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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 10 | Pages 639 - 649
19 Oct 2021
Bergiers S Hothi H Henckel J Di Laura A Belzunce M Skinner J Hart A


Acetabular edge-loading was a cause of increased wear rates in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties, ultimately contributing to their failure. Although such wear patterns have been regularly reported in retrieval analyses, this study aimed to determine their in vivo location and investigate their relationship with acetabular component positioning.


3D CT imaging was combined with a recently validated method of mapping bearing surface wear in retrieved hip implants. The asymmetrical stabilizing fins of Birmingham hip replacements (BHRs) allowed the co-registration of their acetabular wear maps and their computational models, segmented from CT scans. The in vivo location of edge-wear was measured within a standardized coordinate system, defined using the anterior pelvic plane.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 8 | Pages 599 - 610
1 Aug 2021
Hothi H Bergiers S Henckel J Iliadis AD Goodier WD Wright J Skinner J Calder P Hart AJ


The aim of this study was to present the first retrieval analysis findings of PRECICE STRYDE intermedullary nails removed from patients, providing useful information in the post-market surveillance of these recently introduced devices.


We collected ten nails removed from six patients, together with patient clinical data and plain radiograph imaging. We performed macro- and microscopic analysis of all surfaces and graded the presence of corrosion using validated semiquantitative scoring methods. We determined the elemental composition of surface debris using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and used metrology analysis to characterize the surface adjacent to the extendable junctions.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 7 | Pages 388 - 400
8 Jul 2021
Dall’Ava L Hothi H Henckel J Di Laura A Tirabosco R Eskelinen A Skinner J Hart A


The main advantage of 3D-printed, off-the-shelf acetabular implants is the potential to promote enhanced bony fixation due to their controllable porous structure. In this study we investigated the extent of osseointegration in retrieved 3D-printed acetabular implants.


We compared two groups, one made via 3D-printing (n = 7) and the other using conventional techniques (n = 7). We collected implant details, type of surgery and removal technique, patient demographics, and clinical history. Bone integration was assessed by macroscopic visual analysis, followed by sectioning to allow undecalcified histology on eight sections (~200 µm) for each implant. The outcome measures considered were area of bone attachment (%), extent of bone ingrowth (%), bone-implant contact (%), and depth of ingrowth (%), and these were quantified using a line-intercept method.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 8 | Pages 515 - 523
1 Aug 2020
Bergiers S Hothi H Henckel J Eskelinen A Skinner J Hart A


The optimum clearance between the bearing surfaces of hip arthroplasties is unknown. Theoretically, to minimize wear, it is understood that clearances must be low enough to maintain optimal contact pressure and fluid film lubrication, while being large enough to allow lubricant recovery and reduce contact patch size. This study aimed to identify the relationship between diametrical clearance and volumetric wear, through the analysis of retrieved components.


A total of 81 metal-on-metal Pinnacle hips paired with 12/14 stems were included in this study. Geometrical analysis was performed on each component, using coordinate and roundness measuring machines. The relationship between their as-manufactured diametrical clearance and volumetric wear was investigated. The Mann-Whitney U test and unpaired t-test were used, in addition to calculating the non-parametric Spearman's correlation coefficient, to statistically evaluate the acquired data.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 8, Issue 3 | Pages 136 - 145
1 Mar 2019
Cerquiglini A Henckel J Hothi H Allen P Lewis J Eskelinen A Skinner J Hirschmann MT Hart AJ


The Attune total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been used in over 600 000 patients worldwide. Registry data show good clinical outcome; however, concerns over the cement-tibial interface have been reported. We used retrieval analysis to give further insight into this controversial topic.


