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1 . Implants of heterogenous cartilage are known to excite a foreign body reaction in host tissues. In these experiments the way such implants hinder the spread of ossification across a fracture gap was studied. A segment of bone and periosteum was excised from both fibulae in twelve young grivet monkeys, and epiphysial cartilage from a four-day- old rat was implanted in the gap on the left side. The repair processes were investigated at intervals up to twenty-eight weeks.

2. On both sides the gaps were filled by fibrous tissue growing in from the adjacent muscle, and four weeks elapsed before callus started to form. Thereafter ossification across the gap was active on the right side, with bony union in seven or eight weeks.

3. On the left side the implant was slowly resorbed by macrophages and giant cells. Ossification made little headway in the gap after the seventh week. Remains of the implant were found up to the end of the period covered by the experiment. The ends of the fragments were united by fibrous tissue.

4. The fifth to the eighth week seemed to be a critical period, during which the implant and its surrounding inflammatory cells hindered chondrification and ossification and prevented fusion of the masses of callus at the ends of the fragments.

5. It is concluded that anything that impedes callus formation across the fracture line during this critical period may lead to non-union.

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