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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 117 - 122
9 Feb 2024
Chaturvedi A Russell H Farrugia M Roger M Putti A Jenkins PJ Feltbower S


Occult (clinical) injuries represent 15% of all scaphoid fractures, posing significant challenges to the clinician. MRI has been suggested as the gold standard for diagnosis, but remains expensive, time-consuming, and is in high demand. Conventional management with immobilization and serial radiography typically results in multiple follow-up attendances to clinic, radiation exposure, and delays return to work. Suboptimal management can result in significant disability and, frequently, litigation.


We present a service evaluation report following the introduction of a quality-improvement themed, streamlined, clinical scaphoid pathway. Patients are offered a removable wrist splint with verbal and written instructions to remove it two weeks following injury, for self-assessment. The persistence of pain is the patient’s guide to ‘opt-in’ and to self-refer for a follow-up appointment with a senior emergency physician. On confirmation of ongoing signs of clinical scaphoid injury, an urgent outpatient ‘fast’-wrist protocol MRI scan is ordered, with instructions to maintain wrist immobilization. Patients with positive scan results are referred for specialist orthopaedic assessment via a virtual fracture clinic.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 8 | Pages 839 - 842
1 Aug 2023
Jenkins PJ Duckworth AD

Shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA) is a prolonged episode of shoulder dysfunction that commences within 24 to 48 hours of a vaccination. Symptoms include a combination of shoulder pain, stiffness, and weakness. There has been a recent rapid increase in reported cases of SIRVA within the literature, particularly in adults, and is likely related to the mass vaccination programmes associated with COVID-19 and influenza. The pathophysiology is not certain, but placement of the vaccination in the subdeltoid bursa or other pericapsular tissue has been suggested to result in an inflammatory capsular process. It has been hypothesized that this is associated with a vaccine injection site that is “too high” and predisposes to the development of SIRVA. Nerve conduction studies are routinely normal, but further imaging can reveal deep-deltoid collections, rotator cuff tendinopathy and tears, or subacromial subdeltoid bursitis. However, all of these are common findings within a general asymptomatic population. Medicolegal claims in the UK, based on an incorrect injection site, are unlikely to meet the legal threshold to determine liability.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(8):839–842.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 534 - 542
1 May 2023
Makaram NS Khan LAK Jenkins PJ Robinson CM


The outcomes following nonoperative management of minimally displaced greater tuberosity (GT) fractures, and the factors which influence patient experience, remain poorly defined. We assessed the early patient-derived outcomes following these injuries and examined the effect of a range of demographic- and injury-related variables on these outcomes.


In total, 101 patients (53 female, 48 male) with a mean age of 50.9 years (19 to 76) with minimally displaced GT fractures were recruited to a prospective observational cohort study. During the first year after injury, patients underwent experiential assessment using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and assessment of associated injuries using MRI performed within two weeks of injury. The primary outcome was the one-year DASH score. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the effect of patient demographic factors, complications, and associated injuries, on outcome.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 12 | Pages 890 - 892
1 Dec 2022
Farrow L Jenkins PJ Dunstan E Murray A Blyth MJG Simpson AHRW Clement ND

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(12):890–892.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1215 - 1224
1 Nov 2022
Clement ND Wickramasinghe NR Bayram JM Hughes K Oag E Heinz N Fraser E Jefferies JG Dall GF Ballantyne A Jenkins PJ


The primary aim of this study was to assess whether patients waiting six months or more for a total hip (THA) or knee (KA) arthroplasty had a deterioration in their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Secondary aims were to assess changes in frailty and the number of patients living in a state considered to be worse than death (WTD), and factors associated with changes in HRQoL and frailty.