We examined 12 titanium (Ti) PFC Sigma implants, eight cobalt-chromium (CoCr) PFC Sigma implants, eight cobalt-chromium PFC Sigma rotating platform (RP) implants, and 11 Attune implants. We used a peer-reviewed digital imaging method to quantify the amount of cement attached to the backside of each tibial tray. We then measured: 1) the size of tibial tray thickness, tray projections, peripheral lips, and undercuts; and 2) surface roughness (Ra) on the backside and keel of the trays. Statistical analyses were performed to investigate differences between the two designs.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 11 | Pages 595 - 600
1 Nov 2018
Bergiers S Hothi HS Henckel J Eskelinen A Skinner J Hart A


Previous studies have suggested that metal-on-metal (MoM) Pinnacle (DePuy Synthes, Warsaw, Indiana) hip arthroplasties implanted after 2006 exhibit higher failure rates. This was attributed to the production of implants with reduced diametrical clearances between their bearing surfaces, which, it was speculated, were outside manufacturing tolerances. This study aimed to better understand the performance of Pinnacle Systems manufactured before and after this event.


A total of 92 retrieved MoM Pinnacle hips were analyzed, of which 45 were implanted before 2007, and 47 from 2007 onwards. The ‘pre-2007’ group contained 45 implants retrieved from 21 male and 24 female patients, with a median age of 61.3 years (interquartile range (IQR) 57.1 to 65.5); the ‘2007 onwards’ group contained 47 implants retrieved from 19 male and 28 female patients, with a median age of 61.8 years (IQR 58.5 to 67.8). The volume of material lost from their bearing and taper surfaces was measured using coordinate and roundness measuring machines. These outcomes were then compared statistically using linear regression models, adjusting for potentially confounding factors.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 7 | Pages 476 - 484
1 Jul 2018
Panagiotopoulou VC Davda K Hothi HS Henckel J Cerquiglini A Goodier WD Skinner J Hart A Calder PR


The Precice nail is the latest intramedullary lengthening nail with excellent early outcomes. Implant complications have led to modification of the nail design. The aim of this study was to perform a retrieval study of Precice nails following lower-limb lengthening and to assess macroscopical and microscopical changes to the implants and evaluate differences following design modification, with the aim of identifying potential surgical, implant, and patient risk factors.


A total of 15 nails were retrieved from 13 patients following lower-limb lengthening. Macroscopical and microscopical surface damage to the nails were identified. Further analysis included radiology and micro-CT prior to sectioning. The internal mechanism was then analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to identify corrosion.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 1 | Pages 20 - 27
1 Jan 2018
Sabah SA Moon JC Jenkins-Jones S Morgan CL Currie CJ Wilkinson JM Porter M Captur G Henckel J Chaturvedi N Kay P Skinner JA Hart AH Manisty C


The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with metal-on-metal (MoM) arthroplasties of the hip have an increased risk of cardiac failure compared with those with alternative types of arthroplasties (non-MoM).

Patients and Methods

A linkage study between the National Joint Registry, Hospital Episodes Statistics and records of the Office for National Statistics on deaths was undertaken. Patients who underwent elective total hip arthroplasty between January 2003 and December 2014 with no past history of cardiac failure were included and stratified as having either a MoM (n = 53 529) or a non-MoM (n = 482 247) arthroplasty. The primary outcome measure was the time to an admission to hospital for cardiac failure or death. Analysis was carried out using data from all patients and from those matched by propensity score.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 5 | Pages 345 - 350
1 May 2017
Di Laura A Hothi H Henckel J Swiatkowska I Liow MHL Kwon Y Skinner JA Hart AJ


The use of ceramic femoral heads in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has increased due to their proven low bearing wear characteristics. Ceramic femoral heads are also thought to reduce wear and corrosion at the head-stem junction with titanium (Ti) stems when compared with metal heads. We sought to evaluate taper damage of ceramic compared with metal heads when paired with cobalt chromium (CoCr) alloy stems in a single stem design.


This retrieval study involved 48 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with CoCr V40 trunnions paired with either CoCr (n = 21) or ceramic (n = 27) heads. The taper junction of all hips was evaluated for fretting/corrosion damage and volumetric material loss using a roundness-measuring machine. We used linear regression analysis to investigate taper damage differences after adjusting for potential confounding variables.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 3 | Pages 310 - 316
1 Mar 2017
Hothi H Henckel J Shearing P Holme T Cerquiglini A Laura AD Atrey A Skinner J Hart A


The aim of this study was to compare the design of the generic OptiStem XTR femoral stem with the established Exeter femoral stem.

