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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 4, Issue 8 | Pages 128 - 133
1 Aug 2015
Kuwashima U Okazaki K Tashiro Y Mizu-Uchi H Hamai S Okamoto S Murakami K Iwamoto Y


Because there have been no standard methods to determine pre-operatively the thickness of resection of the proximal tibia in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), information about the relationship between the change of limb alignment and the joint line elevation would be useful for pre-operative planning. The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between the change of limb alignment and the change of joint line height at the medial compartment after UKA.


A consecutive series of 42 medial UKAs was reviewed retrospectively. These patients were assessed radiographically both pre- and post-operatively with standing anteroposterior radiographs. The thickness of bone resection at the proximal tibia and the distal femur was measured radiographically. The relationship between the change of femorotibial angle (δFTA) and the change of joint line height, was analysed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 3 | Pages 320 - 325
1 Mar 2013
Fukushima W Yamamoto T Takahashi S Sakaguchi M Kubo T Iwamoto Y Hirota Y

The systemic use of steroids and habitual alcohol intake are two major causative factors in the development of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). To examine any interaction between oral corticosteroid use and alcohol intake on the risk of ONFH, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 71 cases with ONFH (mean age 45 years (20 to 79)) and 227 matched controls (mean age 47 years (18 to 79)). Alcohol intake was positively associated with ONFH among all subjects: the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of subjects with ≥ 3032 drink-years was 3.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18 to 13.1) compared with never-drinkers. When stratified by steroid use, the OR of such drinkers was 11.1 (95% CI 1.30 to 95.5) among those who had never used steroids, but 1.10 (95% CI 0.21 to 4.79) among those who had. When we assessed any interaction based on a two-by-two table of alcohol and steroid use, the OR of those non-drinkers who did use steroids was markedly elevated (OR 31.5) compared with users of neither. However, no further increase in OR was noted for the effect of using both (OR 31.6). We detected neither a multiplicative nor an additive interaction (p for multiplicative interaction 0.19; synergy index 0.95), suggesting that the added effect of alcohol may be trivial compared with the overwhelming effect of steroids in the development of ONFH.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:320–5.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 1 | Pages 56 - 61
1 Jan 2012
Kawahara S Matsuda S Fukagawa S Mitsuyasu H Nakahara H Higaki H Shimoto T Iwamoto Y

In posterior stabilised total knee replacement (TKR) a larger femoral component is sometimes selected to manage the increased flexion gap caused by resection of the posterior cruciate ligament. However, concerns remain regarding the adverse effect of the increased anteroposterior dimensions of the femoral component on the patellofemoral (PF) joint. Meanwhile, the gender-specific femoral component has a narrower and thinner anterior flange and is expected to reduce the PF contact force. PF contact forces were measured at 90°, 120°, 130° and 140° of flexion using the NexGen Legacy Posterior Stabilized (LPS)-Flex Fixed Bearing Knee system using Standard, Upsized and Gender femoral components during TKR. Increasing the size of the femoral component significantly increased mean PF forces at 120°, 130° and 140° of flexion (p = 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). No difference was found in contact force between the Gender and the Standard components. Among the patients who had overhang of the Standard component, mean contact forces with the Gender component were slightly lower than those of the Standard component, but no statistical difference was found at 90°, 120°, 130° or 140° of flexion (p = 0.689, 0.615, 0.253 and 0.248, respectively).

Upsized femoral components would increase PF forces in deep knee flexion. Gender-specific implants would not reduce PF forces.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1449 - 1456
1 Nov 2011
Fujii M Nakashima Y Yamamoto T Mawatari T Motomura G Iwamoto Y Noguchi Y

In order to clarify how intra-articular lesions influence the survival of a periacetabular osteotomy in patients with dysplasia of the hip, we performed an observational study of 121 patients (121 hips) who underwent a transposition osteotomy of the acetabulum combined with an arthroscopy. Their mean age was 40.2 years (13 to 64) and the mean follow-up was 9.9 years (2 to 18). Labral and cartilage degeneration tended to originate from the anterosuperior part of the acetabulum, followed by the femoral side. In all, eight hips (6.6%) had post-operative progression to Kellgren–Lawrence grade 4 changes, and these hips were associated with the following factors: moderate osteoarthritis, decreased width of the joint space, joint incongruity, and advanced intra-articular lesions (subchondral bone exposure in the cartilage and a full-thickness labral tear). Multivariate analysis indicated subchondral bone exposure on the femoral head as an independent risk factor for progression of osteoarthritis (p = 0.003). In hips with early stage osteoarthritis, femoral subchondral bone exposure was a risk factor for progression of the grade of osteoarthritis.