This cross-sectional study included 326 patients, 150 males (46.0%) and 176 females (54.0%), with a mean age of 68.6 years (SD 9.8) who were randomly selected from waiting lists at four centres and had been waiting for six months or more (median 13 months, interquartile range 10 to 21) for a primary THA (n = 161) or KA (n = 165). The EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scores (EQ-VAS), Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), and 36-Item Short Form Survey subjective change in HRQoL were assessed at the time and recalled for six months earlier. A state that was WTD was defined as an EQ-5D of less than zero.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1774 - 1781
1 Dec 2020
Clement ND Hall AJ Makaram NS Robinson PG Patton RFL Moran M Macpherson GJ Duckworth AD Jenkins PJ


The primary aim of this study was to assess the independent association of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on postoperative mortality for patients undergoing orthopaedic and trauma surgery. The secondary aim was to identify factors that were associated with developing COVID-19 during the postoperative period.


A multicentre retrospective study was conducted of all patients presenting to nine centres over a 50-day period during the COVID-19 pandemic (1 March 2020 to 19 April 2020) with a minimum of 50 days follow-up. Patient demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, priority (urgent or elective), procedure type, COVID-19 status, and postoperative mortality were recorded.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1219 - 1228
14 Sep 2020
Hall AJ Clement ND Farrow L MacLullich AMJ Dall GF Scott CEH Jenkins PJ White TO Duckworth AD


The primary aim was to assess the independent influence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on 30-day mortality for patients with a hip fracture. The secondary aims were to determine whether: 1) there were clinical predictors of COVID-19 status; and 2) whether social lockdown influenced the incidence and epidemiology of hip fractures.


A national multicentre retrospective study was conducted of all patients presenting to six trauma centres or units with a hip fracture over a 46-day period (23 days pre- and 23 days post-lockdown). Patient demographics, type of residence, place of injury, presentation blood tests, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, time to surgery, operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, anaesthetic, length of stay, COVID-19 status, and 30-day mortality were recorded.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 3 | Pages 360 - 364
1 Mar 2020
Jenkins PJ Stirling PHC Ireland J Elias-Jones C Brooksbank AJ


The aim of this study was to examine the recent trend in delivery of arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) in Scotland and to determine if this varies by geographical location.


Scottish Morbidity Records were reviewed retrospectively between March 2014 and April 2018 to identify records for every admission to each NHS hospital. The Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS-4) surgical codes were used to identify patients undergoing primary ASD. Patients who underwent acromioclavicular joint excision (ACJE) and rotator cuff repair (RCR) were identified and grouped separately. Procedure rates were age and sex standardized against the European standard population.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 3 | Pages 358 - 364
1 Mar 2017
Torkington MS Davison MJ Wheelwright EF Jenkins PJ Anthony I Lovering AM Blyth M Jones B


To investigate the bone penetration of intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis with flucloxacillin and gentamicin during hip and knee arthroplasty, and their efficacy against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and S. epidermidis.

Patients and Methods

Bone samples from the femoral head, neck and acetabulum were collected from 18 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and from the femur and tibia in 21 patients during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The concentration of both antibiotics in the samples was analysed using high performance liquid chromatography. Penetration was expressed as a percentage of venous blood concentration. The efficacy against common infecting organisms was measured against both the minimum inhibitory concentration 50, and the more stringent epidemiological cutoff value for resistance (ECOFF).

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 33 - 36
1 Feb 2016
Jenkins PJ Morton A Anderson G Van Der Meer RB Rymaszewski LA


“Virtual fracture clinics” have been reported as a safe and effective alternative to the traditional fracture clinic. Robust protocols are used to identify cases that do not require further review, with the remainder triaged to the most appropriate subspecialist at the optimum time for review. The objective of this study was to perform a “top-down” analysis of the cost effectiveness of this virtual fracture clinic pathway.


National Health Service financial returns relating to our institution were examined for the time period 2009 to 2014 which spanned the service redesign.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1132 - 1138
1 Aug 2015
Aitken SA Jenkins PJ Rymaszewski L

The best method of managing a fracture of the distal humerus in a frail low-demand patient with osteoporotic bone remains controversial. Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) has been recommended for patients in whom open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is not possible. Conservative methods of treatment, including the ‘bag of bones’ technique (acceptance of displacement of the bony fragments and early mobilisation), are now rarely considered as they are believed to give a poor functional result.

