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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 4 | Pages 231 - 244
1 Apr 2023
Lukas KJ Verhaegen JCF Livock H Kowalski E Phan P Grammatopoulos G


Spinopelvic characteristics influence the hip’s biomechanical behaviour. However, to date there is little knowledge defining what ‘normal’ spinopelvic characteristics are. This study aims to determine how static spinopelvic characteristics change with age and ethnicity among asymptomatic, healthy individuals.


This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify English studies, including ≥ 18-year-old participants, without evidence of hip or spine pathology or a history of previous surgery or interventional treatment, documenting lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), and pelvic incidence (PI). From a total of 2,543 articles retrieved after the initial database search, 61 articles were eventually selected for data extraction.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 12 | Pages 924 - 932
23 Dec 2022
Bourget-Murray J Horton I Morris J Bureau A Garceau S Abdelbary H Grammatopoulos G


The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and factors for developing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following hemiarthroplasty (HA) for hip fracture, and to evaluate treatment outcome and identify factors associated with treatment outcome.


A retrospective review was performed of consecutive patients treated for HA PJI at a tertiary referral centre with a mean 4.5 years’ follow-up (1.6 weeks to 12.9 years). Surgeries performed included debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) and single-stage revision. The effect of different factors on developing infection and treatment outcome was determined.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 10 | Pages 804 - 814
13 Oct 2022
Grammatopoulos G Laboudie P Fischman D Ojaghi R Finless A Beaulé PE


The primary aim of this study was to determine the ten-year outcome following surgical treatment for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). We assessed whether the evolution of practice from open to arthroscopic techniques influenced outcomes and tested whether any patient, radiological, or surgical factors were associated with outcome.


Prospectively collected data of a consecutive single-surgeon cohort, operated for FAI between January 2005 and January 2015, were retrospectively studied. The cohort comprised 393 hips (365 patients; 71% male (n = 278)), with a mean age of 34.5 years (SD 10.0). Over the study period, techniques evolved from open surgical dislocation (n = 94) to a combined arthroscopy-Hueter technique (HA + Hueter; n = 61) to a pure arthroscopic technique (HA; n = 238). Outcome measures of interest included modes of failures, complications, reoperation, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Demographic, radiological, and surgical factors were tested for possible association with outcome.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 1 | Pages 12 - 19
3 Jan 2022
Salih S Grammatopoulos G Burns S Hall-Craggs M Witt J


The lateral centre-edge angle (LCEA) is a plain radiological measure of superolateral cover of the femoral head. This study aims to establish the correlation between 2D radiological and 3D CT measurements of acetabular morphology, and to describe the relationship between LCEA and femoral head cover (FHC).


This retrospective study included 353 periacetabular osteotomies (PAOs) performed between January 2014 and December 2017. Overall, 97 hips in 75 patients had 3D analysis by Clinical Graphics, giving measurements for LCEA, acetabular index (AI), and FHC. Roentgenographical LCEA, AI, posterior wall index (PWI), and anterior wall index (AWI) were measured from supine AP pelvis radiographs. The correlation between CT and roentgenographical measurements was calculated. Sequential multiple linear regression was performed to determine the relationship between roentgenographical measurements and CT FHC.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 9 | Pages 757 - 764
1 Sep 2021
Verhaegen J Salih S Thiagarajah S Grammatopoulos G Witt JD


Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is an established treatment for acetabular dysplasia. It has also been proposed as a treatment for patients with acetabular retroversion. By reviewing a large cohort, we aimed to test whether outcome is equivalent for both types of morphology and identify factors that influenced outcome.


A single-centre, retrospective cohort study was performed on patients with acetabular retroversion treated with PAO (n = 62 hips). Acetabular retroversion was diagnosed clinically and radiologically (presence of a crossover sign, posterior wall sign, lateral centre-edge angle (LCEA) between 20° and 35°). Outcomes were compared with a control group of patients undergoing PAO for dysplasia (LCEA < 20°; n = 86 hips). Femoral version was recorded. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), complications, and reoperation rates were measured.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 7 Supple B | Pages 46 - 52
1 Jul 2021
McGoldrick NP Fischman D Nicol GM Kreviazuk C Grammatopoulos G Beaulé PE


The aim of this study was to radiologically evaluate the quality of cement mantle and alignment achieved with a polished tapered cemented femoral stem inserted through the anterior approach and compared with the posterior approach.


