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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 13, Issue 4 | Pages 157 - 168
4 Apr 2024
Lin M Chen G Yu H Hsu P Lee C Cheng C Wu S Pan B Su B


Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy among children and adolescents. We investigated whether benzamil, an amiloride analogue and sodium-calcium exchange blocker, may exhibit therapeutic potential for osteosarcoma in vitro.


MG63 and U2OS cells were treated with benzamil for 24 hours. Cell viability was evaluated with the MTS/PMS assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry (forward/side scatter). Chromosome condensation, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay, cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase-7, and FITC annexin V/PI double staining were monitored as indicators of apoptosis. Intracellular calcium was detected by flow cytometry with Fluo-4 AM. The phosphorylation and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were measured by western blot. The expression levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), SOD1, and SOD2 were also assessed by western blot. Mitochondrial status was assessed with tetramethylrhodamine, ethyl ester (TMRE), and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was measured with BioTracker ATP-Red Live Cell Dye. Total cellular integrin levels were evaluated by western blot, and the expression of cell surface integrins was assessed using fluorescent-labelled antibodies and flow cytometry.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 7 | Pages 902 - 908
1 Jul 2022
Hsu P Lee C Lin S Kuo KN Wu K Wang T


The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of guided growth and varus osteotomy in treating Kalamchi type II avascular necrosis (AVN) after open reduction and Pemberton acetabuloplasty for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).


This retrospective study reviewed patients undergoing guided growth or varus osteotomy for Kalamchi type II AVN between September 2009 and January 2019. All children who had undergone open reduction and Pemberton acetabuloplasty for DDH with a minimum two-year follow-up were enrolled in the study. Demographic and radiological data, which included the head-shaft angle (HSA), neck-shaft angle (NSA), articulotrochanteric distance (ATD), Sharp angle (SA), and lateral centre-edge angle (LCEA) at baseline, two years, and at the extended follow-up, were compared. Revision rates were evaluated. Clinical outcomes using the Harris Hip Score were assessed two years postoperatively.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 5 | Pages 348 - 358
1 May 2022
Stokes S Drozda M Lee C

This review provides a concise outline of the advances made in the care of patients and to the quality of life after a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) over the last century. Despite these improvements reversal of the neurological injury is not yet possible. Instead, current treatment is limited to providing symptomatic relief, avoiding secondary insults and preventing additional sequelae. However, with an ever-advancing technology and deeper understanding of the damaged spinal cord, this appears increasingly conceivable. A brief synopsis of the most prominent challenges facing both clinicians and research scientists in developing functional treatments for a progressively complex injury are presented. Moreover, the multiple mechanisms by which damage propagates many months after the original injury requires a multifaceted approach to ameliorate the human spinal cord. We discuss potential methods to protect the spinal cord from damage, and to manipulate the inherent inhibition of the spinal cord to regeneration and repair. Although acute and chronic SCI share common final pathways resulting in cell death and neurological deficits, the underlying putative mechanisms of chronic SCI and the treatments are not covered in this review.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1242 - 1247
3 Sep 2020
Hsu P Wu K Lee C Lin S Kuo KN Wang T


Guided growth has been used to treat coxa valga for cerebral palsy (CP) children. However, there has been no study on the optimal position of screw application. In this paper we have investigated the influence of screw position on the outcomes of guided growth.


We retrospectively analyzed 61 hips in 32 CP children who underwent proximal femoral hemi epiphysiodesis between July 2012 and September 2017. The hips were divided into two groups according to the transphyseal position of the screw in the coronal plane: across medial quarter (Group 1) or middle quarter (Group 2) of the medial half of the physis. We compared pre- and postoperative radiographs in head-shaft angle (HSA), Reimer’s migration percentage (MP), acetabular index (AI), and femoral anteversion angle (FAVA), as well as incidences of the physis growing-off the screw within two years. Linear and Cox regression analysis were conducted to identify factors related to HSA correction and risk of the physis growing-off the screw.


The aim of this study was to compare patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and the Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) score in patients treated with a volar locking plate for a distal radial fracture.


