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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 5 Supple B | Pages 32 - 39
1 May 2024
Briem T Stephan A Stadelmann VA Fischer MA Pfirrmann CWA Rüdiger HA Leunig M


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid-term outcomes of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) for the treatment of larger cartilage lesions and deformity correction in hips suffering from symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI).


This single-centre study focused on a cohort of 24 patients with cam- or pincer-type FAI, full-thickness femoral or acetabular chondral lesions, or osteochondral lesions ≥ 2 cm2, who underwent surgical hip dislocation for FAI correction in combination with AMIC between March 2009 and February 2016. Baseline data were retrospectively obtained from patient files. Mid-term outcomes were prospectively collected at a follow-up in 2020: cartilage repair tissue quality was evaluated by MRI using the Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) score. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) included the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and Core Outcome Measure Index (COMI). Clinical examination included range of motion, impingement tests, and pain.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 9 | Pages 666 - 673
1 Sep 2022
Blümel S Leunig M Manner H Tannast M Stetzelberger VM Ganz R


Avascular femoral head necrosis in the context of gymnastics is a rare but serious complication, appearing similar to Perthes’ disease but occurring later during adolescence. Based on 3D CT animations, we propose repetitive impact between the main supplying vessels on the posterolateral femoral neck and the posterior acetabular wall in hyperextension and external rotation as a possible cause of direct vascular damage, and subsequent femoral head necrosis in three adolescent female gymnasts we are reporting on.


Outcome of hip-preserving head reduction osteotomy combined with periacetabular osteotomy was good in one and moderate in the other up to three years after surgery; based on the pronounced hip destruction, the third received initially a total hip arthroplasty.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 7 | Pages 826 - 832
1 Jul 2022
Stadelmann VA Rüdiger HA Nauer S Leunig M


It is not known whether preservation of the capsule of the hip positively affects patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in total hip arthroplasty using the direct anterior approach (DAA-THA). A recent randomized controlled trial found no clinically significant difference at one year postoperatively. This study aimed to determine whether preservation of the anterolateral capsule and anatomical closure improve the outcome and revision rate, when compared with resection of the anterolateral capsule, at two years postoperatively.


Two consecutive groups of patients whose operations were performed by the senior author were compared. The anterolateral capsule was resected in the first group of 430 patients between January 2012 and December 2014, and preserved and anatomically closed in the second group of 450 patients between July 2015 and December 2017. There were no other technical changes between the two groups. Patient characteristics, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and surgical data were collected from our database. PROM questionnaires, consisting of the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI-Hip), were collected two years postoperatively. Data were analyzed with generalized multiple regression analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 7 | Pages 853 - 861
1 Jul 2018
Leunig M Hutmacher JE Ricciardi BF Impellizzeri FM Rüdiger HA Naal FD


The classical longitudinal incision used for the direct anterior approach (DAA) to the hip does not follow the tension lines of the skin and can lead to impaired wound healing and poor cosmesis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the satisfaction with the scar, and functional and radiographic outcomes comparing the classic longitudinal incision with a modified skin crease ‘bikini’ when the DAA is used for total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Patients and Methods

A total of 964 patients (51% female; 59% longitudinal, 41% ‘bikini’) completed a follow-up questionnaire between two and four years postoperatively, including the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), the University of North Carolina ‘4P’ scar scale (UNC4P) and two items for assessing the aesthetic appearance of the scar and symptoms of numbness. The positioning of the components, rates of heterotopic ossification (HO) and rates of revision were assessed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 1 | Pages 16 - 21
1 Jan 2017
Aprato A Leunig M Massé A Slongo T Ganz R


Several studies have reported the safety and efficacy of subcapital re-alignment for patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) using surgical dislocation of the hip and an extended retinacular flap. Instability of the hip and dislocation as a consequence of this surgery has only recently gained attention. We discuss this problem with some illustrative cases.

Materials and Methods

We explored the literature on the possible pathophysiological causes and surgical steps associated with the risk of post-operative instability and articular damage. In addition, we describe supplementary steps that could be used to avoid these problems.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 1 | Pages 5 - 18
1 Jan 2014
Leunig M Ganz R

The use of joint-preserving surgery of the hip has been largely abandoned since the introduction of total hip replacement. However, with the modification of such techniques as pelvic osteotomy, and the introduction of intracapsular procedures such as surgical hip dislocation and arthroscopy, previously unexpected options for the surgical treatment of sequelae of childhood conditions, including developmental dysplasia of the hip, slipped upper femoral epiphysis and Perthes’ disease, have become available. Moreover, femoroacetabular impingement has been identified as a significant aetiological factor in the development of osteoarthritis in many hips previously considered to suffer from primary osteoarthritis.

