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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1143 - 1149
1 Aug 2005
Akmal M Singh A Anand A Kesani A Aslam N Goodship A Bentley G

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hyaluronic acid supplementation on chondrocyte metabolism in vitro. The clinical benefits of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections are thought to occur through improved joint lubrication. Recent findings have shown that exogenous hyaluronic acid is incorporated into articular cartilage where it may have a direct biological effect on chondrocytes through CD44 receptors.

Bovine articular chondrocytes were isolated and seeded into alginate constructs. These were cultured in medium containing hyaluronic acid at varying concentrations. Samples were assayed for biochemical and histological changes.

There was a dose-dependent response to the exposure of hyaluronic acid to bovine articular chondrocytes in vitro. Low concentrations of hyaluronic acid (0.1 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL) significantly increase DNA, sulphated glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline synthesis. Immunohistology confirmed the maintenance of cell phenotype with increased matrix deposition of chondroitin-6-sulphate and collagen type II. These findings confirm a stimulatory effect of hyaluronic acid on chondrocyte metabolism.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 3 | Pages 389 - 394
1 May 1994
Richardson J Cunningham J Goodship A O'Connor B Kenwright J

We measured fracture stiffness in 212 patients with tibial fractures treated by external fixation. In the first 117 patients (group 1) the decision to remove the fixator and allow independent weight-bearing was made on clinical grounds. In the other 95 patients (group 2) the frames were removed when the fracture stiffness had reached 15 Nm/degree. In group 1 there were eight refractures and in group 2 there was none (p = 0.02, Fisher's exact test). The time to independent weight-bearing was longer in group 1 (median 24 weeks) than in group 2 (21.7 weeks, p = 0.02). The greater precision of our objective measurement was associated with a reduction in refracture rate and in the time taken to achieve independent weight-bearing. We consider that a stiffness of 15 Nm/degree in the sagittal plane provides a useful definition of union of tibial fractures.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 4 | Pages 654 - 659
1 Jul 1991
Kenwright J Richardson J Cunningham J White S Goodship A Adams M Magnussen P Newman J

Diaphyseal fractures of the tibia in 80 patients were treated by external skeletal fixation using a unilateral frame, either in a fixed mode or in a mode which allowed the application of a small amount of predominantly axial micromovement. Patients were allocated to each regime by random selection. Fracture healing was assessed clinically, radiologically and by measurement of the mechanical stiffness of the fracture. Both clinical and mechanical healing were enhanced in the group subjected to micromovement, compared to those treated with frames in a fixed mode possessing an overall stiffness similar to that of others in common clinical use. The differences in healing time were statistically significant and independently related to the treatment method. There was no difference in complication rates between treatment groups.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 67-B, Issue 4 | Pages 650 - 655
1 Aug 1985
Goodship A Kenwright J

Although it has been well established that fracture healing is influenced by the mechanical environment, the optimal parameters have not yet been established. In two groups of sheep an experimental tibial diaphysial fracture was created, and stabilised using external skeletal fixation. In one group rigid fixation was maintained throughout fracture healing; in the other group controlled axial micromovement, with a loading regime known to be osteogenic in intact bones, was applied for a short period daily. A significant improvement in healing was associated with the application of controlled micromovement. Data from these experiments provide the basis for improving the conditions for fracture healing and may assist in the prevention of delayed union.