Although the outcome of transposition osteotomy of the acetabulum was satisfactory, post-operative progression of osteoarthritis occurred at a high rate in hips with advanced intra-articular lesions, particularly in those where the degenerative process had reached the point of femoral subchondral bone exposure.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1210 - 1216
1 Sep 2011
Mitsuyasu H Matsuda S Fukagawa S Okazaki K Tashiro Y Kawahara S Nakahara H Iwamoto Y

We investigated whether the extension gap in total knee replacement (TKR) would be changed when the femoral component was inserted. The extension gap was measured with and without the femoral component in place in 80 patients with varus osteoarthritis undergoing posterior-stabilised TKR. The effect of a post-operative increase in the size of the femoral posterior condyles was also evaluated. The results showed that placement of the femoral component significantly reduced the medial and lateral extension gaps by means of 1.0 mm and 0.9 mm, respectively (p < 0.0001). The extension gap was reduced when a larger femoral component was selected relative to the thickness of the resected posterior condyle. When the post-operative posterior lateral condyle was larger than that pre-operatively, 17 of 41 knees (41%) showed a decrease in the extension gap of > 2.0 mm. When a specially made femoral trial component with a posterior condyle enlarged by 4 mm was tested, the medial and lateral extension gaps decreased further by means of 2.1 mm and 2.8 mm, respectively.

If the thickness of the posterior condyle is expected to be larger than that pre-operatively, it should be recognised that the extension gap is likely to be altered. This should be taken into consideration when preparing the extension gap.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 184 - 187
1 Feb 2011
Motomura G Yamamoto T Yamaguchi R Ikemura S Nakashima Y Mawatari T Iwamoto Y

In order to investigate the mechanisms of collapse in osteonecrosis of the femoral head, we examined which part of the femoral head was the key point of a collapse and whether a collapsed region was associated with the size of the necrotic lesion. Using 30 consecutive surgically removed femoral heads we retrospectively analysed whole serial cut sections, specimen photographs, specimen radiographs and histological sections.

In all of the femoral heads, collapse consistently involved a fracture at the lateral boundary of the necrotic lesion. Histologically, the fractures occurred at the junction between the thickened trabeculae of the reparative zone and the necrotic bone trabeculae. When the medial boundary of the necrotic lesion was located lateral to the fovea of the femoral head, 18 of 19 femoral heads collapsed in the subchondral region. By contrast, when the medial boundary was located medial to the fovea, collapse in the subchondral region was observed in four of 11 femoral heads (p = 0.0011). We found that collapse began at the lateral boundary of the necrotic lesion and that the size of the necrotic lesion seemed to contribute to its distribution.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 6 | Pages 781 - 786
1 Jun 2010
Zhao G Yamamoto T Ikemura S Motomura G Mawatari T Nakashima Y Iwamoto Y

We investigated the factors related to the radiological outcome of a transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy in patients with osteonecrosis of the hip. We reviewed 73 hips in 62 patients with a mean follow-up of 12.4 years (5 to 31.1). There were 28 men and 34 women, with a mean age of 33.3 years (15 to 68) at the time of surgery. The 73 hips were divided into two groups according to their radiological findings: group 1 showed progression of collapse and/or joint-space narrowing; group 2 had neither progressive collapse nor joint-space narrowing. Both of these factors and the radiological outcomes were analysed by a stepwise discriminant analysis. A total of 12 hips were categorised as group 1 and 61 as group 2. Both the post-operative intact ratio and the localisation of the necrotic lesion correlated with the radiological outcome. The cut-off point of the postoperative intact ratio to prevent the progression of collapse was 33.6%, and the cut-off point to prevent both the progression of collapse and joint-space narrowing was 41.9%.