As mechanical causes of degenerative joint disease are now recognised earlier in the disease process, these techniques may be used to decelerate or even prevent progression to osteoarthritis. We review the recent development of these concepts and the associated surgical techniques.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:5–18.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 1, Issue 10 | Pages 245 - 257
1 Oct 2012
Tibor LM Leunig M

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) causes pain and chondrolabral damage via mechanical overload during movement of the hip. It is caused by many different types of pathoanatomy, including the cam ‘bump’, decreased head–neck offset, acetabular retroversion, global acetabular overcoverage, prominent anterior–inferior iliac spine, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, and the sequelae of childhood Perthes’ disease.

Both evolutionary and developmental factors may cause FAI. Prevalence studies show that anatomic variations that cause FAI are common in the asymptomatic population. Young athletes may be predisposed to FAI because of the stress on the physis during development. Other factors, including the soft tissues, may also influence symptoms and chondrolabral damage.

FAI and the resultant chondrolabral pathology are often treated arthroscopically. Although the results are favourable, morphologies can be complex, patient expectations are high and the surgery is challenging. The long-term outcomes of hip arthroscopy are still forthcoming and it is unknown if treatment of FAI will prevent arthrosis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 2 | Pages 179 - 184
1 Feb 2012
Sutter M Hersche O Leunig M Guggi T Dvorak J Eggspuehler A

Peripheral nerve injury is an uncommon but serious complication of hip surgery that can adversely affect the outcome. Several studies have described the use of electromyography and intra-operative sensory evoked potentials for early warning of nerve injury. We assessed the results of multimodal intra-operative monitoring during complex hip surgery. We retrospectively analysed data collected between 2001 and 2010 from 69 patients who underwent complex hip surgery by a single surgeon using multimodal intra-operative monitoring from a total pool of 7894 patients who underwent hip surgery during this period. In 24 (35%) procedures the surgeon was alerted to a possible lesion to the sciatic and/or femoral nerve. Alerts were observed most frequently during peri-acetabular osteotomy. The surgeon adapted his approach based on interpretation of the neurophysiological changes. From 69 monitored surgical procedures, there was only one true positive case of post-operative nerve injury. There were no false positives or false negatives, and the remaining 68 cases were all true negative. The sensitivity for predicting post-operative nerve injury was 100% and the specificity 100%. We conclude that it is possible and appropriate to use this method during complex hip surgery and it is effective for alerting the surgeon to the possibility of nerve injury.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1012 - 1018
1 Jul 2005
Beck M Kalhor M Leunig M Ganz R

Recently, femoroacetabular impingement has been recognised as a cause of early osteoarthritis. There are two mechanisms of impingement: 1) cam impingement caused by a non-spherical head and 2) pincer impingement caused by excessive acetabular cover. We hypothesised that both mechanisms result in different patterns of articular damage. Of 302 analysed hips only 26 had an isolated cam and 16 an isolated pincer impingement. Cam impingement caused damage to the anterosuperior acetabular cartilage with separation between the labrum and cartilage. During flexion, the cartilage was sheared off the bone by the non-spherical femoral head while the labrum remained untouched. In pincer impingement, the cartilage damage was located circumferentially and included only a narrow strip. During movement the labrum is crushed between the acetabular rim and the femoral neck causing degeneration and ossification.

Both cam and pincer impingement lead to osteoarthritis of the hip. Labral damage indicates ongoing impingement and rarely occurs alone.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 3 | Pages 462 - 462
1 Apr 2003

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 1 | Pages 66 - 69
1 Jan 2002
Kloen P Leunig M Ganz R