A comparative retrospective study of 115 consecutive hybrid total hip arthroplasties or cemented hemiarthroplasties in 110 patients, performed through anterior (n = 58) or posterior approach (n = 57) using a collarless polished taper-slip femoral stem, was conducted. Cement mantle quality and thickness were assessed in both planes. Radiological outcomes were compared between groups.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 12 | Pages 857 - 869
1 Dec 2020
Slullitel PA Coutu D Buttaro MA Beaule PE Grammatopoulos G

As our understanding of hip function and disease improves, it is evident that the acetabular fossa has received little attention, despite it comprising over half of the acetabulum’s surface area and showing the first signs of degeneration. The fossa’s function is expected to be more than augmenting static stability with the ligamentum teres and being a templating landmark in arthroplasty. Indeed, the fossa, which is almost mature at 16 weeks of intrauterine development, plays a key role in hip development, enabling its nutrition through vascularization and synovial fluid, as well as the influx of chondrogenic stem/progenitor cells that build articular cartilage. The pulvinar, a fibrofatty tissue in the fossa, has the same developmental origin as the synovium and articular cartilage and is a biologically active area. Its unique anatomy allows for homogeneous distribution of the axial loads into the joint. It is composed of intra-articular adipose tissue (IAAT), which has adipocytes, fibroblasts, leucocytes, and abundant mast cells, which participate in the inflammatory cascade after an insult to the joint. Hence, the fossa and pulvinar should be considered in decision-making and surgical outcomes in hip preservation surgery, not only for their size, shape, and extent, but also for their biological capacity as a source of cytokines, immune cells, and chondrogenic stem cells.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2020;9(12):857–869.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 8 | Pages 902 - 909
1 Aug 2019
Innmann MM Merle C Gotterbarm T Ewerbeck V Beaulé PE Grammatopoulos G


This study of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip aimed to: 1) characterize the contribution of the hip, spinopelvic complex, and lumbar spine when moving from the standing to the sitting position; 2) assess whether abnormal spinopelvic mobility is associated with worse symptoms; and 3) identify whether spinopelvic mobility can be predicted from static anatomical radiological parameters.

Patients and Methods

A total of 122 patients with end-stage OA of the hip awaiting total hip arthroplasty (THA) were prospectively studied. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs; Oxford Hip Score, Oswestry Disability Index, and Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey Score) and clinical data were collected. Sagittal spinopelvic mobility was calculated as the change from the standing to sitting position using the lumbar lordosis angle (LL), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic-femoral angle (PFA), and acetabular anteinclination (AI) from lateral radiographs. The interaction of the different parameters was assessed. PROMs were compared between patients with normal spinopelvic mobility (10° ≤ ∆PT ≤ 30°) or abnormal spinopelvic mobility (stiff: ∆PT < ± 10°; hypermobile: ∆PT > ± 30°). Multiple regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to test for possible predictors of spinopelvic mobility.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 5 | Pages 540 - 546
1 May 2019
Juneau D Grammatopoulos G Alzahrani A Thornhill R Inacio JR Dick A Vogel KI Dobransky J Beaulé PE Dwivedi G


Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was used to assess whether cardiac function or tissue composition was affected in patients with well-functioning metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasties (MoMHRA) when compared with a group of controls, and to assess if metal ion levels correlated with any of the functional or structural parameters studied.

Patients and Methods

In all, 30 participants with no significant cardiac history were enrolled: 20 patients with well-functioning MoMHRA at mean follow-up of 8.3 years post-procedure (ten unilateral, ten bilateral; 17 men, three women) and a case-matched control group of ten non-MoM total hip arthroplasty patients (six men, four women). The mean age of the whole cohort (study group and controls) at the time of surgery was 50.6 years (41.0 to 64.0). Serum levels of cobalt and chromium were measured, and all patients underwent CMR imaging, including cine, T2* measurements, T1 and T2 mapping, late gadolinium enhancement, and strain measurements.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1280 - 1288
1 Oct 2018
Grammatopoulos G Gofton W Cochran M Dobransky J Carli A Abdelbary H Gill HS Beaulé PE


This study aims to: determine the difference in pelvic position that occurs between surgery and radiographic, supine, postoperative assessment; examine how the difference in pelvic position influences subsequent component orientation; and establish whether differences in pelvic position, and thereafter component orientation, exist between total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed in the supine versus the lateral decubitus positions.