Materials and Methods

We obtained five boxed, as manufactured, implants of both designs at random (ten in total). Two examiners were blinded to the implant design and independently measured the mass, volume, trunnion surface topography, trunnion roughness, trunnion cone angle, Caput-Collum-Diaphyseal (CCD) angle, femoral offset, stem length, neck length, and the width and roughness of the polished stem shaft using peer-reviewed methods. We then compared the stems using these parameters.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 1 | Pages 52 - 56
1 Jan 2017
Hothi HS Kendoff D Lausmann C Henckel J Gehrke T Skinner J Hart A


Mechanical wear and corrosion at the head-stem junction of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) (trunnionosis) have been implicated in their early revision, most commonly in metal-on-metal (MOM) hips. We can isolate the role of the head-stem junction as the predominant source of metal release by investigating non-MOM hips; this can help to identify clinically significant volumes of material loss and corrosion from these surfaces.


In this study we examined a series of 94 retrieved metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) hips for evidence of corrosion and material loss at the taper junction using a well published visual grading method and an established roundness-measuring machine protocol. Hips were retrieved from 74 male and 20 female patients with a median age of 57 years (30 to 76) and a median time to revision of 215 months (2 to 324). The reasons for revision were loosening of both the acetabular component and the stem (n = 29), loosening of the acetabular component (n = 58) and infection (n = 7). No adverse tissue reactions were reported by the revision surgeons.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1 | Pages 33 - 39
1 Jan 2016
Sabah SA Henckel J Koutsouris S Rajani R Hothi H Skinner JA Hart AJ


The National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) has extended its scope to report on hospital, surgeon and implant performance. Data linkage of the NJR to the London Implant Retrieval Centre (LIRC) has previously evaluated data quality for hip primary procedures, but did not assess revision records.


We analysed metal-on-metal hip revision procedures performed between 2003 and 2013. A total of 69 929 revision procedures from the NJR and 929 revised pairs of components from the LIRC were included.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 1 | Pages 10 - 18
1 Jan 2015
Sabah SA Henckel J Cook E Whittaker R Hothi H Pappas Y Blunn G Skinner JA Hart AJ

Arthroplasty registries are important for the surveillance of joint replacements and the evaluation of outcome. Independent validation of registry data ensures high quality. The ability for orthopaedic implant retrieval centres to validate registry data is not known. We analysed data from the National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) for primary metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties performed between 2003 and 2013. Records were linked to the London Implant Retrieval Centre (RC) for validation. A total of 67 045 procedures on the NJR and 782 revised pairs of components from the RC were included. We were able to link 476 procedures (60.9%) recorded with the RC to the NJR successfully. However, 306 procedures (39.1%) could not be linked. The outcome recorded by the NJR (as either revised, unrevised or death) for a primary procedure was incorrect in 79 linked cases (16.6%). The rate of registry-retrieval linkage and correct assignment of outcome code improved over time. The rates of error for component reference numbers on the NJR were as follows: femoral head category number 14/229 (5.0%); femoral head batch number 13/232 (5.3%); acetabular component category number 2/293 (0.7%) and acetabular component batch number 24/347 (6.5%).

Registry-retrieval linkage provided a novel means for the validation of data, particularly for component fields. This study suggests that NJR reports may underestimate rates of revision for many types of metal-on-metal hip replacement. This is topical given the increasing scope for NJR data. We recommend a system for continuous independent evaluation of the quality and validity of NJR data.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:10–18.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1457 - 1461
1 Nov 2012
Krishnan SP Dawood A Richards R Henckel J Hart AJ

Improvements in the surgical technique of total knee replacement (TKR) are continually being sought. There has recently been interest in three-dimensional (3D) pre-operative planning using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT. The 3D images are increasingly used for the production of patient-specific models, surgical guides and custom-made implants for TKR.

The users of patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) claim that they allow the optimum balance of technology and conventional surgery by reducing the complexity of conventional alignment and sizing tools. In this way the advantages of accuracy and precision claimed by computer navigation techniques are achieved without the disadvantages of additional intra-operative inventory, new skills or surgical time.