Osteonecrosis of the femoral head can be caused by a variety of disorders and affects the relatively young patient. Most studies have concentrated on the femoral changes; the sites of early lesions of the labrum and acetabular cartilage have not been recorded. We studied 17 hips with osteonecrosis and a wide congruent joint space on radiographs and by direct inspection of the femoral head, labrum and acetabular cartilage during surgery. All of the femoral heads had some anterosuperior flattening which reduced the head-neck ratio in this area. A consistent pattern of damage to the labrum and the acetabular cartilage was seen in all hips. Intraoperatively, impingement and the cam-effect with its spatial correlation with lesions of the labrum and acetabular cartilage were observed. These findings could be helpful when undertaking conservative surgery for osteonecrosis, since the recognition of early radiologically undetectable acetabular lesions may require modification of the surgical technique.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 2 | Pages 171 - 176
1 Mar 2001
Ito K Minka-II M Leunig M Werlen S Ganz R

We have observed damage to the labrum as a result of repetitive acetabular impingement in non-dysplastic hips, in which the femoral neck appears to abut against the acetabular labrum and a non-spherical femoral head to press against the labrum and adjacent cartilage. In both mechanisms anatomical variations of the proximal femur may be a factor. We have measured the orientation of the femoral neck and the offset of the head at various circumferential positions, using MRI data from volunteers with no osteoarthritic changes on standard radiographs. Compared with the control subjects, paired for gender and age, patients showed a significant reduction in mean femoral anteversion and mean head-neck offset on the anterior aspect of the neck. This was consistent with the site of symptomatic impingement in flexion and internal rotation, and with lesions of the adjacent rim. Furthermore, when stratified for gender and age, and compared with the control group, the mean femoral head-neck offset was significantly reduced in the lateral-to-anterior aspect of the neck for young men, and in the anterolateral-to-anterior aspect of the neck for older women. For patients suspected of having impingement of the rim, anatomical variations in the proximal femur should be considered as a possible cause.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 5 | Pages 915 - 920
1 Sep 1999
Sckell A Leunig M Fraitzl CR Ganz R Ballmer FT

Free patellar tendon grafts used for the intra-articular replacement of ruptured anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) lack perfusion at the time of implantation. The central core of the graft undergoes a process of ischaemic necrosis which may result in failure. Early reperfusion of the graft may diminish the extent of this process.

We assessed the role of peritendinous connective tissue in the revascularisation of the patellar tendon graft from the day of implantation up to 24 days in a murine model using intravital microscopy. The peritendinous connective-tissue envelope of the graft was either completely removed, partially removed or not stripped before implantation into dorsal skinfold chambers of recipient mice.

Initial revascularisation of the grafts with preserved peritendinous connective tissues began after two days. The process was delayed by five to six times in completely stripped patellar tendons (p < 0.05). Only grafts with preserved connective tissues showed high viability whereas those which were completely stripped appeared to be subvital.

The presence of peritendinous connective tissues accelerates the revascularisation of free patellar tendon grafts.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 2 | Pages 341 - 341
1 Mar 1997

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 2 | Pages 341 - 341
1 Mar 1997

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 2 | Pages 230 - 234
1 Mar 1997
Leunig M Werlen S Ungersböck A Ito K Ganz R

Since January 1993 we have carried out MR arthrography on 23 patients with clinical symptoms and signs of abnormality of the acetabular labrum. Most of the patients were young adults. Such symptoms are known precursors of osteoarthritis, and therefore early and accurate evaluation is required.

We assessed the value of MR arthrography of the hip as a minimally-invasive diagnostic technique, in a prospective study and compared the findings with those at subsequent operations. All the patients complained of groin pain; 22 had a positive acetabular impingement test and 15 had radiological evidence of hip dysplasia.

In 21 of the patients, MR arthrography suggested either degeneration or a tear of the labrum or both. These findings were confirmed at operation in 18 patients, but there was no abnormality of the labrum in the other three. In two of the patients, MR arthrography erroneously suggested an intact labrum. Both MR arthrography and intraoperative inspection located lesions of the superior labrum most often, and these appeared slightly larger on arthrography than at operation.

We consider that MR arthrography is a promising diagnostic technique for the evaluation of abnormalities of the acetabular labrum.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 4 | Pages 584 - 587
1 Jul 1996
Leunig M Hertel R

We present three young men who sustained closed diaphyseal fracture of the tibia and later developed severe osteocutaneous necrosis induced by heat during intramedullary reaming. They all had a narrow medullary cavity and in all a tourniquet had been used. Each developed a pretibial cutaneous blister soon after operation. In the following month severe osteomyelitis ensued, requiring segmental resection and osteocutaneous reconstruction.