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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 10 | Pages 782 - 790
18 Oct 2023
Hamilton DF Gaston P Macpherson GJ Simpson P Clement ND


The primary aim of this study is to assess the survival of the uncemented hydroxyapatite (HA) coated Trident II acetabular component as part of a hybrid total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a cemented Exeter stem. The secondary aims are to assess the complications, joint-specific function, health-related quality of life, and radiological signs of loosening of the acetabular component.


A single-centre, prospective cohort study of 125 implants will be undertaken. Patients undergoing hybrid THA at the study centre will be recruited. Inclusion criteria are patients suitable for the use of the uncemented acetabular component, aged 18 to 75 years, willing and able to comply with the study protocol, and provide informed consent. Exclusion criteria includes patients not meeting study inclusion criteria, inadequate bone stock to support fixation of the prosthesis, a BMI > 40 kg/m2, or THA performed for pain relief in those with severely restricted mobility.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 5 | Pages 532 - 540
2 May 2022
Martin H Robinson PG Maempel JF Hamilton D Gaston P Safran MR Murray IR

There has been a marked increase in the number of hip arthroscopies performed over the past 16 years, primarily in the management of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Insights into the pathoanatomy of FAI, and high-level evidence supporting the clinical effectiveness of arthroscopy in the management of FAI, have fuelled this trend. Arthroscopic management of labral tears with repair may have superior results compared with debridement, and there is now emerging evidence to support reconstructive options where repair is not possible. In situations where an interportal capsulotomy is performed to facilitate access, data now support closure of the capsule in selective cases where there is an increased risk of postoperative instability. Preoperative planning is an integral component of bony corrective surgery in FAI, and this has evolved to include computer-planned resection. However, the benefit of this remains controversial. Hip instability is now widely accepted, and diagnostic criteria and treatment are becoming increasingly refined. Instability can also be present with FAI or develop as a result of FAI treatment. In this annotation, we outline major current controversies relating to decision-making in hip arthroscopy for FAI.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(5):532–540.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 | Pages 1009 - 1020
1 Jun 2021
Ng N Gaston P Simpson PM Macpherson GJ Patton JT Clement ND


The aims of this systematic review were to assess the learning curve of semi-active robotic arm-assisted total hip arthroplasty (rTHA), and to compare the accuracy, patient-reported functional outcomes, complications, and survivorship between rTHA and manual total hip arthroplasty (mTHA).


Searches of PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar were performed in April 2020 in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. Search terms included “robotic”, “hip”, and “arthroplasty”. The criteria for inclusion were published clinical research articles reporting the learning curve for rTHA (robotic arm-assisted only) and those comparing the implantation accuracy, functional outcomes, survivorship, or complications with mTHA.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 1 | Pages 22 - 30
1 Jan 2021
Clement ND Gaston P Bell A Simpson P Macpherson G Hamilton DF Patton JT


The primary aim of this study was to compare the hip-specific functional outcome of robotic assisted total hip arthroplasty (rTHA) with manual total hip arthroplasty (mTHA) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Secondary aims were to compare general health improvement, patient satisfaction, and radiological component position and restoration of leg length between rTHA and mTHA.


A total of 40 patients undergoing rTHA were propensity score matched to 80 patients undergoing mTHA for OA. Patients were matched for age, sex, and preoperative function. The Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), and EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) were collected pre- and postoperatively (mean 10 months (SD 2.2) in rTHA group and 12 months (SD 0.3) in mTHA group). In addition, patient satisfaction was collected postoperatively. Component accuracy was assessed using Lewinnek and Callanan safe zones, and restoration of leg length were assessed radiologically.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1010 - 1015
1 Aug 2020
Robinson PG Maempel JF Murray IR Rankin CS Hamilton DF Gaston P


Responsiveness and ceiling effects are key properties of an outcome score. No such data have been reported for the original English version of the International Hip Outcome Tool 12 (iHOT-12) at a follow-up of more than four months. The aim of this study was to identify the responsiveness and ceiling effects of the English version iHOT-12 in a series of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for intra-articular hip pathology at a minimum of one year postoperatively.


A total of 171 consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy with a diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) under the care of a single surgeon between January 2013 and March 2017 were included. iHOT-12 and EuroQol 5D-5L (EQ-5D-5L) scores were available pre- and postoperatively. Effect size and ceiling effects for the iHOT-12 were calculated with subgroup analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 4 | Pages 434 - 441
1 Apr 2020
Hamilton DF Burnett R Patton JT MacPherson GJ Simpson AHRW Howie CR Gaston P


There are comparatively few randomized studies evaluating knee arthroplasty prostheses, and fewer still that report longer-term functional outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate mid-term outcomes of an existing implant trial cohort to document changing patient function over time following total knee arthroplasty using longitudinal analytical techniques and to determine whether implant design chosen at time of surgery influenced these outcomes.


