour.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1019 - 1024
1 Aug 2009
Grammatopolous G Pandit H Kwon Y Gundle R McLardy-Smith P Beard DJ Murray DW Gill HS

Inflammatory pseudotumours occasionally occur after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and often lead to revision. Our aim was to determine the severity of this complication by assessing the outcome of revision in these circumstances and by comparing this with the outcome of other metal-on-metal hip resurfacing revisions as well as that of matched primary total hip replacements.

We identified 53 hips which had undergone metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and required revision at a mean of 1.59 years (0.01 to 6.69) after operation. Of these, 16 were revised for pseudotumours, 21 for fracture and 16 for other reasons. These were matched by age, gender and diagnosis with 103 patients undergoing primary total hip replacement with the Exeter implant.

At a mean follow-up of three years (0.8 to 7.2) the outcome of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing revision for pseudotumour was poor with a mean Oxford hip score of 20.9 (sd 9.3) and was significantly worse (p < 0.001) than the outcome for fracture with a mean Oxford hip score of 40.2 (sd 9.2) or that for other causes with a mean Oxford hip score of 37.8 (sd 9.4). The clinical outcome of revision for pseudotumour was also significantly worse (p < 0.001) than the outcome of matched primary total hip replacements. By contrast, the outcome for fracture and other causes was not significantly different from that of matched primary total hip replacements (p = 0.065). After revision for pseudotumour there were three cases of recurrent dislocation, three of palsy of the femoral nerve, one of stenosis of the femoral artery and two of loosening of the component. Five hips required further revision. In three of these there was evidence of recurrent pseudotumour, and one is currently awaiting further revision. The incidence of major complications after revision for pseudotumour (50%) was significantly higher (p = 0.018) than that after revision for other causes (14%).

The outcome of revision for pseudotumour is poor and consideration should be given to early revision to limit the extent of the soft-tissue destruction. The outcome of resurfacing revision for other causes is good.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 7 | Pages 847 - 851
1 Jul 2008
Pandit H Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Whitwell D Gibbons CLM Ostlere S Athanasou N Gill HS Murray DW

We report 17 patients (20 hips) in whom metal-on-metal resurfacing had been performed and who presented with various symptoms and a soft-tissue mass which we termed a pseudotumour. Each patient underwent plain radiography and in some, CT, MRI and ultrasonography were also performed. In addition, histological examination of available samples was undertaken.

All the patients were women and their presentation was variable. The most common symptom was discomfort in the region of the hip. Other symptoms included spontaneous dislocation, nerve palsy, a noticeable mass or a rash. The common histological features were extensive necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration. To date, 13 of the 20 hips have required revision to a conventional hip replacement. Two are awaiting revision.

We estimate that approximately 1% of patients who have a metal-on-metal resurfacing develop a pseudotumour within five years. The cause is unknown and is probably multifactorial. There may be a toxic reaction to an excess of particulate metal wear debris or a hypersensitivity reaction to a normal amount of metal debris. We are concerned that with time the incidence of these pseudotumours may increase. Further investigation is required to define their cause.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 5 | Pages 556 - 561
1 May 2008
Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gill HS Murray DW

The creep and wear behaviour of highly cross-linked polyethylene and standard polyethylene liners were examined in a prospective, double-blind randomised, controlled trial using radiostereometric analysis.

We randomised 54 patients to receive hip replacements with either highly cross-linked polyethylene or standard liners and determined the three-dimensional penetration of the liners over three years.

After three years the mean total penetration was 0.35 mm (SD 0.14) for the highly cross-linked polyethylene group and 0.45 mm (SD 0.19) for the standard group. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0184). From the pattern of penetration it was possible to discriminate creep from wear. Most (95%) of the creep occurred within six months of implantation and nearly all within the first year. There was no difference in the mean degree of creep between the two types of polyethylene (highly cross-linked polyethylene 0.26 mm, SD 0.17; standard 0.27 mm, SD 0.2; p = 0.83). There was, however, a significant difference (p = 0.012) in the mean wear rate (highly cross-linked polyethylene 0.03 mm/yr, SD 0.06; standard 0.07 mm/yr, SD 0.05). Creep and wear occurred in significantly different directions (p = 0.01); creep was predominantly proximal whereas wear was anterior, proximal and medial.

We conclude that penetration in the first six months is creep-dominated, but after one year virtually all penetration is due to wear. Highly cross-linked polyethylene has a 60% lower rate of wear than standard polyethylene and therefore will probably perform better in the long term.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 4 | Pages 436 - 441
1 Apr 2008
Steffen RT Pandit HP Palan J Beard DJ Gundle R McLardy-Smith P Murray DW Gill HS

Few independent studies have reported the outcome of resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip. The aim of this study was to report the five-year clinical outcome and seven-year survival of an independent series.

