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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 12 | Pages 948 - 956
15 Dec 2023
Vella-Baldacchino M Webb J Selvarajah B Chatha S Davies A Cobb JP Liddle AD

Aims

With up to 40% of patients having patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PFJ OA), the two arthroplasty options are to replace solely the patellofemoral joint via patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA), or the entire knee via total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to assess postoperative success of second-generation PFAs compared to TKAs for patients treated for PFJ OA using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and domains deemed important by patients following a patient and public involvement meeting.

Methods

MEDLINE, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL, and EBSCO were searched from inception to January 2022. Any study addressing surgical treatment of primary patellofemoral joint OA using second generation PFA and TKA in patients aged above 18 years with follow-up data of 30 days were included. Studies relating to OA secondary to trauma were excluded. ROB-2 and ROBINS-I bias tools were used.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 8 | Pages 575 - 584
17 Aug 2022
Stoddart JC Garner A Tuncer M Cobb JP van Arkel RJ

Aims

The aim of this study was to determine the risk of tibial eminence avulsion intraoperatively for bi-unicondylar knee arthroplasty (Bi-UKA), with consideration of the effect of implant positioning, overstuffing, and sex, compared to the risk for isolated medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA-M) and bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (BCR-TKA).

Methods

Two experimentally validated finite element models of tibia were implanted with UKA-M, Bi-UKA, and BCR-TKA. Intraoperative loads were applied through the condyles, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), and lateral collateral ligament (LCL), and the risk of fracture (ROF) was evaluated in the spine as the ratio of the 95th percentile maximum principal elastic strains over the tensile yield strain of proximal tibial bone.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 5 | Pages 317 - 326
23 May 2022
Edwards TC Guest B Garner A Logishetty K Liddle AD Cobb JP

Aims

This study investigates the use of the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) score in a young hip arthroplasty population, and its ability to capture additional benefit beyond the ceiling effect of conventional patient-reported outcome measures.

Methods

From our electronic database of 751 hip arthroplasty procedures, 221 patients were included. Patients were excluded if they had revision surgery, an alternative hip procedure, or incomplete data either preoperatively or at one-year follow-up. Included patients had a mean age of 59.4 years (SD 11.3) and 54.3% were male, incorporating 117 primary total hip and 104 hip resurfacing arthroplasty operations. Oxford Hip Score (OHS), EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D), and the MET were recorded preoperatively and at one-year follow-up. The distribution was examined reporting the presence of ceiling and floor effects. Validity was assessed correlating the MET with the other scores using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and determining responsiveness. A subgroup of 93 patients scoring 48/48 on the OHS were analyzed by age, sex, BMI, and preoperative MET using the other metrics to determine if differences could be established despite scoring identically on the OHS.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 2 | Pages 91 - 101
1 Feb 2022
Munford MJ Stoddart JC Liddle AD Cobb JP Jeffers JRT

Aims

Unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty (UKA and TKA) are successful treatments for osteoarthritis, but the solid metal implants disrupt the natural distribution of stress and strain which can lead to bone loss over time. This generates problems if the implant needs to be revised. This study investigates whether titanium lattice UKA and TKA implants can maintain natural load transfer in the proximal tibia.

Methods

In a cadaveric model, UKA and TKA procedures were performed on eight fresh-frozen knee specimens, using conventional (solid) and titanium lattice tibial implants. Stress at the bone-implant interfaces were measured and compared to the native knee.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 11 | Pages 723 - 733
1 Nov 2021
Garner AJ Dandridge OW Amis AA Cobb JP van Arkel RJ

Aims

Bi-unicondylar arthroplasty (Bi-UKA) is a bone and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-preserving alternative to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) when the patellofemoral joint is preserved. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes and biomechanics of Bi-UKA.

Methods

Bi-UKA subjects (n = 22) were measured on an instrumented treadmill, using standard gait metrics, at top walking speeds. Age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy (n = 24) and primary TKA (n = 22) subjects formed control groups. TKA subjects with preoperative patellofemoral or tricompartmental arthritis or ACL dysfunction were excluded. The Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) were compared. Bi-UKA, then TKA, were performed on eight fresh frozen cadaveric knees, to investigate knee extensor efficiency under controlled laboratory conditions, using a repeated measures study design.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 8 | Pages 638 - 645
1 Aug 2021
Garner AJ Edwards TC Liddle AD Jones GG Cobb JP

Aims

Joint registries classify all further arthroplasty procedures to a knee with an existing partial arthroplasty as revision surgery, regardless of the actual procedure performed. Relatively minor procedures, including bearing exchanges, are classified in the same way as major operations requiring augments and stems. A new classification system is proposed to acknowledge and describe the detail of these procedures, which has implications for risk, recovery, and health economics.

Methods

Classification categories were proposed by a surgical consensus group, then ranked by patients, according to perceived invasiveness and implications for recovery. In round one, 26 revision cases were classified by the consensus group. Results were tested for inter-rater reliability. In round two, four additional cases were added for clarity. Round three repeated the survey one month later, subject to inter- and intrarater reliability testing. In round four, five additional expert partial knee arthroplasty surgeons were asked to classify the 30 cases according to the proposed revision partial knee classification (RPKC) system.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 1 | Pages 1 - 9
1 Jan 2021
Garner A Dandridge O Amis AA Cobb JP van Arkel RJ

Aims

Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BCA) have been associated with improved functional outcomes compared to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in suitable patients, although the reason is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure how the different arthroplasties affect knee extensor function.