A mid-term follow-up of the remaining 125 patients from a randomized cohort of total knee arthroplasty patients (initially comprising 212 recruited patients), comparing modern (Triathlon) and traditional (Kinemax) prostheses was undertaken. Functional outcomes were assessed with the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), knee range of movement, pain numerical rating scales, lower limb power output, timed functional assessment battery, and satisfaction survey. Data were linked to earlier assessment timepoints, and analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) mixed models, incorporating longitudinal change over all assessment timepoints.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1458 - 1466
1 Nov 2017
Tsang SJ Ting J Simpson AHRW Gaston P


The aims of the study were to review and analyse the reported series of debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) in the management of infected total hip arthroplasties (THAs) to establish the overall success and the influencing factors.

Patients and methods

Using a standardised recognised study protocol, meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology guidelines, a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature was performed. The primary outcome measure was the success of treatment. The search strategy and inclusion criteria which involved an assessment of quality yielded 39 articles for analysis, which included 1296 patients.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 1 | Pages 64 - 70
1 Jan 2015
Hamilton DF Burnett R Patton JT Howie CR Moran M Simpson AHRW Gaston P

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an established and successful procedure. However, the design of prostheses continues to be modified in an attempt to optimise the functional outcome of the patient.

The aim of this study was to determine if patient outcome after TKA was influenced by the design of the prosthesis used.

A total of 212 patients (mean age 69; 43 to 92; 131 female (62%), 81 male (32%)) were enrolled in a single centre double-blind trial and randomised to receive either a Kinemax (group 1) or a Triathlon (group 2) TKA.

Patients were assessed pre-operatively, at six weeks, six months, one year and three years after surgery. The outcome assessments used were the Oxford Knee Score; range of movement; pain numerical rating scales; lower limb power output; timed functional assessment battery and a satisfaction survey. Data were assessed incorporating change over all assessment time points, using repeated measures analysis of variance longitudinal mixed models. Implant group 2 showed a significantly greater range of movement (p = 0.009), greater lower limb power output (p = 0.026) and reduced report of ‘worst daily pain’ (p = 0.003) over the three years of follow-up. Differences in Oxford Knee Score (p = 0.09), report of ‘average daily pain’ (p = 0.57) and timed functional performance tasks (p = 0.23) did not reach statistical significance. Satisfaction with outcome was significantly better in group 2 (p = 0.001).

These results suggest that patient outcome after TKA can be influenced by the prosthesis used.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:64–70.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 5 | Pages 622 - 628
1 May 2014
Hamilton DF Lane JV Gaston P Patton JT MacDonald DJ Simpson AHRW Howie CR

Satisfaction with care is important to both patients and to those who pay for it. The Net Promoter Score (NPS), widely used in the service industries, has been introduced into the NHS as the ‘friends and family test’; an overarching measure of patient satisfaction. It assesses the likelihood of the patient recommending the healthcare received to another, and is seen as a discriminator of healthcare performance. We prospectively assessed 6186 individuals undergoing primary lower limb joint replacement at a single university hospital to determine the Net Promoter Score for joint replacements and to evaluate which factors contributed to the response.

Achieving pain relief (odds ratio (OR) 2.13, confidence interval (CI) 1.83 to 2.49), the meeting of pre-operative expectation (OR 2.57, CI 2.24 to 2.97), and the hospital experience (OR 2.33, CI 2.03 to 2.68) are the domains that explain whether a patient would recommend joint replacement services. These three factors, combined with the type of surgery undertaken (OR 2.31, CI 1.68 to 3.17), drove a predictive model that was able to explain 95% of the variation in the patient’s recommendation response. Though intuitively similar, this ‘recommendation’ metric was found to be materially different to satisfaction responses. The difference between THR (NPS 71) and TKR (NPS 49) suggests that no overarching score for a department should be used without an adjustment for case mix. However, the Net Promoter Score does measure a further important dimension to our existing metrics: the patient experience of healthcare delivery.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:622–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1474 - 1479
1 Nov 2013
Tsang SJ Gaston P