We reviewed 40 elderly and low-demand patients (aged 50 to 93 years, 72% women) with a fracture of the distal humerus who had been treated conservatively at our hospital between March 2008 and December 2013, and assessed their short- and medium-term functional outcome.

In the short-term, the mean Broberg and Morrey score improved from 42 points (poor; 23 to 80) at six weeks after injury to 67 points (fair; 40 to 88) by three months.

In the medium-term, surviving patients (n = 20) had a mean Oxford elbow score of 30 points (7 to 48) at four years and a mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score of 38 points (0 to 75): 95% reported a functional range of elbow flexion. The cumulative rate of fracture union at one year was 53%. The mortality at five years approached 40%.

Conservative management of a fracture of the distal humerus in a low-demand patient only gives a modest functional result, but avoids the substantial surgical risks associated with primary ORIF or TEA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1132–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1370 - 1377
1 Oct 2014
Connelly CL Bucknall V Jenkins PJ Court-Brown CM McQueen MM Biant LC

Fractures of the tibial shaft are common injuries, but there are no long-term outcome data in the era of increased surgical management. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the clinical and functional outcome of this injury at 12 to 22 years. Secondary aims were to determine the short- and long-term mortality, and if there were any predictors of clinical or functional outcome or mortality. From a prospective trauma database of 1502 tibial shaft fractures in 1474 consecutive adult patients, we identified a cohort of 1431 tibial diaphyseal fractures in 1403 patients, who fitted our inclusion criteria. There were 1024 men, and mean age at injury was 40.6 years. Fractures were classified according to the AO system, and open fractures graded after Gustilo and Anderson. Requirement of fasciotomy, time to fracture union, complications, incidence of knee and ankle pain at long-term follow-up, changes in employment and the patients’ social deprivation status were recorded. Function was assessed at 12 to 22 years post-injury using the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and short form-12 questionnaires. Long-term functional outcome data was available for 568 of the surviving patients, 389 were deceased and 346 were lost to follow-up. Most fractures (90.7%, n = 1363) united without further intervention. Fasciotomies were performed in 11.5% of patients; this did not correlate with poorer functional outcome in the long term. Social deprivation was associated with a higher incidence of injury but had no impact on long-term function. The one-year mortality in those over 75 years of age was 29 (42%). At long-term follow-up, pain and function scores were good. However, 147 (26%) reported ongoing knee pain, 62 (10%) reported ankle pain and 97 (17%) reported both. Such joint pain correlated with poorer functional outcome.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1370–7.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1234 - 1238
1 Sep 2014
Stone OD Clement ND Duckworth AD Jenkins PJ Annan JD McEachan JE

There is conflicting evidence about the functional outcome and rate of satisfaction of super-elderly patients (≥ 80 years of age) after carpal tunnel decompression.

We compiled outcome data for 756 patients who underwent a carpal tunnel decompression over an eight-year study period, 97 of whom were super-elderly, and 659 patients who formed a younger control group (< 80 years old). There was no significant difference between the super-elderly patients and the younger control group in terms of functional outcome according to the mean (0 to 100) QuickDASH score (adjusted mean difference at one year 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.4 to 7.0) and satisfaction rate (odds ratio (OR) 0.78; 95% CI 0.34 to 1.58). Super-elderly patients were, however, more likely to have thenar muscle atrophy at presentation (OR 9.2, 95% CI 5.8 to 14.6). When nerve conduction studies were obtained, super-elderly patients were more likely to have a severe conduction deficit (OR 12.4, 95% CI 3.0 to 51.3).

