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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 3 | Pages 284 - 293
1 Mar 2023
Li Y Zhang X Ji B Wulamu W Yushan N Guo X Cao L


Gram-negative periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) has been poorly studied despite its rapidly increasing incidence. Treatment with one-stage revision using intra-articular (IA) infusion of antibiotics may offer a reasonable alternative with a distinct advantage of providing a means of delivering the drug in high concentrations. Carbapenems are regarded as the last line of defense against severe Gram-negative or polymicrobial infection. This study presents the results of one-stage revision using intra-articular carbapenem infusion for treating Gram-negative PJI, and analyzes the characteristics of bacteria distribution and drug sensitivity.


We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients (22 hips and 11 knees) who underwent single-stage revision combined with IA carbapenem infusion between November 2013 and March 2020. The IA and intravenous (IV) carbapenem infusions were administered for a single Gram-negative infection, and IV vancomycin combined with IA carbapenems and vancomycin was applied for polymicrobial infection including Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial community distribution, drug sensitivity, infection control rate, functional recovery, and complications were evaluated. Reinfection or death caused by PJI was regarded as a treatment failure.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 9 | Pages 652 - 668
7 Sep 2022
Lv G Wang B Li L Li Y Li X He H Kuang L


Exosomes (exo) are involved in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to investigate the function of dysfunctional chondrocyte-derived exo (DC-exo) on OA in rats and rat macrophages.


Rat-derived chondrocytes were isolated, and DCs induced with interleukin (IL)-1β were used for exo isolation. Rats with OA (n = 36) or macrophages were treated with DC-exo or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Macrophage polarization and autophagy, and degradation and chondrocyte activity of cartilage tissues, were examined. RNA sequencing was used to detect genes differentially expressed in DC-exo, followed by RNA pull-down and ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP). Long non-coding RNA osteoarthritis non-coding transcript (OANCT) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 (PIK3R5) were depleted in DC-exo-treated macrophages and OA rats, in order to observe macrophage polarization and cartilage degradation. The PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activity in cells and tissues was measured using western blot.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 7 | Pages 439 - 452
13 Jul 2022
Sun Q Li G Liu D Xie W Xiao W Li Y Cai M

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent degenerative joint disorder characterized by joint pain and physical disability. Aberrant subchondral bone induces pathological changes and is a major source of pain in OA. In the subchondral bone, which is highly innervated, nerves have dual roles in pain sensation and bone homeostasis regulation. The interaction between peripheral nerves and target cells in the subchondral bone, and the interplay between the sensory and sympathetic nervous systems, allow peripheral nerves to regulate subchondral bone homeostasis. Alterations in peripheral innervation and local transmitters are closely related to changes in nociception and subchondral bone homeostasis, and affect the progression of OA. Recent literature has substantially expanded our understanding of the physiological and pathological distribution and function of specific subtypes of neurones in bone. This review summarizes the types and distribution of nerves detected in the tibial subchondral bone, their cellular and molecular interactions with bone cells that regulate subchondral bone homeostasis, and their role in OA pain. A comprehensive understanding and further investigation of the functions of peripheral innervation in the subchondral bone will help to develop novel therapeutic approaches to effectively prevent OA, and alleviate OA pain.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(7):439–452.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 4 | Pages 189 - 199
13 Apr 2022
Yang Y Li Y Pan Q Bai S Wang H Pan X Ling K Li G


Treatment for delayed wound healing resulting from peripheral vascular diseases and diabetic foot ulcers remains a challenge. A novel surgical technique named ‘tibial cortex transverse transport’ (TTT) has been developed for treating peripheral ischaemia, with encouraging clinical effects. However, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we explored the potential biological mechanisms of TTT surgery using various techniques in a rat TTT animal model.


A novel rat model of TTT was established with a designed external fixator, and effects on wound healing were investigated. Laser speckle perfusion imaging, vessel perfusion, histology, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the wound healing processes.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 12 | Pages 767 - 779
8 Dec 2021
Li Y Yang Y Wang M Zhang X Bai S Lu X Li Y Waldorff EI Zhang N Lee WY Li G


Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a useful orthopaedic procedure employed to lengthen and reshape bones by stimulating bone formation through controlled slow stretching force. Despite its promising applications, difficulties are still encountered. Our previous study demonstrated that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment significantly enhances bone mineralization and neovascularization, suggesting its potential application. The current study compared a new, high slew rate (HSR) PEMF signal, with different treatment durations, with the standard Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved signal, to determine if HSR PEMF is a better alternative for bone formation augmentation.


The effects of a HSR PEMF signal with three daily treatment durations (0.5, one, and three hours/day) were investigated in an established rat DO model with comparison of an FDA-approved classic signal (three hrs/day). PEMF treatments were applied to the rats daily for 35 days, starting from the distraction phase until termination. Radiography, micro-CT (μCT), biomechanical tests, and histological examinations were employed to evaluate the quality of bone formation.


Exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been reported to be a promising cellular therapeutic approach for various human diseases. The current study aimed to investigate the mechanism of BMSC-derived exosomes carrying microRNA (miR)-136-5p in fracture healing.


A mouse fracture model was initially established by surgical means. Exosomes were isolated from BMSCs from mice. The endocytosis of the mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell line was analyzed. CCK-8 and disodium phenyl phosphate microplate methods were employed to detect cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, respectively. The binding of miR-136-5p to low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 4 (LRP4) was analyzed by dual luciferase reporter gene assay. HE staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the healing of the bone tissue ends, the positive number of osteoclasts, and the positive expression of β-catenin protein, respectively.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 11 | Pages 751 - 760
1 Nov 2020
Li Y Lin X Zhu M Xun F Li J Yuan Z Liu Y Xu H


This study aimed to investigate the effect of solute carrier family 20 member 2 (SLC20A2) gene mutation (identified from a hereditary multiple exostoses family) on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.