A total of 610 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing arthroplasties were performed in 532 patients with a mean age of 51.8 years (16.5 to 81.6). They were followed for between two and eight years; 107 patients (120 hips) had been followed up for more than five years. Two patients were lost to follow-up. At a minimum of five years’ follow-up, 79 of 85 hips (93%) had an excellent or good outcome according to the Harris hip score. The mean Oxford hip score was 16.1 points (sd 7.7) and the mean University of California Los Angeles activity score was 6.6 points (sd 1.9). There were no patients with definite radiological evidence of loosening or of narrowing of the femoral neck exceeding 10% of its width. There were 23 revisions (3.8%), giving an overall survival of 95% (95% confidence interval 85.3 to 99.2) at seven years. Fractured neck of femur in 12 hips was the most common indication for revision, followed by aseptic loosening in four. In three hips (three patients) (0.5%), failure was possibly related to metal debris.

Considering that these patients are young and active these results are good, and support the use of resurfacing. Further study is needed to address the early failures, particularly those related to fracture and metal debris.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1468 - 1474
1 Nov 2005
Steffen RT Smith SR Urban JPG McLardy-Smith P Beard DJ Gill HS Murray DW

We inserted an electrode up the femoral neck into the femoral head of ten patients undergoing a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty through a posterior surgical approach and measured the oxygen concentration during the operation. In every patient the blood flow was compromised during surgery, but the extent varied. In three patients, the oxygen concentration was zero at the end of the procedure. The surgical approach caused a mean 60% drop (p < 0.005) in oxygen concentration while component insertion led to a further 20% drop (p < 0.04). The oxygen concentration did not improve significantly on wound closure. This study demonstrates that during hip resurfacing arthroplasty, patients experience some compromise to their femoral head blood supply and some have complete disruption.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1197 - 1202
1 Sep 2005
Fawzy E Mandellos G De Steiger R McLardy-Smith P Benson MKD Murray D

We followed up 76 consecutive hips with symptomatic acetabular dysplasia treated by acetabular shelf augmentation for a mean period of 11 years. Survival analysis using conversion to hip replacement as an end-point was 86% at five years and 46% at ten years. Forty-four hips with slight or no narrowing of the joint space pre-operatively had a survival of 97% at five and 75% at ten years. This was significantly higher (p = 0.0007) than that of the 32 hips with moderate or severe narrowing of the joint-space, which was 76% at five and 22% at ten years. There was no significant relationship between survival and age (p = 0.37) or the pre- and post-operative centre-edge (p = 0.39) and acetabular angles (p = 0.85).

Shelf acetabuloplasty is a reliable, safe procedure offering medium-term symptomatic relief for adults with acetabular dysplasia. The best results were achieved in patients with mild and moderate dysplasia of the hip with little arthritis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 7 | Pages 921 - 927
1 Jul 2005
Glyn-Jones S Gill HS Beard DJ McLardy-Smith P Murray DW

Polished, tapered stems are now widely used for cemented total hip replacement and many such designs have been introduced. However, a change in stem geometry may have a profound influence on stability. Stems with a wide, rectangular proximal section may be more stable than those which are narrower proximally. We examined the influence of proximal geometry on stability by comparing the two-year migration of the Exeter stem with a more recent design, the CPS-Plus, which has a wider shoulder and a more rectangular cross-section. The hypothesis was that these design features would increase rotational stability.

Both stems subsided approximately 1 mm relative to the femur during the first two years after implantation. The Exeter stem was found to rotate into valgus (mean 0.2°, sd 0.42°) and internally rotate (mean 1.28°, sd 0.99°). The CPS-Plus showed no significant valgus rotation (mean 0.2°, sd 0.42°) or internal rotation (mean −0.03°, sd 0.75°). A wider, more rectangular cross-section improves rotational stability and may have a better long-term outcome.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 6 | Pages 863 - 866
1 Jun 2005
Nagarajah K Aslam N McLardy Smith P McNally M

We describe a technique of ‘cross-hip distraction’ to reduce a dislocated hip with subsequent reconstruction of the joint for septic arthritis with extensive femoral osteomyelitis. A 27-year-old woman presented with a dislocated, collapsed femoral head and chronic osteomyelitis of the femur. Examination revealed a leg-length discrepancy of 7 cm and an irritable hip. A staged technique was used with primary clearance of osteomyelitis and secondary reconstruction of the hip. A cross-hip monolateral external fixator was used to establish normal anatomy followed by an arthroplasty. A good functional outcome was achieved. The use of cross-hip distraction avoids soft-tissue and nerve damage and achieved improved abductor function before arthroplasty.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 3 | Pages 320 - 323
1 Mar 2005
Little CP Ruiz AL Harding IJ McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Murray DW Athanasou NA

We present the histological findings of bone retrieved from beneath the femoral components of failed metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasties. Of a total of 377 patients who underwent resurfacing arthroplasty, 13 required revision; for fracture of the femoral neck in eight, loosening of a component in three and for other reasons in two. None of these cases had shown histological evidence of osteonecrosis in the femoral bone at the time of the initial implantation.