Super-elderly patients report functional outcome and satisfaction rates equal to those of their younger counterparts. They are more likely to have thenar muscle atrophy and a severe nerve conduction deficit at presentation, and may therefore warrant earlier decompression.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:1234–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 3 | Pages 299 - 305
1 Mar 2014
Bell KR Clement ND Jenkins PJ Keating JF

We performed a case–control study to compare the rates of further surgery, revision and complications, operating time and survival in patients who were treated with either an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Corail bipolar femoral stem or a cemented Exeter stem for a displaced intracapsular fracture of the hip. The mean age of the patients in the uncemented group was 82.5 years (53 to 97) and in the cemented group was 82.7 years (51 to 99) We used propensity score matching, adjusting for age, gender and the presence or absence of dementia and comorbidities, to produce a matched cohort receiving an Exeter stem (n = 69) with which to compare the outcome of patients receiving a Corail stem (n = 69). The Corail had a significantly lower all-cause rate of further surgery (p = 0.016; odds ratio (OR) 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.84) and number of hips undergoing major further surgery (p = 0.029; OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.09). The mean operating time was significantly less for the Corail group than for the cemented Exeter group (59 min [12 to 136] vs 70 min [40 to 175], p = 0.001). The Corail group also had a lower risk of a peri-prosthetic fracture (p = 0.042; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.42) . There was no difference in the mortality rate between the groups. There were significantly fewer complications in the uncemented group, suggesting that the use of this stem would result in a decreased rate of morbidity in these frail patients. Whether this relates to an improved functional outcome remains unknown.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:299–305.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 1 | Pages 115 - 121
1 Jan 2013
Jenkins PJ Clement ND Hamilton DF Gaston P Patton JT Howie CR

The aim of this study was to perform a cost–utility analysis of total hip (THR) and knee replacement (TKR). Arthritis is a disabling condition that leads to long-term deterioration in quality of life. Total joint replacement, despite being one of the greatest advances in medicine of the modern era, has recently come under scrutiny. The National Health Service (NHS) has competing demands, and resource allocation is challenging in times of economic restraint. Patients who underwent THR (n = 348) or TKR (n = 323) between January and July 2010 in one Scottish region were entered into a prospective arthroplasty database. A health–utility score was derived from the EuroQol (EQ-5D) score pre-operatively and at one year, and was combined with individual life expectancy to derive the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare QALYs gained between procedures, while controlling for baseline differences. The number of QALYs gained was higher after THR than after TKR (6.5 vs 4.0 years, p < 0.001). The cost per QALY for THR was £1372 compared with £2101 for TKR. The predictors of an increase in QALYs gained were poorer health before surgery (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.001). General health (EQ-5D VAS) showed greater improvement after THR than after TKR (p < 0.001). This study provides up-to-date cost-effectiveness data for total joint replacement. THR and TKR are extremely effective both clinically and in terms of cost effectiveness, with costs that compare favourably to those of other medical interventions.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:115–21.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 1 | Pages 52 - 58
1 Jan 2013
Clement ND Jenkins PJ DM Nie YX Patton JT Breusch SJ Howie CR Biant LC

We assessed the effect of social deprivation upon the Oxford knee score (OKS), the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) and patient satisfaction after total knee replacement (TKR). An analysis of 966 patients undergoing primary TKR for symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) was performed. Social deprivation was assessed using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Those patients that were most deprived underwent surgery at an earlier age (p = 0.018), were more likely to be female (p = 0.046), to endure more comorbidities (p = 0.04) and to suffer worse pain and function according to the OKS (p < 0.001). In addition, deprivation was also associated with poor mental health (p = 0.002), which was assessed using the mental component (MCS) of the SF-12 score. Multivariable analysis was used to identify independent predictors of outcome at one year. Pre-operative OKS, SF-12 MCS, back pain, and four or more comorbidities were independent predictors of improvement in the OKS (all p < 0.001). Pre-operative OKS and improvement in the OKS were independent predictors of dissatisfaction (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Although improvement in the OKS and dissatisfaction after TKR were not significantly associated with social deprivation per se, factors more prevalent within the most deprived groups significantly diminished their improvement in OKS and increased their rate of dissatisfaction following TKR.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:52–8.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 1, Issue 7 | Pages 152 - 157
1 Jul 2012
Hamilton DF Gatherer D Jenkins PJ Maclean JGB Hutchison JD Nutton RW Simpson AHRW


To evaluate the neck strength of school-aged rugby players, and to define the relationship with proxy physical measures with a view to predicting neck strength.