This study was a retrospective review of a prospective database of 155 patients who underwent internal fixation with a volar locking plate for a distal radial fracture between August 2014 and April 2017. Data which were collected included postoperative PROMs (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE)), and SANE scores at one month (n = 153), two months (n = 155), three months (n = 144), six months (n = 128), and one year (n = 73) after operation. Patients with incomplete data were excluded from this study. Correlation and agreement between PROMs and SANE scores were evaluated. Subgroup analyses were carried out to identify correlations according to variables such as age, the length of follow-up, and subcategories of the PRWE score.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1379 - 1384
1 Oct 2019
Park J Park S Lee C


This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prognosis of patients with spinal metastasis as the initial manifestation of malignancy (SM-IMM).

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of 338 patients who underwent surgical treatment for metastatic spinal disease. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups. The SM-IMM group included patients with no history of malignancy whose site of primary malignancy was diagnosed after the identification of spinal metastasis. The other group included patients with a history of treatment for primary malignancy who then developed spinal metastasis (SM-DTM). The incidence of SM-IMM by site of primary malignancy was calculated. The difference between prognoses after surgical treatment for SM-IMM and SM-DTM was established.

We compared the ceiling effects of two patient-rating scores, the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), and a physician-rating score, the Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS) in assessing the outcome of surgical treatment of an unstable distal radial fracture. A total of 77 women with a mean age of 64.2 years (50 to 88) who underwent fixation using a volar locking plate for an unstable distal radial fracture between 2011 and 2013 were enrolled in this study. All completed the DASH and PRWE questionnaires one year post-operatively and were assessed using the MMWS by the senior author. The ceiling effects in the outcome data assessed for each score were estimated.

The data assessed with both patient-rating scores, the DASH and PRWE, showed substantial ceiling effects, whereas the data assessed with MMWS showed no ceiling effect.

Researchers should be aware of a possible ceiling effect in the assessment of the outcome of the surgical treatment of distal radial fractures using patient-rating scores. It could also increase the likelihood of a type II error.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1651–6.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 229 - 234
1 Feb 2015
Choi W Lee HJ Kim D Lee C Lee BG Kim J Lee K

We performed a retrospective study to determine the effect of osteoporosis on the functional outcome of osteoporotic distal radial fractures treated with a volar locking plate. Between 2009 and 2012 a total of 90 postmenopausal women with an unstable fracture of the distal radius treated with a volar locking plate were studied. Changes in the radiological parameters of 51 patients with osteoporosis (group 1, mean age 66.9, mean T-score –3.16 (sd 0.56)) were not significantly different from those in 39 patients without osteoporosis (group 2, mean age 61.1, mean T-score –1.72 (sd 0.57)). The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score at final follow-up was 11.5 (sd 12.2) in group 1 and 10.5 (sd 13.25) in group 2. The mean modified Mayo wrist score at final follow-up was 79.0 (sd 14.04) in group 1 and 82.6 (sd 13.1) in group 2. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.35 for DASH score, p = 0.2 for modified Mayo wrist score). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that only the step-off of the radiocarpal joint was related to both a poor DASH and modified Mayo wrist score. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a weak negative relationship only between the T-score and the change in volar tilt (intraclass coefficient –0.26, p = 0.02).

We found that osteoporosis does not have a negative effect on the functional outcome and additional analysis did not show a correlation between T-score and outcome.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:229–34.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 2 | Pages 217 - 223
1 Feb 2013
Hwang CJ Lee JH Baek H Chang B Lee C

We evaluated the efficacy of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (E-BMP-2) in a mini-pig model of spinal anterior interbody fusion. A total of 14 male mini-pigs underwent three-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion using polyether etherketone (PEEK) cages containing porous hydroxyapatite (HA). Four groups of cages were prepared: 1) control (n = 10 segments); 2) 50 μg E-BMP-2 (n = 9); 3) 200 μg E-BMP-2 (n = 10); and 4) 800 μg E-BMP-2 (n = 9). At eight weeks after surgery the mini-pigs were killed and the specimens were evaluated by gross inspection and manual palpation, radiological evaluation including plain radiographs and micro-CT scans, and histological analysis. Rates of fusion within PEEK cages and overall union rates were calculated, and bone formation outside vertebrae was evaluated. One animal died post-operatively and was excluded, and one section was lost and also excluded, leaving 38 sites for assessment. This rate of fusion within cages was 30.0% (three of ten) in the control group, 44.4% (four of nine) in the 50 μg E-BMP-2 group, 60.0% (six of ten) in the 200 μg E-BMP-2 group, and 77.8% (seven of nine) in the 800 μg E-BMP-2 group. Fusion rate was significantly increased by the addition of E-BMP-2 and with increasing E-BMP-2 dose (p = 0.046). In a mini-pig spinal anterior interbody fusion model using porous HA as a carrier, the implantation of E-BMP-2-loaded PEEK cages improved the fusion rate compared with PEEK cages alone, an effect that was significantly increased with increasing E-BMP-2 dosage.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:217–23.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 4 | Pages 517 - 522
1 Apr 2012
Jeon I Chun J Lee C Yoon J Kim P An K Morrey BF Shin H