Bone from the remnant of the femoral head showed changes of osteonecrosis in all but one case at revision. In two cases of fracture which occurred within a week of implantation, the changes were compatible with early necrosis of the edge of the fracture. In the remaining six fractures, there were changes of established osteonecrosis. In all but one of the non-fracture cases, patchy osteonecrosis was seen.

We conclude that histological evidence of osteonecrosis is a common finding in failed resurfaced hips. Given that osteonecrosis is extensive in resurfaced femoral heads which fail by fracture, it is likely to play a role in the causation of these fractures.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 2 | Pages 172 - 176
1 Mar 2004
Glyn-Jones S Gill HS McLardy-Smith P Murray DW

The Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) arthroplasty is a metal-on-metal prosthesis for which no medium- or long-term results have been published. Despite this, it is increasing in popularity as an alternative to stemmed prostheses for younger patients. Since the fixation of the socket is conventional, the major concern is long-term failure of the femoral component. This can be predicted by the use of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). We have therefore undertaken such a study of the BHR femoral component over a period of two years.

Twenty patients (22 hips) underwent a standard BHR procedure. Migration of the femoral component was measured by RSA at intervals of three, six, 12 and 24 months. At 24 months the total three-dimensional migration of the head was 0.2 mm. This was not statistically significant. Previous studies have shown that implants which loosen quickly have rapid early migration. Our results therefore suggest that the BHR femoral component is an inherently stable device which is likely to perform well in the long term.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 1 | Pages 62 - 67
1 Jan 2003
Price AJ Rees JL Beard D Juszczak E Carter S White S de Steiger R Dodd CAF Gibbons M McLardy-Smith P Goodfellow JW Murray DW

Before proceeding to longer-term studies, we have studied the early clinical results of a new mobile-bearing total knee prosthesis in comparison with an established fixed-bearing device. Patients requiring bilateral knee replacement consented to have their operations under one anaesthetic using one of each prosthesis. They also agreed to accept the random choice of knee (right or left) and to remain ignorant as to which side had which implant. Outcomes were measured using the American Knee Society Score (AKSS), the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and determination of the range of movement and pain scores before and at one year after operation.

Preoperatively, there was no systematic difference between the right and left knees. One patient died in the perioperative period and one mobile-bearing prosthesis required early revision for dislocation of the meniscal component.

At one year the mean AKSS, OKS and pain scores for the new device were slightly better (p < 0.025) than those for the fixed-bearing device. There was no difference in the range of movement.

We believe that this is the first controlled, blinded trial to compare early function of a new knee prosthesis with that of a standard implant. It demonstrates a small but significant clinical advantage for the mobile-bearing design.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1125 - 1129
1 Nov 2001
Dawson J Fitzpatrick R Frost S Gundle R McLardy-Smith P Murray D

The Oxford hip score (OHS) is a patient-based instrument for assessment of outcome which is often used after total hip replacement, and the EuroQol 5D (EQ5D) is a patient-based generic questionnaire for health assessment. In an analysis of the outcome at one year of 609 revision hip replacements (RHRs), we compared the OHS and EQ5D scores, postoperative patient satisfaction and change in pain. About 25% of the operations were repeat RHRs. At one year, 57% of patients were very pleased with their operation. The correlation between preoperative and postoperative scores and change scores for the OHS and EQ5D was high. For both instruments the effect sizes were large, but the greater effect size of the OHS suggests that it is particularly sensitive to improvements after RHR. The effect scores of the OHS declined with the number of previous RHRs, while those for the EQ5D seemed less sensitive. Our results confirm the value of the OHS in assessing outcome after RHR.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 69-B, Issue 1 | Pages 103 - 107
1 Jan 1987
Wilson D McLardy-Smith P Woodham C MacLarnon J

Ultrasound examination has been recommended for the evaluation of acute haemorrhages into soft tissues or joints in haemophilic patients. We have reviewed the notes of all such patients admitted during one calendar year and find that in 47 separate admissions the ultrasound examination assisted management decisions on 27 occasions. The technique is described with an analysis of the ways in which ultrasound observations may influence the clinician.