Cross-sectional cohort study involving 382 rugby playing schoolchildren at three Scottish schools (all male, aged between 12 and 18 years). Outcome measures included maximal isometric neck extension, weight, height, grip strength, cervical range of movement and neck circumference.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 7 | Pages 928 - 931
1 Jul 2012
Keenan ACM Wood AM Arthur CA Jenkins PJ Brenkel IJ Walmsley PJ

We report the ten-year survival of a cemented total knee replacement (TKR) in patients aged < 55 years at the time of surgery, and compare the functional outcome with that of patients aged > 55 years. The data were collected prospectively and analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival statistics, with revision for any reason, or death, as the endpoint. A total of 203 patients aged < 55 years were identified. Four had moved out of the area and were excluded, leaving a total of 221 TKRs in 199 patients for analysis (101 men and 98 women, mean age 50.6 years (28 to 55)); 171 patients had osteoarthritis and 28 had inflammatory arthritis. Four patients required revision and four died. The ten-year survival using revision as the endpoint was 98.2% (95% confidence interval 94.6 to 99.4). Based on the Oxford knee scores at five and ten years, the rate of dissatisfaction was 18% and 21%, respectively. This was no worse in the patients aged < 55 years than in patients aged > 55 years.

These results demonstrate that the cemented PFC Sigma knee has an excellent survival rate in patients aged < 55 ten years post-operatively, with clinical outcomes similar to those of an older group. We conclude that TKR should not be withheld from patients on the basis of age.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 6 | Pages 811 - 814
1 Jun 2012
Jenkins PJ Duckworth AD Watts AC McEachan JE

Diabetes mellitus is recognised as a risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome. The response to treatment is unclear, and may be poorer than in non-diabetic patients. Previous randomised studies of interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome have specifically excluded diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of carpal tunnel syndrome in diabetic patients, and compare the outcome of carpal tunnel decompression with non-diabetic patients. The primary endpoint was improvement in the QuickDASH score. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 11.3% (176 of 1564). Diabetic patients were more likely to have severe neurophysiological findings at presentation. Patients with diabetes had poorer QuickDASH scores at one year post-operatively (p = 0.028), although the mean difference was lower than the minimal clinically important difference for this score. After controlling for underlying differences in age and gender, there was no difference between groups in the magnitude of improvement after decompression (p = 0.481). Patients with diabetes mellitus can therefore be expected to enjoy a similar improvement in function.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 2 | Pages 200 - 204
1 Feb 2012
Clement ND Jenkins PJ Brenkel IJ Walmsley P

We report the general mortality rate after total knee replacement and identify independent predictors of survival. We studied 2428 patients: there were 1127 men (46%) and 1301 (54%) women with a mean age of 69.3 years (28 to 94). Patients were allocated a predicted life expectancy based on their age and gender.

There were 223 deaths during the study period. This represented an overall survivorship of 99% (95% confidence interval (CI) 98 to 99) at one year, 90% (95% CI 89 to 92) at five years, and 84% (95% CI 82 to 86) at ten years. There was no difference in survival by gender. A greater mortality rate was associated with increasing age (p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade (p < 0.001), smoking (p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) <  20 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) and rheumatoid arthritis (p < 0.001). Multivariate modelling confirmed the independent effect of age, ASA grade, BMI, and rheumatoid disease on mortality. Based on the predicted average mortality, 114 patients were predicted to have died, whereas 217 actually died. This resulted in an overall excess standardised mortality ratio of 1.90. Patient mortality after TKR is predicted by their demographics: these could be used to assign an individual mortality risk after surgery.