The zona conoidea comprises the area of the lateral trochlear ridge of the humerus. The purpose of this study is to reintroduce this term ‘zona conoidea’ to the discussion of the human elbow and to investigate its significance in the development of osteoarthritis of the elbow.

The upper extremities of 12 cadavers were prepared. With the forearm in neutral, pronation and supination, the distance between the bevel of the radial head and zona conoidea was inspected. A total of 12 healthy volunteers had a CT scan. The distance between the zona conoidea and the bevelled rim of the radial head was measured in these positions.

In the anatomical specimens, early osteo-arthritic changes were identified in the posteromedial bevelled rim of the radial head, and the corresponding zona conoidea in supination. Measurement in the CT study showed that in full supination, the distance between the bevel of the radial head and the zona conoidea was at a minimum.

This study suggests that the significant contact between the bevel of the radial head and the zona conoidea in supination is associated with the initiation of osteoarthritis of the elbow in this area.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1400 - 1404
1 Oct 2011
Lee C Chung SS Shin S Park S Lee H Kang K

We examined the differences in post-operative functional disability and patient satisfaction between 56 patients who underwent a lumbar fusion at three or more levels for degenerative disease (group I) and 69 patients, matched by age and gender, who had undergone a one or two level fusion (group II). Their mean age was 66 years (49 to 84) and the mean follow-up was 43 months (24 to 65).

The mean pre-operative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, and the mean post-operative VAS were similar in both groups (p >  0.05), but post-operatively the improvement in ODI was significantly less in group I (40.6%) than in group II (49.5%) (p < 0.001). Of the ten ODI items, patients in group I showed significant problems with lifting, sitting, standing, and travelling (p < 0.05). The most significant differences in the post-operative ODI were observed between patients who had undergone fusion at four or more levels and those who had undergone fusion at less than four levels (p = 0.005). The proportion of patients who were satisfied with their operations was similar in groups I and II (72.7% and 77.0%, respectively) (p = 0.668). The mean number of fused levels was associated with the post-operative ODI (r = 0.266, p = 0.003), but not with the post-operative VAS or satisfaction grade (p > 0.05). Post-operative functional disability was more severe in those with a long-level lumbar fusion, particularly at four or more levels, but patient satisfaction remained similar for those with both long- and short-level fusions.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 7 | Pages 956 - 958
1 Jul 2007
Lee C Lashari S

Nutritional osteomalacia is a metabolic bone disorder common among the Asian female immigrant population in the United Kingdom. We describe the case of a female of Asian origin, who was found to have a unilateral undisplaced pseudofracture of the neck of the femur during pregnancy. Although not operated on the fracture was treated successfully with calcium and vitamin D supplement therapy. Within one month of treatment, the bone pain subsided and she was able to bear full weight. Subsequent radiological follow-up showed the pseudofracture to have healed sufficiently with no evidence of avascular necrosis.

There should be a high index of suspicion of this disease, particularly among Asian patients presenting with persistent and non-specific musculoskeletal pain.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 6 | Pages 926 - 929
1 Nov 1994
Joshi A Lee C Markovic L Murphy J Hardinge K

We compared the outcome of total knee arthroplasty in 19 patients who had had previous patellectomy with the results in a matched series of arthroplasties performed on knees in which the patella was intact. The mean follow-up was 63 months (21 to 114). In the study group, the outcome was poor in five patients. There was instability in the coronal plane in three patients and persistent pain in four. Three supracondylar fractures occurred. The overall complication rate was 36%. In the control group, pain was relieved in every case and there were no complications. Total knee arthroplasty has a higher complication rate and inferior results if the knee has undergone prior patellectomy.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 1 | Pages 165 - 166
1 Jan 1994
Birch N Ribbans W Goldman E Lee C