The results of this study indicate that a post-operative intact ratio of 33.0% is necessary if a satisfactory outcome is to be achieved after this varus osteotomy.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1180 - 1185
1 Sep 2008
Hamai S Miura H Higaki H Shimoto T Matsuda S Iwamoto Y

Mechanical failure because of wear or fracture of the polyethylene tibial post in posteriorly-stabilised total knee replacements has been extensively described. In this study of 12 patients with a clinically and radiologically successful NexGen LPS posteriorly-stabilised prosthesis impingement of the anterior tibial post was evaluated in vivo in three dimensions during gait using radiologically-based image-matching techniques.

Impingement was observed in all images of the patients during the stance phase, although the NexGen LPS was designed to accommodate 14° of hyperextension of the component before impingement occurred. Impingement arises as a result of posterior translation of the femur during the stance phase. Further attention must therefore be given to the configuration of the anterior portion of the femoral component and the polyethylene post when designing posteriorly-stabilised total knee replacements.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1025 - 1031
1 Aug 2008
Mizu-uchi H Matsuda S Miura H Okazaki K Akasaki Y Iwamoto Y

We compared the alignment of 39 total knee replacements implanted using the conventional alignment guide system with 37 implanted using a CT-based navigation system, performed by a single surgeon. The knees were evaluated using full-length weight-bearing anteroposterior radiographs, lateral radiographs and CT scans.

The mean hip-knee-ankle angle, coronal femoral component angle and coronal tibial component angle were 181.8° (174.2° to 188.3°), 88.5° (84.0° to 91.8°) and 89.7° (86.3° to 95.1°), respectively for the conventional group and 180.8° (178.2° to 185.1°), 89.3° (85.8° to 92.0°) and 89.9° (88.0° to 93.0°), respectively for the navigated group.

The mean sagittal femoral component angle was 85.5° (80.6° to 92.8°) for the conventional group and 89.6° (85.5° to 94.0°) for the navigated group.

The mean rotational femoral and tibial component angles were −0.7° (−8.8° to 9.8°) and −3.3° (−16.8° to 5.8°) for the conventional group and −0.6° (−3.5° to 3.0°) and 0.3° (−5.3° to 7.7°) for the navigated group.

The ideal angles of all alignments in the navigated group were obtained at significantly higher rates than in the conventional group. Our results demonstrated significant improvements in component positioning with a CT-based navigation system, especially with respect to rotational alignment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 6 | Pages 725 - 729
1 Jun 2007
Ikemura S Yamamoto T Jingushi S Nakashima Y Mawatari T Iwamoto Y

Transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy was designed to avoid some of the disadvantages of varus wedge osteotomy, such as post-operative leg-length discrepancy. In this retrospective study we investigated the leg-length discrepancy and clinical outcome after transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy undertaken in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Between January 1993 and March 2004, this osteotomy was performed in 42 hips of 36 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. There were 15 males and 21 females with a mean age at surgery of 34 years (15 to 68). The mean follow-up was 5.9 years (2.0 to 12.5). The mean pre-operative Harris hip score was 64.0 (43 to 85) points, which improved to a mean of 88.7 (58 to 100) points at final follow-up. The mean varus angulation post-operatively was 25° (12° to 38°) and the post-operative mean leg-length discrepancy was 13 mm (4 to 25). The post-operative leg-length discrepancy showed a strong correlation with varus angulation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient; r = 0.9530, p < 0.0001), which may be useful for predicting the leg-length discrepancy which can occur even after transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1643 - 1646
1 Dec 2005
Miura H Matsuda S Okazaki K Kawano T Kawamura H Iwamoto Y

We have previously developed a radiographic technique, the oblique posterior condylar view, for assessment of the posterior aspect of the femoral condyles after total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to confirm the validity of this radiographic view based upon intra-operative findings at revision total knee arthroplasty. Lateral and oblique posterior condylar views were performed for 11 knees prior to revision total knee arthroplasty, and radiolucent lines or osteolysis of the posterior aspect of the femoral condyles were identified. These findings were compared with the intra-operative appearance of the posterior aspects of the femoral condyles. Statistical analysis showed that sensitivity and efficacy were significantly better for the oblique posterior condylar than the lateral view. This method can, therefore, be considered as suitable for routine follow-up radiographs of the femoral component and in the pre-operative planning of revision surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 4 | Pages 483 - 488
1 Apr 2005
Nakayama K Matsuda S Miura H Higaki H Otsuka K Iwamoto Y