Methods

Extensor function was measured for 16 cadaveric knees and then retested following the different arthroplasties. Eight knees underwent medial UKA then BCA, then posterior-cruciate retaining TKA, and eight underwent the lateral equivalents then TKA. Extensor efficiency was calculated for ranges of knee flexion associated with common activities of daily living. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (α = 0.05).


Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 9, Issue 1 | Pages 4 - 9
1 Feb 2020
Logishetty K Muirhead-Allwood SK Cobb JP


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1585 - 1592
1 Dec 2019
Logishetty K Rudran B Cobb JP

Aims

Arthroplasty skills need to be acquired safely during training, yet operative experience is increasingly hard to acquire by trainees. Virtual reality (VR) training using headsets and motion-tracked controllers can simulate complex open procedures in a fully immersive operating theatre. The present study aimed to determine if trainees trained using VR perform better than those using conventional preparation for performing total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Patients and Methods

A total of 24 surgical trainees (seven female, 17 male; mean age 29 years (28 to 31)) volunteered to participate in this observer-blinded 1:1 randomized controlled trial. They had no prior experience of anterior approach THA. Of these 24 trainees, 12 completed a six-week VR training programme in a simulation laboratory, while the other 12 received only conventional preparatory materials for learning THA. All trainees then performed a cadaveric THA, assessed independently by two hip surgeons. The primary outcome was technical and non-technical surgical performance measured by a THA-specific procedure-based assessment (PBA). Secondary outcomes were step completion measured by a task-specific checklist, error in acetabular component orientation, and procedure duration.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1423 - 1430
1 Nov 2019
Wiik AV Lambkin R Cobb JP

Aims

The aim of this study was to assess the functional gain achieved following hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA).

Patients and Methods

A total of 28 patients (23 male, five female; mean age, 56 years (25 to 73)) awaiting Birmingham HRA volunteered for this prospective gait study, with an age-matched control group of 26 healthy adults (16 male, ten female; mean age, 56 years (33 to 84)). The Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and gait analysis using an instrumented treadmill were used preoperatively and more than two years postoperatively to measure the functional change attributable to the intervention.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 4 | Pages 426 - 434
1 Apr 2019
Logishetty K van Arkel RJ Ng KCG Muirhead-Allwood SK Cobb JP Jeffers JRT

Aims

The hip’s capsular ligaments passively restrain extreme range of movement (ROM) by wrapping around the native femoral head/neck. We determined the effect of hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA), dual-mobility total hip arthroplasty (DM-THA), conventional THA, and surgical approach on ligament function.

Materials and Methods

Eight paired cadaveric hip joints were skeletonized but retained the hip capsule. Capsular ROM restraint during controlled internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) was measured before and after HRA, DM-THA, and conventional THA, with a posterior (right hips) and anterior capsulotomy (left hips).


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 8 | Pages 524 - 538
1 Aug 2018
Zhao S Arnold M Ma S Abel RL Cobb JP Hansen U Boughton O

Objectives

The ability to determine human bone stiffness is of clinical relevance in many fields, including bone quality assessment and orthopaedic prosthesis design. Stiffness can be measured using compression testing, an experimental technique commonly used to test bone specimens in vitro. This systematic review aims to determine how best to perform compression testing of human bone.

Methods

A keyword search of all English language articles up until December 2017 of compression testing of bone was undertaken in Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus databases. Studies using bulk tissue, animal tissue, whole bone, or testing techniques other than compression testing were excluded.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 9 | Pages 542 - 549
1 Sep 2017
Arnold M Zhao S Ma S Giuliani F Hansen U Cobb JP Abel RL Boughton O

Objectives

Microindentation has the potential to measure the stiffness of an individual patient’s bone. Bone stiffness plays a crucial role in the press-fit stability of orthopaedic implants. Arming surgeons with accurate bone stiffness information may reduce surgical complications including periprosthetic fractures. The question addressed with this systematic review is whether microindentation can accurately measure cortical bone stiffness.

Methods

A systematic review of all English language articles using a keyword search was undertaken using Medline, Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Studies that only used nanoindentation, cancellous bone or animal tissue were excluded.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 8 | Pages 522 - 529
1 Aug 2017
Ali AM Newman SDS Hooper PA Davies CM Cobb JP

Objectives

Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a demanding procedure, with tibial component subsidence or pain from high tibial strain being potential causes of revision. The optimal position in terms of load transfer has not been documented for lateral UKA. Our aim was to determine the effect of tibial component position on proximal tibial strain.