Patients and Methods

The intra- and postoperative anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 321 THAs were included; 167 were performed with the patient supine using the anterior approach and 154 were performed with the patient in the lateral decubitus using the posterior approach. The inclination and anteversion of the acetabular component was measured and the difference (Δ) between the intra- and postoperative radiographs was determined. The target zone was inclination/anteversion of 40°/20° (± 10°). Changes in the tilt, rotation, and obliquity of the pelvis on the intra- and postoperative radiographs were calculated from Δinclination/anteversion using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 5 | Pages 614 - 622
1 May 2017
Grammatopoulos G Bolduc M Atkins BL Kendrick BJL McLardy-Smith P Murray DW Gundle R Taylor AH


Advocates of debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) in hip periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) argue that a procedure not disturbing a sound prosthesis-bone interface is likely to lead to better survival and functional outcome compared with revision. This case-control study aims were to compare outcome of DAIRs for infected primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) with outcomes following primary THA and two-stage revision of infected primary THAs.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all DAIRs, performed for confirmed infected primary hip arthropasty (n = 82) at out institution, between 1997 and 2013. Data recorded included full patient information and type of surgery. Outcome measures included complications, mortality, implant survivorship and functional outcome. Outcome was compared with two control groups matched for gender and age; a cohort of primary THAs (n = 120) and a cohort of two-stage revisions for infection (n = 66).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1463 - 1470
1 Nov 2016
Grammatopoulos G Alvand A Martin H Whitwell D Taylor A Gibbons CLMH


A possible solution for the management of proximal femoral bone loss is a modular femoral endoprosthesis (EPR). Although the outcome of EPRs in tumour surgery has been well described, the outcome of their use in revision hip surgery has received less attention. The aim of this study was to describe the outcome of using EPR for non-neoplastic indications.


A retrospective review of 79 patients who underwent 80 EPRs for non-neoplastic indications was performed, including the rates of complication and survival and the mean Oxford Hip Scores (OHS), at a mean of five years post-operatively. The mean age at the time of surgery was 69 years (28 to 93) and the mean number of previous operations on the hip was 2.4 (0 to 17). The most common indications for EPR implantation were periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) (n = 40), periprosthetic fracture (n = 12) and failed osteosynthesis of a proximal femoral fracture or complex trauma (n = 11).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 164 - 172
1 Feb 2015
Grammatopoulos G Thomas GER Pandit H Beard DJ Gill HS Murray DW

We assessed the orientation of the acetabular component in 1070 primary total hip arthroplasties with hard-on-soft, small diameter bearings, aiming to determine the size and site of the target zone that optimises outcome. Outcome measures included complications, dislocations, revisions and ΔOHS (the difference between the Oxford Hip Scores pre-operatively and five years post-operatively). A wide scatter of orientation was observed (2sd 15°). Placing the component within Lewinnek’s zone was not associated withimproved outcome. Of the different zone sizes tested (± 5°, ± 10° and ± 15°), only ± 15° was associated with a decreased rate of dislocation. The dislocation rate with acetabular components inside an inclination/anteversion zone of 40°/15° ± 15° was four times lower than those outside. The only zone size associated with statistically significant and clinically important improvement in OHS was ± 5°. The best outcomes (ΔOHS > 26) were achieved with a 45°/25° ± 5° zone.

This study demonstrated that with traditional technology surgeons can only reliably achieve a target zone of ±15°. As the optimal zone to diminish the risk of dislocation is also ±15°, surgeons should be able to achieve this. This is the first study to demonstrate that optimal orientation of the acetabular component improves the functional outcome. However, the target zone is small (± 5°) and cannot, with current technology, be consistently achieved.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:164–72.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 1 | Pages 94 - 99
1 Jan 2015
Grammatopoulos G Wilson HA Kendrick BJL Pulford EC Lippett J Deakin M Andrade AJ Kambouroglou G

National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines state that cemented stems with an Orthopaedic Data Evaluation Panel (ODEP) rating of > 3B should be used for hemiarthroplasty when treating an intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck. These recommendations are based on studies in which most, if not all stems, did not hold such a rating.

