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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 2 | Pages 239 - 245
1 Feb 2020
Nogaro M Abram SGF Alvand A Bottomley N Jackson WFM Price A


Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery in children and the adolescent population has increased steadily over recent years. We used a national database to look at trends in ACL reconstruction and rates of serious complications, growth disturbance, and revision surgery, over 20 years.


All hospital episodes for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, under the age of 20 years, between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2017, were extracted by procedure code from the national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Population standardized rates of intervention were determined by age group and year of treatment. Subsequent rates of serious complications including reoperation for infection, growth disturbance (osteotomy, epiphysiodesis), revision reconstruction, and/or contralateral ACL reconstruction rates were determined.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 10_Supple_B | Pages 1 - 2
1 Oct 2016
Jackson WFM Berend KR Spruijt S

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 10_Supple_B | Pages 22 - 27
1 Oct 2016
Bottomley N Jones LD Rout R Alvand A Rombach I Evans T Jackson WFM Beard DJ Price AJ


The aim of this to study was to compare the previously unreported long-term survival outcome of the Oxford medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) performed by trainee surgeons and consultants.

Patients and Methods

We therefore identified a previously unreported cohort of 1084 knees in 947 patients who had a UKA inserted for anteromedial knee arthritis by consultants and surgeons in training, at a tertiary arthroplasty centre and performed survival analysis on the group with revision as the endpoint.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 185 - 191
1 Feb 2015
Kendrick BJL Kaptein BL Valstar ER Gill HS Jackson WFM Dodd CAF Price AJ Murray DW

The most common reasons for revision of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) are loosening and pain. Cementless components may reduce the revision rate. The aim of this study was to compare the fixation and clinical outcome of cementless and cemented Oxford UKAs.

A total of 43 patients were randomised to receive either a cemented or a cementless Oxford UKA and were followed for two years with radiostereometric analysis (RSA), radiographs aligned with the bone–implant interfaces and clinical scores.

The femoral components migrated significantly during the first year (mean 0.2 mm) but not during the second. There was no significant difference in the extent of migration between cemented and cementless femoral components in either the first or the second year. In the first year the cementless tibial components subsided significantly more than the cemented components (mean 0.28 mm (sd 0.17) vs. 0.09 mm (sd 0.19 mm)). In the second year, although there was a small amount of subsidence (mean 0.05 mm) there was no significant difference (p = 0.92) between cemented and cementless tibial components. There were no femoral radiolucencies. Tibial radiolucencies were narrow (< 1 mm) and were significantly (p = 0.02) less common with cementless (6 of 21) than cemented (13 of 21) components at two years. There were no complete radiolucencies with cementless components, whereas five of 21 (24%) cemented components had complete radiolucencies. The clinical scores at two years were not significantly different (p = 0.20).

As second-year migration is predictive of subsequent loosening, and as radiolucency is suggestive of reduced implant–bone contact, these data suggest that fixation of the cementless components is at least as good as, if not better than, that of cemented devices.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:185–91.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 3 | Pages 345 - 349
1 Mar 2014
Liddle AD Pandit HG Jenkins C Lobenhoffer P Jackson WFM Dodd CAF Murray DW

The cementless Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement has been demonstrated to have superior fixation on radiographs and a similar early complication rate compared with the cemented version. However, a small number of cases have come to our attention where, after an apparently successful procedure, the tibial component subsides into a valgus position with an increased posterior slope, before becoming well-fixed. We present the clinical and radiological findings of these six patients and describe their natural history and the likely causes. Two underwent revision in the early post-operative period, and in four the implant stabilised and became well-fixed radiologically with a good functional outcome.

This situation appears to be avoidable by minor modifications to the operative technique, and it appears that it can be treated conservatively in most patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:345–9.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1216 - 1220
1 Sep 2012
Weston-Simons JS Pandit H Jenkins C Jackson WFM Price AJ Gill HS Dodd CAF Murray DW

The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) is an established treatment option in the management of symptomatic end-stage medial compartmental osteoarthritis (MCOA), which works well in the young and active patient. However, previous studies have shown that it is reliable only in the presence of a functionally intact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This review reports the outcomes, at a mean of five years and a maximum of ten years, of 52 consecutive patients with a mean age of 51 years (36 to 57) who underwent staged or simultaneous ACL reconstruction and Oxford UKR. At the last follow-up (with one patient lost to follow-up), the mean Oxford knee score was 41 (sd 6.3; 17 to 48). Two patients required conversion to TKR: one for progression of lateral compartment osteoarthritis and one for infection. Implant survival at five years was 93% (95% CI 83 to 100). All but one patient reported being satisfied with the procedure. The outcome was not significantly influenced by age, gender, femoral or tibial tunnel placement, or whether the procedure was undertaken at one- or two-stages.

