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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 4 | Pages 479 - 485
1 Apr 2014
Pedersen AB Mehnert F Sorensen HT Emmeluth C Overgaard S Johnsen SP

We examined the risk of thrombotic and major bleeding events in patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement (THR and TKR) treated with thromboprophylaxis, using nationwide population-based databases. We identified 83 756 primary procedures performed between 1997 and 2011. The outcomes were symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, death and major bleeding requiring hospitalisation within 90 days of surgery.

A total of 1114 (1.3%) and 483 (0.6%) patients experienced VTE and bleeding, respectively. The annual risk of VTE varied between 0.9% and 1.6%, and of bleeding between 0.4% and 0.8%. The risk of VTE and bleeding was unchanged over a 15-year period. A total of 0.7% of patients died within 90 days, with a decrease from 1% in 1997 to 0.6% in 2011 (p < 0.001). A high level of comorbidity and general anaesthesia were strong risk factors for both VTE and bleeding, with no difference between THR and TKR patients. The risk of both MI and stroke was 0.5%, which remained unchanged during the study period.

In this cohort study of patients undergoing THR and TKR patients in routine clinical practice, approximately 3% experienced VTE, MI, stroke or bleeding. These risks did not decline during the 15-year study period, but the risk of dying fell substantially.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:479–85.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1598 - 1603
1 Dec 2012
Pedersen AB Johnsen SP Sørensen HT

We examined the one-year risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) following primary total hip replacement (THR) among Danish patients and a comparison cohort from the general population. From the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry we identified all primary THRs performed in Denmark between 1995 and 2010 (n = 85 965). In all, 97% of patients undergoing THR received low-molecular-weight heparin products during hospitalisation. Through the Danish Civil Registration System we sampled a comparison cohort who had not undergone THR from the general population (n = 257 895). Among the patients undergoing THR, the risk of symptomatic VTE was 0.79% between 0 and 90 days after surgery and 0.29% between 91 and 365 days after surgery. In the comparison cohort the corresponding risks were 0.05% and 0.12%, respectively. The adjusted relative risks of symptomatic VTE among patients undergoing THR were 15.84 (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.12 to 19.12) during the first 90 days after surgery and 2.41 (95% CI 2.04 to 2.85) during 91 to 365 days after surgery, compared with the comparison cohort. The relative risk of VTE was elevated irrespective of the gender, age and level of comorbidity at the time of THR.

We concluded that THR was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic VTE up to one year after surgery compared with the general population, although the absolute risk is small.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 172 - 177
1 Feb 2011
Pedersen AB Baron JA Overgaard S Johnsen SP

We evaluated the short-term of 0 to 90 days and the longer term, up to 12.7 years, mortality for patients undergoing primary total hip replacement (THR) in Denmark in comparison to the general population. Through the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry we identified all primary THRs undertaken for osteoarthritis between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2006. Each patient (n = 44 558) was matched at the time of surgery with three people from the general population (n = 133 674). We estimated mortality rates and mortality rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals for THR patients compared with the general population. There was a one-month period of increased mortality immediately after surgery among THR patients, but overall short-term mortality (0 to 90 days) was significantly lower (mortality rate ratio 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 0.9). However, THR surgery was associated with increased short-term mortality in subjects under 60 years old, and among THR patients without comorbidity. Long-term mortality was lower among THR patients than in controls (mortality rate ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 0.7).

Overall, THR was associated with lower short- and long-term mortality among patients with osteoarthritis. Younger patients and patients without comorbidity before surgery may also experience increased mortality after THR surgery, although the absolute risk of death is small.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 7 | Pages 929 - 934
1 Jul 2010
Pedersen AB Mehnert F Johnsen SP Sørensen HT

We have evaluated the extent to which diabetes affects the revision rate following total hip replacement (THR). Through the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry we identified all patients undergoing a primary THR (n = 57 575) between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2005, of whom 3278 had diabetes. The presence of diabetes among these patients was identified through the Danish National Registry of Patients and the Danish National Drug Prescription Database. We estimated the relative risk for revision and the 95% confidence intervals for patients with diabetes compared to those without, adjusting for the confounding factors. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of revision due to deep infection (relative risk = 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.09), particularly in those with type 2 diabetes (relative risk = 1.49 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 2.18)), those with diabetes for less than five years prior to THR (relative risk = 1.69 (95% confidence interval 1.24 to 2.32)), those with complications due to diabetes (relative risk = 2.11 (95% confidence interval 1.41 to 3.17)), and those with cardiovascular comorbidities prior to surgery (relative risk = 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.39 to 3.98)).

Patients and surgeons should be aware of the relatively elevated risk of revision due to deep infection following THR in diabetes particularly in those with insufficient control of their glucose level.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1303 - 1308
1 Oct 2006
Johnsen SP Sørensen HT Lucht U Søballe K Overgaard S Pedersen AB

We examined the association between patient-related factors and the risk of initial, short- and long-term implant failure after primary total hip replacement. We used data from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2002, which gave us a total of 36 984 patients. Separate analyses were carried out for three follow-up periods: 0 to 30 days, 31 days to six months (short term), and six months to 8.6 years after primary total hip replacement (long term). The outcome measure was defined as time to failure, which included re-operation with open surgery for any reason.

Male gender and a high Charlson co-morbidity index score were strongly predictive for failure, irrespective of the period of follow-up. Age and diagnosis at primary total hip replacement were identified as time-dependent predictive factors of failure. During the first 30 days after primary total hip replacement, an age of 80 years or more and hip replacement undertaken as a sequela of trauma, for avascular necrosis or paediatric conditions, were associated with an increased risk of failure. However, during six months to 8.6 years after surgery, being less than 60 years old was associated with an increased risk of failure, whereas none of the diagnoses for primary total hip replacement appeared to be independent predictors.