This case-control study compared the outcome of hemiarthroplasty using a cemented (Exeter) or uncemented (Corail) femoral stem. These are the two prostheses most commonly used in hip arthroplasty in the UK.

Data were obtained from two centres; most patients had undergone hemiarthroplasty using a cemented Exeter stem (n = 292/412). Patients were matched for all factors that have been shown to influence mortality after an intracapsular fracture of the neck of the femur. Outcome measures included: complications, re-operations and mortality rates at two, seven, 30 and 365 days post-operatively. Comparable outcomes for the two stems were seen.

There were more intra-operative complications in the uncemented group (13% vs 0%), but the cemented group had a greater mortality in the early post-operative period (n = 6). There was no overall difference in the rate of re-operation (5%) or death (365 days: 26%) between the two groups at any time post-operatively.

This study therefore supports the use of both cemented and uncemented stems of proven design, with an ODEP rating of 10A, in patients with an intracapsular fracture of the neck of the femur.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:94–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1290 - 1297
1 Oct 2014
Grammatopoulos G Pandit HG da Assunção R McLardy-Smith P De Smet KA Gill HS Murray DW

There is great variability in acetabular component orientation following hip replacement. The aims of this study were to compare the component orientation at impaction with the orientation measured on post-operative radiographs and identify factors that influence the difference between the two. A total of 67 hip replacements (52 total hip replacements and 15 hip resurfacings) were prospectively studied. Intra-operatively, the orientation of the acetabular component after impaction relative to the operating table was measured using a validated stereo-photogrammetry protocol. Post-operatively, the radiographic orientation was measured; the mean inclination/anteversion was 43° (sd 6°)/ 19° (sd 7°). A simulated radiographic orientation was calculated based on how the orientation would have appeared had an on-table radiograph been taken intra-operatively. The mean difference between radiographic and intra-operative inclination/anteversion was 5° (sd 5°)/ -8° (sd 8°). The mean difference between simulated radiographic and intra-operative inclination/anteversion, which quantifies the effect of the different way acetabular orientation is measured, was 3°/-6° (sd 2°). The mean difference between radiographic and simulated radiographic orientation inclination/anteversion, which is a manifestation of the change in pelvic position between component impaction and radiograph, was 1°/-2° (sd 7°).

This study demonstrated that in order to achieve a specific radiographic orientation target, surgeons should implant the acetabular component 5° less inclined and 8° more anteverted than their target. Great variability (2 sd about ± 15°) in the post-operative radiographic cup orientation was seen. The two equally contributing causes for this are variability in the orientation at which the cup is implanted, and the change in pelvic position between impaction and post-operative radiograph.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1290–7

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 7 | Pages 876 - 883
1 Jul 2014
Grammatopoulos G Pandit HG da Assunção R Taylor A McLardy-Smith P De Smet KA Murray DW Gill HS

The orientation of the acetabular component is influenced not only by the orientation at which the surgeon implants the component, but also the orientation of the pelvis at the time of implantation. Hence, the orientation of the pelvis at set-up and its movement during the operation, are important. During 67 hip replacements, using a validated photogrammetric technique, we measured how three surgeons orientated the patient’s pelvis, how much the pelvis moved during surgery, and what effect these had on the final orientation of the acetabular component. Pelvic orientation at set-up, varied widely (mean (± 2, standard deviation (sd))): tilt 8° (2sd ±32), obliquity –4° (2sd ±12), rotation –8° (2sd ±14). Significant differences in pelvic positioning were detected between surgeons (p < 0.001). The mean angular movement of the pelvis between set-up and component implantation was 9° (sd 6). Factors influencing pelvic movement included surgeon, approach (posterior >  lateral), procedure (hip resurfacing > total hip replacement) and type of support (p < 0.001). Although, on average, surgeons achieved their desired acetabular component orientation, there was considerable variability (2sd ±16) in component orientation. We conclude that inconsistency in positioning the patient at set-up and movement of the pelvis during the operation account for much of the variation in acetabular component orientation. Improved methods of positioning and holding the pelvis are required.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B:876–83.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1180 - 1186
1 Sep 2012
Murray DW Grammatopoulos G Pandit H Gundle R Gill HS McLardy-Smith P

Recent events have highlighted the importance of implant design for survival and wear-related complications following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The mid-term survival of the most widely used implant, the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR), has been described by its designers. The aim of this study was to report the ten-year survival and patient-reported functional outcome of the BHR from an independent centre.