In summary, ACL reconstruction and Oxford UKR gives good results in patients with end-stage MCOA secondary to ACL deficiency.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1328 - 1333
1 Oct 2008
Jackson WFM van der Tempel WM Salmon LJ Williams HA Pinczewski LA

We evaluated the long-term outcome of isolated endoscopically-assisted posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in 26 patients using hamstring tendon autografts after failure of conservative management. At ten years after surgery the mean International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee score was 87 (sd 14) of a possible 100 points. Regular participation in moderate to strenuous activities was possible for only seven patients pre-operatively; this increased to 23 patients post-operatively. The mean Lysholm score improved from 64 (sd 15) to 90 (sd 14) at ten years (p = 0.001).

At ten years endoscopic reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament with hamstring tendon autograft is effective in reducing knee symptoms. Of the series, 22 patients underwent radiological assessment for the development of osteoarthritis using the Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale. In four patients, grade 2 changes with loss of joint space was observed and another four patients showed osteophyte formation with moderate joint space narrowing (grade 3). These findings compared favourably with non-operatively managed injuries of the posterior cruciate ligament.

This procedure for symptomatic patients with posterior cruciate ligament laxity who have failed conservative management offers good results.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 2 | Pages 172 - 179
1 Feb 2008
Pinczewski LA Salmon LJ Jackson WFM von Bormann RBP Haslam PG Tashiro S

There is little evidence examining the relationship between anatomical landmarks, radiological placement of the tunnels and long-term clinical outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of intra-operative landmarks for placement of the tunnels in single-bundle reconstruction of the ACL using four-strand hamstring tendon autografts.

Isolated reconstruction of the ACL was performed in 200 patients, who were followed prospectively for seven years with use of the International Knee Documentation Committee forms and radiographs. Taking 0% as the anterior and 100% as the posterior extent, the femoral tunnel was a mean of 86% (sd 5) along Blumensaat’s line and the tibial tunnel was 48% (sd 5) along the tibial plateau. Taking 0% as the medial and 100% as the lateral extent, the tibial tunnel was 46% (sd 3) across the tibial plateau and the mean inclination of the graft in the coronal plane was 19° (sd 5.5).

The use of intra-operative landmarks resulted in reproducible placement of the tunnels and an excellent clinical outcome seven years after operation. Vertical inclination was associated with increased rotational instability and degenerative radiological changes, while rupture of the graft was associated with posterior placement of the tibial tunnel. If the osseous tunnels are correctly placed, single-bundle reconstruction of the ACL adequately controls both anteroposterior and rotational instability.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 7 | Pages 953 - 955
1 Jul 2007
Ward NJ Wilde GP Jackson WFM Walker N

Injury to the perforating branch of the peroneal artery has not been reported previously as a cause of acute compartment syndrome following soft-tissue injury to the ankle. We describe the case of a 23-year-old male who sustained such an injury resulting in an acute compartment syndrome. In a review of the literature, we could find only five previous cases, all of which gave rise to a false aneurysm which was detected after the acute event.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 7 | Pages 925 - 927
1 Jul 2007
Jackson WFM Tryfonidis M Cooke PH Sharp RJ

Correction of valgus deformity of the hindfoot using a medial approach for a triple fusion has only recently been described for patients with tight lateral soft tissues which would be compromised using the traditional lateral approach. We present a series of eight patients with fixed valgus deformity of the hindfoot who had correction by hindfoot fusion using this approach.

In addition, we further extended the indications to allow concomitant ankle fusion. The medial approach allowed us to excise medial ulcers caused by the prominent medial bony structures, giving simultaneous correction of the deformity and successful internal fixation.

We had no problems with primary wound healing and experienced no subsequent infection or wound breakdown. From a mean fixed valgus deformity of 58.8° (45° to 66°) pre-operatively, we achieved a mean post-operative valgus angulation of 13.6° (7° to 23°). All the feet were subsequently accommodated in shoes. The mean time to arthrodesis was 5.25 months (3 to 9).

We therefore recommend the medial approach for the correction of severe fixed valgus hindfoot deformities.