Total hip replacement (THR) has been shown to be a cost-effective procedure. However, it is not risk-free. Certain conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, are thought to increase the risk of complications. In this study we have evaluated the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients undergoing THR and the associated risk of adverse operative outcomes. A meta-analysis and systematic review were conducted according to the guidelines of the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology. Inclusion criteria were observational studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes in the study population, accompanied by reports of at least one of the following outcomes: venous thromboembolic events; acute coronary events; infections of the urinary tract, lower respiratory tract or surgical site; or requirement for revision arthroplasty. Altman and Bland’s methods were used to calculate differences in relative risks. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was found to be 5.0% among patients undergoing THR, and was associated with an increased risk of established surgical site infection (odds ratio (OR) 2.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52 to 2.76)), urinary infection (OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.55)) and lower respiratory tract infections (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.61 to 2.26)). Diabetes mellitus is a relatively common comorbidity encountered in THR. Diabetic patients have a higher rate of developing both surgical site and non-surgical site infections following THR.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1474–9.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 2, Issue 4 | Pages 70 - 78
1 Apr 2013
Hamilton DF McLeish JA Gaston P Simpson AHRW


Lower limb muscle power is thought to influence outcome following total knee replacement (TKR). Post-operative deficits in muscle strength are commonly reported, although not explained. We hypothesised that post-operative recovery of lower limb muscle power would be influenced by the number of satellite cells in the quadriceps muscle at time of surgery.


Biopsies were obtained from 29 patients undergoing TKR. Power output was assessed pre-operatively and at six and 26 weeks post-operatively with a Leg Extensor Power Rig and data were scaled for body weight. Satellite cell content was assessed in two separate analyses, the first cohort (n = 18) using immunohistochemistry and the second (n = 11) by a new quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) protocol for Pax-7 (generic satellite cell marker) and Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM; marker of activated cells).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 1 | Pages 115 - 121
1 Jan 2013
Jenkins PJ Clement ND Hamilton DF Gaston P Patton JT Howie CR

The aim of this study was to perform a cost–utility analysis of total hip (THR) and knee replacement (TKR). Arthritis is a disabling condition that leads to long-term deterioration in quality of life. Total joint replacement, despite being one of the greatest advances in medicine of the modern era, has recently come under scrutiny. The National Health Service (NHS) has competing demands, and resource allocation is challenging in times of economic restraint. Patients who underwent THR (n = 348) or TKR (n = 323) between January and July 2010 in one Scottish region were entered into a prospective arthroplasty database. A health–utility score was derived from the EuroQol (EQ-5D) score pre-operatively and at one year, and was combined with individual life expectancy to derive the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare QALYs gained between procedures, while controlling for baseline differences. The number of QALYs gained was higher after THR than after TKR (6.5 vs 4.0 years, p < 0.001). The cost per QALY for THR was £1372 compared with £2101 for TKR. The predictors of an increase in QALYs gained were poorer health before surgery (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.001). General health (EQ-5D VAS) showed greater improvement after THR than after TKR (p < 0.001). This study provides up-to-date cost-effectiveness data for total joint replacement. THR and TKR are extremely effective both clinically and in terms of cost effectiveness, with costs that compare favourably to those of other medical interventions.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:115–21.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1506 - 1510
1 Nov 2012
Hamilton DF Gaston P Simpson AHRW

The aim of this study was to determine the association between the Oxford knee score (OKS) and direct assessment of outcome, and to examine how this relationship varied at different time-points following total knee replacement (TKR). Prospective data consisting of the OKS, numerical rating scales for ‘worst pain’ and ‘perceived mean daily pain’, timed functional assessments (chair rising, stairs and walking ability), goniometry and lower limb power were recorded for 183 patients pre-operatively and at six, 26 and 52 weeks post-operatively. The OKS was influenced primarily by the patient’s level of pain rather than objective functional assessments. The relationship between report of outcome and direct assessment changed over time: R2 = 35% pre-operatively, 44% at six weeks, 57% at 26 weeks and 62% at 52 weeks.

The relationship between assessment of performance and report of performance improved as the patient’s report of pain diminished, suggesting that patients’ reporting of functional outcome after TKR is influenced more by their pain level than their ability to accomplish tasks.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 3 | Pages 468 - 468
1 Mar 2010

We welcome letters to the Editor concerning articles which have recently been published. Such letters will be subject to the usual stages of selection and editing; where appropriate the authors of the original article will be offered the opportunity to reply.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 1 | Pages 37 - 42
1 Jan 2008
Nutton RW van der Linden ML Rowe PJ Gaston P Wade FA