In this cohort of 554 patients (646 BHRs) with a mean age of 51.9 years (16.5 to 81.5) followed for a mean of eight years (1 to 12), the survival and patient-reported functional outcome depended on gender and the size of the implant. In female hips (n = 267) the ten-year survival was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI) 83 to 91), the ten-year revision rate for pseudotumour was 7%, the mean Oxford hip score (OHS) was 43 (sd 8) and the mean UCLA activity score was 6.4 (sd 2). In male hips (n = 379) the ten-year survival was 95% (95% CI 92.0 to 97.4), the ten-year revision rate for pseudotumour was 1.7%, the mean OHS was 45 (sd 6) and the mean UCLA score was 7.6 (sd 2). In the most demanding subgroup, comprising male patients aged < 50 years treated for primary osteoarthritis, the survival was 99% (95% CI 97 to 100).

This study supports the ongoing use of resurfacing in young active men, who are a subgroup of patients who tend to have problems with conventional THR. In contrast, the results in women have been poor and we do not recommend metal-on-metal resurfacing in women. Continuous follow-up is recommended because of the increasing incidence of pseudotumour with the passage of time.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1527 - 1534
1 Nov 2010
Grammatopoulos G Pandit H Murray DW Gill HS

Pseudotumour is a rare but important complication of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing that occurs much more commonly in women than in men. We examined the relationship between head-neck ratio (HNR) and pseudotumour formation in 18 resurfaced hips (18 patients) revised for pseudotumour and 42 asymptomatic control resurfaced hips (42 patients).

Patients in whom pseudotumour formation had occurred had higher pre-operative HNR than the control patients (mean 1.37 (sd 0.10) vs mean 1.30 (sd 0.08) p = 0.001). At operation the patients with pseudotumours had a greater reduction in the size of their femoral heads (p = 0.035) and subsequently had greater neck narrowing (mean 10.1% (sd 7.2) vs mean 3.8% (sd 3.2) p < 0.001). No female patient with a pre-operative HNR ≤ 1.3 developed a pseudotumour.

We suggest that reducing the size of the femoral head, made possible by a high pre-operative HNR, increases the risk of impingement and edge loading, and may contribute to high wear and pseudotumour formation. As the incidence of pseudotumour is low in men, it appears safe to perform resurfacing in men. However, this study suggests that it is also reasonable to resurface in women with a pre-operative HNR ≤ 1.3.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1072 - 1078
1 Aug 2010
Grammatopoulos G Pandit H Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Whitwell D Gill HS Murray DW

Pseudotumours are a rare complication of hip resurfacing. They are thought to be a response to metal debris which may be caused by edge loading due to poor orientation of the acetabular component. Our aim was to determine the optimal acetabular orientation to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation.

We matched 31 hip resurfacings revised for pseudotumour formation with 58 controls who had a satisfactory outcome from this procedure. The radiographic inclination and anteversion angles of the acetabular component were measured on anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis using Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse software. The mean inclination angle (47°, 10° to 81°) and anteversion angle (14°, 4° to 34°) of the pseudotumour cases were the same (p = 0.8, p = 0.2) as the controls, 46° (29° to 60°) and 16° (4° to 30°) respectively, but the variation was greater. Assuming an accuracy of implantation of ± 10° about a target position, the optimal radiographic position was found to be approximately 45° of inclination and 20° of anteversion. The incidence of pseudotumours inside the zone was four times lower (p = 0.007) than outside the zone.

In order to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation we recommend that surgeons implant the acetabular component at an inclination of 45° (± 10) and anteversion of 20° (± 10) on post-operative radiographs. Because of differences between the radiographic and the operative angles, this may be best achieved by aiming for an inclination of 40° and an anteversion of 25°.