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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 57-B, Issue 4 | Pages 525 - 528
1 Nov 1975
Lutfi AM

The medial meniscus was resected from the right knees of twelve young grivet monkeys that were killed at intervals of twenty-one to 252 days after operation. The knees operated upon and the control knees were investigated radiologically and histologically. Degenerative changes occurred in the medial femoral and tibial condyles. At first there was loss of cells from the superficial layer of the articular cartilage, with a marked decrease in the acid mucopolysaccharide content of the matrix. The chondrocytes in the deeper layer of the non-calcified zone proliferated to form clones before finally degenerating. The acellular cartilage showed splitting, and with progress of the degenerative process there was thinning and erosion of the cartilage. Eventually there was complete loss of articular cartilage with thickening and exposure of the subchondral bone. These degenerative changes were confined to a small area of the articular cartilage and had occurred despite regeneration of the meniscus. The rest of the cartilage looked normal. It is concluded that articular cartilage deprived of the protection of a meniscus may undergo arthritic changes.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 56-B, Issue 1 | Pages 186 - 193
1 Feb 1974
Lutfi AM

1 . Implants of heterogenous cartilage are known to excite a foreign body reaction in host tissues. In these experiments the way such implants hinder the spread of ossification across a fracture gap was studied. A segment of bone and periosteum was excised from both fibulae in twelve young grivet monkeys, and epiphysial cartilage from a four-day- old rat was implanted in the gap on the left side. The repair processes were investigated at intervals up to twenty-eight weeks.

2. On both sides the gaps were filled by fibrous tissue growing in from the adjacent muscle, and four weeks elapsed before callus started to form. Thereafter ossification across the gap was active on the right side, with bony union in seven or eight weeks.

3. On the left side the implant was slowly resorbed by macrophages and giant cells. Ossification made little headway in the gap after the seventh week. Remains of the implant were found up to the end of the period covered by the experiment. The ends of the fragments were united by fibrous tissue.

4. The fifth to the eighth week seemed to be a critical period, during which the implant and its surrounding inflammatory cells hindered chondrification and ossification and prevented fusion of the masses of callus at the ends of the fragments.

5. It is concluded that anything that impedes callus formation across the fracture line during this critical period may lead to non-union.