This review describes the terminology used in this area and debates the advantages and disadvantages of PSI.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 3 | Pages 315 - 320
1 Mar 2011
Hart AJ Ilo K Underwood R Cann P Henckel J Lewis A Cobb J Skinner J

We measured the orientation of the acetabular and femoral components in 45 patients (33 men, 12 women) with a mean age of 53.4 years (30 to 74) who had undergone revision of metal-on-metal hip resurfacings. Three-dimensional CT was used to measure the inclination and version of the acetabular component, femoral version and the horizontal femoral offset, and the linear wear of the removed acetabular components was measured using a roundness machine.

We found that acetabular version and combined version of the acetabular and femoral components were weakly positively correlated with the rate of wear. The acetabular inclination angle was strongly positively correlated with the rate of wear. Femoral version was weakly negatively correlated with the rate of wear. Application of a threshold of > 5 μm/year for the rate of wear in order to separate the revisions into low or high wearing groups showed that more high wearing components were implanted outside Lewinnek’s safe zone, but that this was mainly due to the inclination of the acetabular component, which was the only parameter that significantly differed between the groups.

We were unable to show that excess version of the acetabular component alone or combined with femoral version was associated with an increase in the rate of wear based on our assessment of version using CT.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 6 | Pages 738 - 744
1 Jun 2009
Hart AJ Sabah S Henckel J Lewis A Cobb J Sampson B Mitchell A Skinner JA

We carried out metal artefact-reduction MRI, three-dimensional CT measurement of the position of the component and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of cobalt and chromium levels in whole blood on 26 patients with unexplained pain following metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty.

MRI showed periprosthetic lesions around 16 hips, with 14 collections of fluid and two soft-tissue masses. The lesions were seen in both men and women and in symptomatic and asymptomatic hips. Using three-dimensional CT, the median inclination of the acetabular component was found to be 55° and its positioning was outside the Lewinnek safe zone in 13 of 16 cases. Using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the levels of blood metal ions tended to be higher in painful compared with well-functioning metal-on-metal hips.

These three clinically useful investigations can help to determine the cause of failure of the implant, predict the need for future revision and aid the choice of revision prostheses.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1513 - 1518
1 Nov 2006
Henckel J Richards R Lozhkin K Harris S Baena FMRY Barrett ARW Cobb JP

Surgeons need to be able to measure angles and distances in three dimensions in the planning and assessment of knee replacement. Computed tomography (CT) offers the accuracy needed but involves greater radiation exposure to patients than traditional long-leg standing radiographs, which give very little information outside the plane of the image.

There is considerable variation in CT radiation doses between research centres, scanning protocols and individual scanners, and ethics committees are rightly demanding more consistency in this area.

By refining the CT scanning protocol we have reduced the effective radiation dose received by the patient down to the equivalent of one long-leg standing radiograph. Because of this, it will be more acceptable to obtain the three-dimensional data set produced by CT scanning. Surgeons will be able to document the impact of implant position on outcome with greater precision.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 2 | Pages 188 - 197
1 Feb 2006
Cobb J Henckel J Gomes P Harris S Jakopec M Rodriguez F Barrett A Davies B

We performed a prospective, randomised controlled trial of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty comparing the performance of the Acrobot system with conventional surgery. A total of 27 patients (28 knees) awaiting unicompartmental knee arthroplasty were randomly allocated to have the operation performed conventionally or with the assistance of the Acrobot. The primary outcome measurement was the angle of tibiofemoral alignment in the coronal plane, measured by CT. Other secondary parameters were evaluated and are reported.

All of the Acrobot group had tibiofemoral alignment in the coronal plane within 2° of the planned position, while only 40% of the conventional group achieved this level of accuracy. While the operations took longer, no adverse effects were noted, and there was a trend towards improvement in performance with increasing accuracy based on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and American Knee Society scores at six weeks and three months. The Acrobot device allows the surgeon to reproduce a pre-operative plan more reliably than is possible using conventional techniques which may have clinical advantages.