We measured the contact areas and contact stresses at the post-cam mechanism of a posterior-stabilised total knee arthroplasty when a posterior force of 500 N was applied to the Kirschner Performance, Scorpio Superflex, NexGen LPS Flex Fixed, and NexGen LPS Flex Mobile knee systems. Measurements were made at 90°, 120°, and 150° of flexion both in neutral rotation and 10° of internal rotation of the tibial component. Peak contact stresses at 90°, 120°, and 150° were 24.0, 33.9, and 28.8 MPa, respectively, for the Kirschner; 26.0, 32.4, and 22.1 MPa, respectively, for the Scorpio; and 34.1, 31.5, and 32.5 MPa, respectively, for the NexGen LPS Flex Fixed. With an internally rotated tibia, the contact stress increased significantly with all the fixed-bearing arthroplasties but not with the NexGen LPS Flex Mobile arthroplasty. The post-cam design should be modified in order to provide a larger contact area whilst avoiding any impingement and edge loading.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 3 | Pages 366 - 371
1 Apr 2004
Nabeyama R Matsuda S Miura H Mawatari T Kawano T Iwamoto Y

Our study evaluated the accuracy of an image-guided total knee replacement system based on CT with regard to preparation of the femoral and tibial bone using nine limbs from five cadavers. The accuracy was assessed by direct measurement using an extramedullary alignment rod without radiographs.

The mean angular errors of the femur and tibia, which represent angular gaps from the real mechanical axis in the coronal plane, were 0.3° and 1.1°, respectively. The CT-based system, provided almost perfect alignment of the femoral component with less than 1° of error and excellent alignment with less than 3° of error for the tibial component. Our results suggest that standardisation of knee replacement by the use of this system will lead to improved long-term survival of total knee arthroplasty.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 4 | Pages 535 - 539
1 May 2002
Jingushi S Sugioka Y Noguchi Y Miura H Iwamoto Y

Our study describes the mid-term clinical results of the use of transtrochanteric valgus osteotomy (TVO) for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip secondary to acetabular dysplasia. The operation included valgus displacement at the level of the lesser trochanter, and lateral displacement of the greater trochanter by inserting a wedge of bone. We reviewed 70 hips. The mean age of the patients at operation was 44 years (14 to 59). Most (90%) had advanced osteoarthritis.

The scores for pain and gait had improved significantly at a mean follow-up of 9.4 years. The rate of survival until an endpoint of a further operation during a follow-up of ten years was 82%. The survival rate was 95% in patients with unilateral involvement who were less than 50 years of age at operation. TVO is a useful form of treatment for advanced osteoarthritis of the hip, particularly in young patients with unilateral disease.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 4 | Pages 512 - 516
1 May 2000
Miyanishi K Noguchi Y Yamamoto T Irisa T Suenaga E Jingushi S Sugioka Y Iwamoto Y

We have studied the correlation between the prevention of progressive collapse and the ratio of the intact articular surface of the femoral head, after transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy for osteonecrosis. We used probit analysis on 125 hips in order to assess the ratio necessary to prevent progressive radiological collapse over a ten-year period. The results show that a minimum postoperative intact ratio of 34% was required. This critical ratio may be useful for surgical planning and in assessing the natural history of the condition.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 4 | Pages 705 - 709
1 Jul 1999
Hara T Hayashi K Nakashima Y Kanemaru T Iwamoto Y

We have studied the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) coating in 15 ovariectomised and 15 normal rats which had had a sham procedure. Twenty-four weeks after operation, HA-coated implants were inserted into the intramedullary canal of the right femur and uncoated implants into the left femur. The prostheses were removed four weeks after implantation. Twelve specimens in each group had mechanical push-out tests. Sagittal sections of the other three were evaluated by SEM.

The bone mineral density (BMD) of the dissected left tibia was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The difference in BMD between the control and ovariectomised tibiae was 35.01 mg/cm2 (95% CI, 26.60 to 43.42). The push-out strength of the HA-coated implants was higher than that of the uncoated implants in both groups (p < 0.0001), but the HA-coated implants of the ovariectomised group had a reduction in push-out strength of 40.3% compared with the control group (p < 0.0001).

Our findings suggest that HA-coated implants may improve the fixation of a cementless total hip prosthesis but that the presence of osteoporosis may limit the magnitude of this benefit.