Modifications in the design of knee replacements have been proposed in order to maximise flexion. We performed a prospective double-blind randomised controlled trial to compare the functional outcome, including maximum knee flexion, in patients receiving either a standard or a high flexion version of the NexGen legacy posterior stabilised total knee replacement. A total of 56 patients, half of whom received each design, were assessed pre-operatively and at one year after operation using knee scores and analysis of range of movement using electrogoniometry. For both implant designs there was a significant improvement in the function component of the knee scores (p < 0.001) and the maximum range of flexion when walking on the level, ascending and descending a slope or stairs (all p < 0.001), squatting (p = 0.020) and stepping into a bath (p = 0.024). There was no significant difference in outcome, including the maximum knee flexion, between patients receiving the standard and high flexion designs of this implant.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 3 | Pages 411 - 415
1 Mar 2006
Challis MJ Gaston P Wilson K Jull GA Crawford R

The aim of this randomised, controlled in vivo study in an ovine model was to investigate the effect of cylic pneumatic pressure on fracture healing. We performed a transverse osteotomy of the right radius in 37 sheep. They were randomised to a control group or a treatment group where they received cyclic loading of the osteotomy by the application of a pressure cuff around the muscles of the proximal forelimb. Sheep from both groups were killed at four or six weeks. Radiography, ultrasonography, biomechanical testing and histomorphometry were used to assess the differences between the groups. The area of periosteal callus, peak torsional strength, fracture stiffness, energy absorbed over the first 10° of torsion and histomorphometric analysis all showed that the osteotomies treated with the cyclic pneumatic pressure at four weeks were not significantly different from the control osteotomies at six weeks.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1233 - 1236
1 Sep 2005
Gaston P Will EM Keating JF

We assessed the functional outcome following fracture of the tibial plateau in 63 consecutive patients. Fifty-one patients were treated by internal fixation, five by combined internal and external fixation and seven non-operatively. Measurements of joint movement and muscle function were made using a muscle dynamometer at three, six and 12 months following injury. Thirteen patients (21%) had a residual flexion contracture at one year. Only nine (14%) patients achieved normal quadriceps muscle strength at 12 months, while 19 (30%) achieved normal hamstring muscle strength. Recovery was significantly slower in patients older than 40 years of age. We conclude that there is significant impairment of movement and muscle function after fracture of the tibial plateau and that the majority of patients have not fully recovered one year after injury.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 4 | Pages 535 - 537
1 May 2003
Gaston P Marshall RW

Studies on recurrent disc herniation quote rates of recurrence without regard to the times of recurrence and the influence of longer follow-up. Our objective was to assess the use of survival analysis to measure the rate of revision after lumbar microdiscectomy. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 993 patients who underwent lumbar microdiscectomy over a period of ten years. After calculating the overall rate of revision for the mean length of follow-up, we carried out a survival analysis using the life-table method. During the study period 49 patients had a revision microdiscectomy. This gave an overall rate of revision of 4.9% at a mean follow-up of 5.25 years. Using survival analysis, the rate of revision was 7.9% at a follow-up of ten years when the number at risk was 84. Survival analysis gives a more accurate estimation of the true rate of recurrence for patients undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy. The method allows better comparison between different interventions for disc herniation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 3 | Pages 326 - 331
1 Apr 2000
Gaston P Will E McQueen MM Elton RA Court-Brown CM

We examined the recovery of power in the muscles of the lower limb after fracture of the tibial diaphysis, using a Biodex dynamometer. Recovery in all muscle groups was rapid for 15 to 20 weeks following fracture after which it slowed. Two weeks after fracture the knee flexors and extensors have about 40% of normal power, which rises to 75% to 85% after one year. The dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle and the invertors and evertors of the subtalar joint are much weaker two weeks after injury, but at one year their mean power is more than that of the knee flexors and extensors.

Our findings showed that age, the mode of injury, fracture morphology, the presence of an open wound and the Tscherne grade of closed fractures correlated with muscle power. It is age, however, which mainly determines muscle recovery after fracture of the tibial diaphysis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 2 | Pages 200 - 203
1 Mar 2000
McQueen MM Gaston P Court-Brown CM

We have analysed associated factors in 164 patients with acute compartment syndrome whom we treated over an eight-year period. In 69% there was an associated fracture, about half of which were of the tibial shaft. Most patients were men, usually under 35 years of age. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm, with associated fracture of the distal end of the radius, was again seen most commonly in young men. Injury to soft tissues, without fracture, was the second most common cause of the syndrome and one-tenth of the patients had a bleeding disorder or were taking anticoagulant drugs. We found that young patients, especially men, were at risk of acute compartment syndrome after injury. When treating such injured patients, the diagnosis should be made early, utilising measurements of tissue pressure.