Methods

A total of 16 composite tibias were implanted with an Oxford Domed Lateral Partial Knee implant using cutting guides to define tibial slope and resection depth. Four implant positions were assessed: standard (5° posterior slope); 10° posterior slope; 5° reverse tibial slope; and 4 mm increased tibial resection. Using an electrodynamic axial-torsional materials testing machine (Instron 5565), a compressive load of 1.5 kN was applied at 60 N/s on a meniscal bearing via a matching femoral component. Tibial strain beneath the implant was measured using a calibrated Digital Image Correlation system.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 10_Supple_B | Pages 16 - 21
1 Oct 2016
Jones GG Kotti M Wiik AV Collins R Brevadt MJ Strachan RK Cobb JP

Aims

To compare the gait of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients with healthy controls, using a machine-learning approach.

Patients and Methods

145 participants (121 healthy controls, 12 patients with cruciate-retaining TKA, and 12 with mobile-bearing medial UKA) were recruited. The TKA and UKA patients were a minimum of 12 months post-operative, and matched for pattern and severity of arthrosis, age, and body mass index.

Participants walked on an instrumented treadmill until their maximum walking speed was reached. Temporospatial gait parameters, and vertical ground reaction force data, were captured at each speed. Oxford knee scores (OKS) were also collected. An ensemble of trees algorithm was used to analyse the data: 27 gait variables were used to train classification trees for each speed, with a binary output prediction of whether these variables were derived from a UKA or TKA patient. Healthy control gait data was then tested by the decision trees at each speed and a final classification (UKA or TKA) reached for each subject in a majority voting manner over all gait cycles and speeds. Top walking speed was also recorded.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 4 | Pages 484 - 491
1 Apr 2015
van Arkel RJ Amis AA Cobb JP Jeffers JRT

In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments and the ligamentum teres to rotational restraint was determined by resecting a ligament and measuring the reduced torque required to achieve the same angular position as before resection. The contribution from the acetabular labrum was also measured. Each of the capsular ligaments acted as the primary hip rotation restraint somewhere within the complete ROM, and the ligamentum teres acted as a secondary restraint in high flexion, adduction and external rotation. The iliofemoral lateral arm and the ischiofemoral ligaments were primary restraints in two-thirds of the positions tested. Appreciation of the importance of these structures in preventing excessive hip rotation and subsequent impingement/instability may be relevant for surgeons undertaking both hip joint preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:484–91.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1326 - 1331
1 Oct 2013
Eilander W Harris SJ Henkus HE Cobb JP Hogervorst T

Orientation of the acetabular component influences wear, range of movement and the incidence of dislocation after total hip replacement (THR). During surgery, such orientation is often referenced to the anterior pelvic plane (APP), but APP inclination relative to the coronal plane (pelvic tilt) varies substantially between individuals. In contrast, the change in pelvic tilt from supine to standing (dPT) is small for nearly all individuals. Therefore, in THR performed with the patient supine and the patient’s coronal plane parallel to the operating table, we propose that freehand placement of the acetabular component placement is reliable and reflects standing (functional) cup position. We examined this hypothesis in 56 hips in 56 patients (19 men) with a mean age of 61 years (29 to 80) using three-dimensional CT pelvic reconstructions and standing lateral pelvic radiographs. We found a low variability of acetabular component placement, with 46 implants (82%) placed within a combined range of 30° to 50° inclination and 5° to 25° anteversion. Changing from the supine to the standing position (analysed in 47 patients) was associated with an anteversion change < 10° in 45 patients (96%). dPT was < 10° in 41 patients (87%). In conclusion, supine THR appears to provide reliable freehand acetabular component placement. In most patients a small reclination of the pelvis going from supine to standing causes a small increase in anteversion of the acetabular component.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1326–31.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 6 | Pages 861 - 861
1 Jun 2013
Cobb JP

We welcome letters to the Editor concerning articles that have recently been published. Such letters will be subject to the usual stages of selection and editing; where appropriate the authors of the original article will be offered the opportunity to reply.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 3 | Pages 314 - 319
1 Mar 2013
Masjedi M Nightingale CL Azimi DY Cobb JP

We examined the relationship between the size of the femoral cam in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and acetabular pathomorphology to establish if pincer impingement exists in patients with a femoral cam.

CT scans of 37 symptomatic impinging hips with a femoral cam were analysed in a three-dimensional study and were compared with 34 normal hips. The inclination and version of the acetabulum as well as the acetabular rim angle and the bony acetabular coverage were calculated. These measurements were correlated with the size and shape of the femoral cams.

While the size of the femoral cam varied characteristically, the acetabular morphology of the two groups was similar in terms of version (normal mean 23° (sd 7°); cam mean 22° (sd 9°)), inclination (normal mean 57° (sd 5°); cam mean 56° (sd 5°)), acetabular coverage (normal mean 41% (sd 5%); cam mean 42% (sd 4%)) and the mean acetabular rim angle (normal mean 82° (sd 5°); cam mean 83° (sd 4°)).

We found no correlation between acetabular morphology and the severity of cam lesion and no evidence of either global or focal over-coverage to support the diagnosis of ‘mixed’ FAI. The femoral cam may provoke edge loading but removal of any acetabular bearing surface when treating cam FAI might induce accelerated wear.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:314–19.


Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 1, Issue 5 | Pages 34 - 35
1 Oct 2012
Cobb JP