ATDC5 chondrocytes were cultured in insulin-transferrin-selenium medium to induce differentiation. Cells were transfected with pcDNA3.0 plasmids with either a wild-type (WT) or mutated (MUT) SLC20A2 gene. The inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration in the medium of cells was determined. The expression of markers of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, the Indian hedgehog (Ihh), and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) pathway were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1311 - 1318
3 Oct 2020
Huang Y Gao Y Li Y Ding L Liu J Qi X


Morphological abnormalities are present in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We studied and compared the pelvic anatomy and morphology between the affected hemipelvis with the unaffected side in patients with unilateral Crowe type IV DDH using 3D imaging and analysis.


A total of 20 patients with unilateral Crowe-IV DDH were included in the study. The contralateral side was considered normal in all patients. A coordinate system based on the sacral base (SB) in a reconstructed pelvic model was established. The pelvic orientations (tilt, rotation, and obliquity) of the affected side were assessed by establishing a virtual anterior pelvic plane (APP). The bilateral coordinates of the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the centres of hip rotation were established, and parameters concerning size and volume were compared for both sides of the pelvis.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 12 | Pages 640 - 648
1 Dec 2017
Xia B Li Y Zhou J Tian B Feng L


Osteoporosis is a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to identify key genes in osteoporosis.


Microarray data sets GSE56815 and GSE56814, comprising 67 osteoporosis blood samples and 62 control blood samples, were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in osteoporosis using Limma package (3.2.1) and Meta-MA packages. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses were performed to identify biological functions. Furthermore, the transcriptional regulatory network was established between the top 20 DEGs and transcriptional factors using the UCSC ENCODE Genome Browser. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to investigate the diagnostic value of several DEGs.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 7 | Pages 872 - 879
1 Jul 2017
Li Y Zhang X Wang Q Peng X Wang Q Jiang Y Chen Y


There is no consensus about the best method of achieving equal leg lengths at total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We reviewed our experience of a consecutive series of patients who underwent THA for this indication.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed 78 patients (86 THAs) with Crowe type-IV DDH, including 64 women and 14 men, with a minimum follow-up of two years. The mean age at the time of surgery was 52.2 years (34 to 82). We subdivided Crowe type-IV DDH into two major types according to the number of dislocated hips, and further categorised them into three groups according to the occurrence of pelvic obliquity or spinal curvature. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) and functional scores were analysed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1411 - 1416
1 Oct 2015
Li Y Yang S Chen H Kao Y Tu Y

We evaluated the impact of lumbar instrumented circumferential fusion on the development of adjacent level vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has become a popular procedure for degenerative lumbar spine disease. The immediate rigidity produced by PLIF may cause more stress and lead to greater risk of adjacent VCFs. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between PLIF and the development of subsequent adjacent level VCFs.

Between January 2005 and December 2009, a total of 1936 patients were enrolled. Of these 224 patients had a new VCF and the incidence was statistically analysed with other covariants. In total 150 (11.1%) of 1348 patients developed new VCFs with PLIF, with 108 (72%) cases at adjacent segment. Of 588 patients, 74 (12.5%) developed new subsequent VCFs with conventional posterolateral fusion (PLF), with 37 (50%) patients at an adjacent level. Short-segment fusion, female and age older than 65 years also increased the development of new adjacent VCFs in patients undergoing PLIF. In the osteoporotic patient, more rigid fusion and a higher stress gradient after PLIF will cause a higher adjacent VCF rate.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1411–16.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 221 - 228
1 Feb 2015
Zhang X Li Y Wen S Zhu H Shao X Yu Y

We report a new surgical technique of open carpal tunnel release with subneural reconstruction of the transverse carpal ligament and compare this with isolated open and endoscopic carpal tunnel release.

Between December 2007 and October 2011, 213 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (70 male, 143 female; mean age 45.6 years; 29 to 67) were recruited from three different centres and were randomly allocated to three groups: group A, open carpal tunnel release with subneural reconstruction of the transverse carpal ligament (n = 68); group B, isolated open carpal tunnel release (n = 92); and group C, endoscopic carpal tunnel release (n = 53).

At a mean final follow-up of 24 months (22 to 26), we found no significant difference between the groups in terms of severity of symptoms or lateral grip strength. Compared with groups B and C, group A had significantly better functional status, cylindrical grip strength and pinch grip strength. There were significant differences in Michigan Hand Outcome scores between groups A and B, A and C, and B and C. Group A had the best functional status, cylindrical grip strength, pinch grip strength and Michigan Hand Outcome score.

Subneural reconstruction of the transverse carpal ligament during carpal tunnel decompression maximises hand strength by stabilising the transverse carpal arch.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:221–8

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 1 | Pages 30 - 32
1 Jan 1998
Shen Q Jia L Li Y

A four-year-old boy presented with a solitary bone cyst in the odontoid process and body of the axis. Plain radiographs showed a radiolucent lesion with extreme thinning of the cortex and MRI demonstrated a high signal intensity in the interlesional matrix. The cystic component extended into the body of the axis through a defect in the epiphyseal plate.

At operation, the cavity of the cyst was found to contain serosanguineous fluid, and histological examination showed that it was lined by a thin layer of connective tissue. The cyst may have originated from a defect in the epiphyseal plate.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 6 | Pages 988 - 990
1 Nov 1994
Li W Li Y Yun H